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COMM 2501

by: Madison Hedden

COMM 2501 84916- COMM 2501- 001

Madison Hedden
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These notes cover the entire semester along with midterm and final exam reviews.
Public Speaking
Brandon Boatwright
public speaking
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This 21 page Bundle was uploaded by Madison Hedden on Tuesday August 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 84916- COMM 2501- 001 at Clemson University taught by Brandon Boatwright in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 5 views.

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Date Created: 08/02/16
Speech Delivery 9/1/14  Don’t confuse your ability to speak with your ability to be heard.  Methods of delivery o Manuscript- entirely scripted speech o Memory o Impromptu- after dinner speeches, wedding toast- limited time to put together o Extemporaneous  Prepared and rehearsed  Not memorized  More conversational  Voice o Volume- soft or loud o Pitch- high or low o Inflection (both) changes in pitch or tone o Monotone- constant pitch or tone o Rate- the speed at which a person speaks o Pauses- momentary breaks  Articulation vs. Pronunciation o Pronunciation: deals with the accepted standard and the rhythm for words in a given language  Genuine  Arctic  Nuclear  Err  Pecan  Caramel o Articulation: the physical production (how your tongue and teeth move to say words) of particular speech sounds; being able to form those sounds o Ought to - oughta o Don’t know- doncha know o Have to- have ta o Will you –will ya  Body Language o Personal Appearance- enhances credibility o Movement/ Posture (aka kinesics) – enhances audiences engagement o Movement should be motivated o Gestures- motions of a speakers hands or arms during a speech; should appear natural o Eye contact- establish with the entire audience 80-90% of the time o As you practice, think of the speech as an opportunity and not a performance Chapter 1: Public Speaking Notes Quiz: 8/22/14  Canada founded the Harlem Children’s Zone  THE POWER OF PUBLIC SPEAKING o Sharing ideas and influencing others o Used by us: Billy Graham, Barbara Jordan, Martin Luther King o Used in other countries: Margaret Thatcher o Business leaders: public speaking being a major skill hired first o American Management Association: skills most essential – Communication skills o Publics speaking helps one to stand out in the job market o Technology has NOT reduced need for public speaking o Public speaking allows one to make a difference  THE TRADITION OF PUBLIC SPEAKING o Oldest handbook of effective speech was written in Papyrus in Egypt some 4500 yrs ago o In Greece and Rome it played a central role in education and civiv life o Cicero’s speeches defended liberty and wrote several works about oratory in general  SIMILARITIES BTWN PUBLIC SPEAKING & CONVERSATION o You organize your thoughts o You tailor the message depending on the audience o Tell the story for maximum impact: adjust words and tones o Adapt to listener feed back  DIFFERENCES BTWN PUBLIC SPEAKING & CONVERSATION o Its more highly structured o Requires more formal language o Requires a different method of delivery  DEVELOPING CONFIDENCE o Nervousness is normal o Dealing with Nervousness: have stage enthusiasm  Acquire speaking experience  Prepare- each minute requires one to two hours of preparation  Think positively  Use the power of visualization  Most nervousness is not visible  Don’t expect perfection  Experience is your friend  THE SPEECH COMMNICATION PROCESS o Speaker – be knowledgeable & enthusiastic.  (participants are the individuals who assume the roles of speaker and listeners during interaction) o Message – intended message is the one you actually communicated  (whatever a speaker communicates to someone else)  (comprised of messages-words and sounds and actions that represent specific ideas and feeling)  (meanings- are the thoughts I our minds and interpretations of other’s messages)  (encoding- is the process of putting our thoughts & feelings into words and nonverbal cues)  (decoding- process of interpreting another person’s message) o Channel – you  (means by which the message is communicated)  (FTF- face to face)  (CMC- skype etc) o Listener – relate to interest knowledge and values o Feedback- messages that are usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker o Interference – anything that impedes the communication of a message.  external (heat, car noise, students talking—impedes ability to hear something)  internal(a listener worrying or has a toothache- any kind of distress going on) o Situation – time and place the speech communication occurs  Intrapersonal- to yourself  Interpersonal- face to face with one person  Small group- different people together  Public communication  Mass communication  Social media- act different bc can hide behind a computer  Context (5) – before feedback* o Physical- a communication encounters location, environmental conditions, distance btwn communicators, seating arrangements, and time of day. (student section in death valley) o Social- the nature or the relationship btwn the participants. Btwn family of friends etc. o Historical- the background provided by previous communication episodes btwn the participants o Psychological- the mood and feelings that each person brings to a conversation ( exam week) o Cultural- the values, attitudes, beliefs, orientations, and underlying assumptions prevalent among people in a society. Ethnocentrism- belief that our own group of culture is superior to all other groups or cultures  Communications is a cyclical process  7 communication principles o Communication Has purpose o Is continuous o Messages vary in conscious though o Is relational o Is guided by culture o Has ethical implications o Is learned  Were in a constant state of communication Start with a topic o A precise topic usually works better than a vague one o So if you looking at  How social media impacts relationships o You might want to think about what exactly you want to find out. A more precise topic maybe how romantic couples in long distance relationships use social media to maintain relational closeness.  General vs. Specific Topics o General purpose: the broad goal of a speech  To inform o Specific purpose: a single infinitive phrase that states precisely what a speaker hopes to accomplish in his speech  To inform my audience about the effects on relational closeness social media has on long distance relationships o Residual message: what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech  Analyze the topic and its themes o Think through what you want to find out about o If we start with the original topic, you can see how things will get much more complicated o By allowing yourself to think through topic, you are able to narrow down your research boundaries.  Plan your search o There are several approaches you can take  Systematic: you try to find all relevant material  Retrospective: you find the most recent material and work backwards  Citation: follow leads from useful articles or books  Targeted: restrict your topic and focus in on a narrow area of literature o Everyone uses a mixture of these approaches Evaluating sources  Criteria to assess sources o Authorship  Is the author qualified? How?  Can you trust the information to be unbiased o Sponsorship  Are they impartial enough  Is the organization objective in the statements  What is the history of nonpartisanship o Recency  More recent the better  What if I find too much information o This might be bc  Lots has already been written on your main topic  Your topic has links with many other subject areas  Your topic may be too broad o And you need to  Narrow down your topic  Try to set firm boundaries for what you will and will not include in your research  Not enough information o This could be because  Your topic is too specific  Your aren’t using the right search terms properly o Try to refocus your topic by broadening its cope  Making the project more general  Think about comparative or related information that might be helpful  Sometimes there is just very little written on your topic  Translating your research into support o Supporting materials  Examples: specific case used to illustrate or represent an group of people, ideas, conditions that are alike  Brief, extended or hypothetical  Statistics: numerical data o Be sure to identify your sources – ALWAYS! o Use statistics sparingly o Explain them thoroughly  Testimony: quotations or paraphrases used to support a point o Expert testimony o Peer testimony  What NOT to use as a source o Wikipedia o o o Any obscure websites or bings NEED REFERENCES PAGE WITH ALL CITATIONS ON IT INTEXT PARTENTHETICL CITATIONS IN THE OUTLINE: put it where you will use it, author year page number Chapters 8 & 9  Public speaking relies on strategic organization by putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience.  Develop a road map to use our main points o Main points are the central features o Select them carefully o Phrase them precisely o Arrange them strategically o Devote enough time to each o Ideally looking for 2-3 for each speech  5 strategic ways of ordering main points o 1. Chronological Order: main points follow a time pattern o 2. Spatial Order: follow a directional pattern o 3. Causal Order: main points show a cause and effect relationship (persuasive) o 4. Topical Order: main pints divide the topic into logical, consistent subtopics. (no directional pattern) o 5. Problem-Solution Order: method of organization in which the first main point addresses a problem, while the second proposes a solution to it.  How your supporting material should look: important stuff first, then gradually go down  Main points need to be connected somehow. That’s where transitions, internal previews, summaries, and signposts come in. (connectives)  Connectives o Transition: a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished on though and is moving to another  Internal summary: states summary of the preceding point  Internal Preview: a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next o Signpost: a very brief statement or word that indicates where a speaker s in the speech or that focuses attention on key idea  Developing the body of your speech first makes a lot of sense  Four Goals of Introduction o 1. Get the audience’s attention  Attention Getters  Good: telling a story or a joke, progressively pique curiosity, use significant facts, begin with a good quote, relate to the audience  Bad: vague references, poor quotations, obvious, annoying rhetorical questions, anything inappropriate, stories without end o 2. Reveal the topic of your speech  Don’t beat around the bush  Establish the significance of your topic  Should be concise ‘thesis statement’ o 3. Establish your credibility and goodwill  Audiences need to perceive that (1) you know what youre ding and (2) youre doing it with their best interest in mind o 4. Preview the body of the speech  Clearly identify the main points to be discussed in the body of the speech  Conclusion has 4 parts to it o 1. Let us known its almost over o 2. Reinforce our understanding of, or commitment to, the central idea o 3. Leave a lasting impression o 4. Should account for five to ten percent of your speech (30-40 sec max) Chapter 14  Kinds of visual aids: clear, simple, and uncluttered o Objects & models: need to be average size; not too big and not too small (must be seen clearly) o Photographs & drawings: large enough for audience to see  Should not be passed around, it diverts the audience from what you are saying  Most effective way is to use pwpt o Graphs  Most common type is a line graph: rising costs  Pie graph: illustrates distribution patterns; should never be more than 8, usually 5  Charts: summarizing large blocks of info; DO NOT add too much info o Video: make sure clip is not too long (30 sec max); make sure it is cued to start where you want it; if need be edit video to the right size you need o The Speaker: hand gestures etc; helps keep audience involved o PWPT: potential to use all of the above  Pluses and minuses of pwpt  Shows off technical proficiency and draws away from message  Causes you to read whole speech directly sometimes  Planning to use pwpt  Choose what aspects your speech should illustrate  Think about where you might employ pwpt to clarify or strengthen ideas (spots that genuinely enhance your message)  Guidelines for preparing visual aids o Prepare visual aids well in advance: 2 advantages to this 1) you will have time and resources to devise creative attractive aids 2) you can use them while practicing your speech o Keep Visual Aids simple: clear, simple, and to the point so there are no distractions o Make sure visual aids are large enough: big so they can see; avoid all caps bc its actually harder to read o Use a limited amount of text: brief is better; phrases containing only essential key words will help listeners grasp the concept; RULE: no more than 12 lines typed (if you have pics too then lower that number) o Use fonts effectively: avoid decorative fonts; choose fonts that are clear and easy to read, avoid all caps, don’t use more than two fonts on a single slide (one for title, one for notes”), use same fonts on all slides, put titles and major headings in 44 to 36 font and subheads 32- 24 o Use color effectively: don’t use red and green bc tough to read, blue and green are too close to be differentiated just as orange and red and blue and purple, dark print on a light back ground or vice versa, avoid yellows white, purple or red on a background; need 1)images are large enough to see 2) choose high resolution so it can project w/o blurring 3)keep charts and graphs clear and simple 4) in most cases include a title above charts and graphs so the audience knows what they’re viewing 5) edit video so you can integrate it into your slides  Guidelines for presenting visual aids o Display visual aids where listeners can see them: check out room before hand, don’t stand in front of it, use a pen ruler etc to allow you to stand farther away o Avoid passing visual aids among the audience: they pay more attention to it than you, no handouts bc they look at it instead of you, have copies of stuff but give it out after your speech o Display Visual aids only while discussing them: only visible when discussing them (same with pwpt slides), also good to leave a blank slide at the end of presentations so they aren’t re reading your last slide over and over o Explain visual aids clearly and concisely: the viewer needs to know what to look for and why, only as useful as the explanation that goes with it o Talk to your audience: don’t lose eyes contact for long when talking about the visual aid o Practice with your visual aids o Check the room and equipment: speeches outside classroom ( check computers, projectors as well as multimedia connections), try to look the day before, if you can’t then plan to arrive an hour early, if using pwpt always bring a backup of slides on a flash drive o PWPT can =  Death by default (boring themes);can use them occasionally but break them up  Death by glitter (too much everything)  CAN AVOID THESE By: maintain simple narratives, simplicity,  Bullets: in speeches you shouldn’t do bullets; they stress important ideas  Visuality: include good images that help to tell the story that you are talking about  Clip art: be more creative, don’t use these, be assertive in pictures that you pick out  Pathos (emotional appeal): good way to pull people in  Low resolution images = NOO  Chapter 15 introduces you to informative speaking  Its persuasive in human interaction  Often done subconsciously  Main goal is to convey knowledge and understanding  Note: we are not advocating any cause  Guidelines o 1. Don’t overestimate what the audience knows  Don’t assume you audience knows what you’re saying.  The more you assume they know, the greater your chances of being misunderstood  Explain everything (as long as its relevant)  Communicate even complex ideas clearly and concisely o 2. Relate your material directly to the audience  They need to be able to find themselves in your speech  After all, nothing interests them more than themselves  Use “you” when your speaking  Remember one rule: make me care o 3. Lay off the jargon  Lazy and it clouds the intended message o 4. Combat misunderstanding by avoiding abstractions  Description: depicting a person, event, idea, or the like with clarity and vividness  Comparison: a statement of the similarities among two or more people , events , ideas  Contrast: a statement of diff among two or more people, events, idea  Demonstration: presenting the audience with a visual means of understanding o 5. Personalize ideas  Don’t strive to just add your own twist to something, in addition to personalizing, add personality. Put what you’re saying in human terms. o 6. Be creative  Creativity isn’t an innate talent  It’s a skill that has to be developed  A good informative speech is not reading form an encyclopedia  Take what you know and apply it so it’s easier to share with other people  This is a skill that will transcend so many others  Four Types of Informative speeches o 1. Objects: anything that is visible, tangible, and stable in form  Places, structures, people, animals, etc o 2. Process: a systematic series of actions that lead to a specific result or product  May either be to have an audience understand or perform o 3. Events: Anything that happens or is regarded as happening  Often either chronological or topical o 4. Concepts: a belief, theory, idea, notion, principle,, or the like  More abstract and more complex VASOVAGAL CYNCOPE SYNDROME COMM 2500 MIDTERM REVIEW (Fall 2014) Chapters 1-2. 4-5, 7-10, 13 & 15 Chapter 1 – Speaking in Public Vocabulary:  Stage fright: anxiety over the prospect of giving a speech in front of an audience  Positive nervousness: controlled nervousness that helps energize a speaker for her or his presentation  Visualization: mental imaging in which a speaker vividly pictures himself or herself giving a successful presentation.  Critical thinking: focused, organized thinking about such things as logical relationships among ideas, the soundness of evidence, and the differences between fact and opinion.  Speaker: the person who is presenting an oral message to a listener  Message: Whatever a speaker communicates to someone else  Channel: the means by which a message is communicated  Listener: the person who receives the speakers message  Frame of reference: the sum of a person’s knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. Not two people can have exactly the same frame of reference.  Feedback: The messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker  Interference: anything that impeded the communication of a message. Interference can be external of internal to listeners  Situation: the time and place in which a speech communication occurs  Ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures. Key Concepts:  Similarities between public speaking and conversation: organizing your thoughts logically, tailoring your message to your audience, telling a story for maximum impact, adapting to listener feedback, you tell your story for maximum impact, you adapt to listener feedback.  Differences between public speaking and conversation: public speaking is more highly structured, public speaking requires more formal language, public speaking requires a different method of delivery.  Developing confidence: nervousness is normal, turn your negative energy into positive nervousness, acquire speaking experience, prepare well, think positively, use the power of visualization, know the most nervousness is not visisble, don’t expect perfection  The speech communication process: speaker, message, channel, listener, feedback, interference, and situation Chapter 2 – Ethics and Public Speaking Vocabulary: Ethics: the branch of philosophy that deals with issues of right and wrong in human affairs Ethical decisions: sound ethical decisions involve weighing a potential course of action against a set of ethical standards or guidelines Bill of Rights: the first 10 amendments of the US constitution Plagiarism: presenting another person’s language or ideas as one’s own Global plagiarism: stealing a speech entirely from a single source and passing it off as one’s own Patchwork Plagiarism: stealing ideas or language from two or three sources and passing them off as one’s own Incremental Plagiarism: failing to give credit for particular parts of a speech that are borrowed from other people Paraphrase: to restate or summarize an author’s ideas in one’s own work Key Concepts:  Guidelines for Ethical Speaking: make sure your goals are ethically sound, be fully prepared for each speech, and be honest in what you say, avoid name calling and other forms of abusive language, put ethical principles into practice.  Plagiarism: there are three types Chapter 4 – Giving Your First Speech Vocabulary:  Introduction: the opening of a speech  Body: the main section of a speech  Chronological Order: a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern  Topical Order: a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics.  Main Points: the major points developed in the body of a speech  Transition: a word or phrase that indicates when a speaker has finished one thought and is moving on to another  Conclusion: the final section of a speech  Extemporaneous Speech: a carefully prepared and rehearsed speech that is presented form a brief set of notes  Gestures: motions of a speaker’s hands or arms during a speech  Eye Contact: direct visual contact with the eyes of another person Key Concepts:  Organizing the Speech: intro – get attention and reveal topic, body- format correctly, structure well, and use transitions, conclusion- let the audience know you are about to finish and reinforce the central idea, be dramatic and clever here  Delivering your Speech: speak extemporaneously, rehearse the speech, present the speech use gestures, eye contact, and variation with voice. Chapter 5 – Selecting a Topic and Purpose Vocabulary:  Topic: the subject of a speech  Brainstorming: a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas  General Purpose: the broad goal of the speech  Specific Purpose: a single infinitive phrase that stats precisely what the speaker hopes to accomplish in his or her speech  Central Idea: a one sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the major ideas of a speech  Residual Message: what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech Key Concepts:  Determining the Specific Purpose: write a purpose statement as a full infinitive phrase, express your purpose as a statement and not as a question, avoid figurative language, limit the statement to one distinct idea  Phrasing the Central Idea: expressed in a full sentence, should not be in form of a question, should avoid figurative language, should not be vague or overly general. Chapter 7 – Gathering Materials Vocabulary:  Catalogue: a listing of all the books, periodicals, and other resources owned by a library  Call Number: a number used in libraries to classify books and periodicals and to indicate where they can be found on the shelves  Reference Work: a work that synthesizes a large amount of related information for easy access by researchers.  Newspaper and Periodical Database: a research aid that catalogues articles from a large number of magazines, journals, and newspapers.  Abstract: a summary of a magazine or journal article, written by someone other than the original author  Academic database: a database that catalogues articles from scholarly journals.  Virtual Library: a search engine that combines internet technology with traditional library methods of cataloguing and assessing date.  Sponsoring Organization: an organization that, in the absence of a clearly identified author, is responsible for the content of a document on the internet.  Research Interview: an interview conducted to gather information for a speech  Preliminary Bibliography: a list compiled early in the research process of works that look as if they might contain helpful information about a speech or topic Key Concepts:  Searching the Internet: search engines, specialized research resources, virtual libraries, use government resources, evaluate internet documents. It must have authorship, sponsorship, and recency.  Tips for Doing Research: start early, make a preliminary bibliography, take notes efficiently, and think about materials as you research. Chapter 8 – Supporting Your Ideas Vocabulary:  Supporting Materials: the material used to support a speakers ideas. The thre major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony  Example: a specific case used to illustrate or represent a group of people, ideas, conditions, experiences, or the like.  Brief Example: a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point.  Extended Example: a story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point  Hypothetical Example: an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation  Statistics: numerical date  Mean: the average value of a group of numbers  Median: the middle number in a group of numbers arranged from highest to lowest  Mode: the number that occurs most frequently in a group of numbers  Testimony: quotations or paraphrases used to support a point  Expert Testimony: testimony from people who are recognized experts in their fields.  Peer Testimony: testimony from ordinary people with first hand experience or insight on a topic  Direct Quotation: testimony that is presented word for word  Paraphrase: to restate or summarize a source’s ideas in one’s own words  Going out of Context: quoting a statement in such a way as to distort its meaning by removing the statement from the words and phrases surrounding it. Key Concepts:  Examples: brief, extended, hypothetical examples. Let them reinforce ideas and clarify ideas, personalize your ideas etc.  Statistics: make sure the measures are used correctly  Testimony Chapter 9 – Organizing the Body of Your Speech Vocabulary:  Strategic Organization: putting a speech together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience  Main Points: the major points developed in the body of a speech. Most speeches contain from two to five main points.  Causal Order: a method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause and effect relationship  Problem-Solution Order: a method of speech organization in which the first main point deals with the existence of a problems and the second main point presents a solution to the problem  Supporting Materials: the materials used to support a speakers ideas. The three major kinds of supporting materials are examples, statistics, and testimony.  Connective: a word of phrase that connects the ideas of a speech and indicates the relationship between them  Internal Preview: a statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next  Internal Summary: a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speakers proceeding point or points  Signpost: a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses attention on key ideas Key Concepts:  Main Points: no more than four or five, strategically order them, keep main points separate, try to use the same pattern of wording for main points  Connectives: without them a speech is disjointed, use transitions, internal previews, internal summaries, signposts. Chapter 10 – Beginning and Ending the Speech Vocabulary:  Rhetorical Question: a question that the audience answers mentally rather than out loud  Credibility: the audiences perception of whether a speaker is qualified to speak on a given topic  Goodwill: the audience’s perception of whether the speaker has the best interests of the audience in mind.  Preview Statement: a statement in the introduction of a speech that identifies the main points to be discussed in the body  Crescendo Ending: a conclusion in which the speech builds to a zenith of power and intensity.  Dissolve Ending: a conclusion that generates emotional appeal by fading step bby step to a dramatic final statement. Key Concepts:  The Introduction: get attention and interest, relate the topic to the audience, startle the audience, question the audience, and maybe tell a story  The Conclusion: signal the end of the speech, reinforce central idea, summarize your speech, make a dramatic statement, refer back to intorduction Chapter 13 – Delivery Vocabulary:  Nonverbal Communication: communication based on a person’s use of voice and body rather than on the use of words  Manuscript Speech: a speech that is written out word for word and read to the audience  Impromptu Speech: a speech delivered with little or no immediate preparation  Conversational Quality: presenting a speech so it sounds spontaneous no matter how many time sit has been rehearsed  Volume: the loudness or softness of a speakers voice  Pitch: the highness or lowness of a speakers voice  Inflections: changes in pitch or tone of a speakers voice  Monotone: a constant pitch or tone of voice  Rate: a speed at which one speaks  Pause: a momentary break in the vocal delivery of speech  Vocalized Pause: a pause that occurs when a speaker fills the silence between words with vocalizations such as “uh,” “um,” and “er.”  Vocal Variety: changes in speaker’s rate, pitch, and volume that gives the voice variety and expressiveness.  Pronunciation: the accepted standard of sound and rhythm for words in a given language.  Articulation: the physical production of particular speech sounds  Dialect: a variety of a language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar, or vocabulary.  Kinesics: the study of body motions as a systematic mode of communication  Gestures: motions of a speakers hands or arms during a speech  Eye Contact: direct visual contact with the eyes of another person. Key Concepts:  Methods of Delivery: reading from a manuscript, reciting from memory, speaking impromptu speaking extemporaneously  The Voice: vary in volume, pitch, rate, and pauses, use good pronunciation, articulation, and dialect.  The Body: personal appearance, movement, gestures, eye contact etc. Chapter 15 – Informative Speaking Vocabulary:  Informative Speech: a speech designed to convey knowledge and understanding  Object: anything that is visible, tangible, and stable in form  Process: a systematic series of actions that leads to a specific result or product  Event: anything that happens or is regarded as happening  Concept: a belief, theory, idea, notion, principle, or the like.  Description: a statement that depicts a person, even, idea, or the like with clarity and vividness.  Comparison: a statement of the similarities among two or more people, events, ideas, etc.  Contrast: a statement of the differences among two or more people, events, ideas, etc.  Personalize: to present one’s ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of the audience. Key Concepts:  Types of Informative Speeches: speeches about objects, speeches about processes, speeches about events, and speeches about concepts.  Guidelines for Informative Speeches: don’t overestimate what the audience knows, relate the subject directly to the audience, don’t be too technical, avoid abstractions, personalize your ideas, and be creative.  The means by which a message is communicated, like a text message or email? (Channel)  Bad drivers in the southeast, in the north, and in the west (Spatial) bc directional element  This refers to the speakers body motions as a systematic code of communication (Kinesics)  Your friend is brooding about an argument they had with a significant others as you’re trying to speak to them. They’re experiencing this (Internal interference) external would be a fight  A speech written out word for word- the state of the union for example (Manuscript speech)  Examples, statistics, and testimony, are all examples of this (Supporting material)  By doing this to your speech you are presenting your ideas in human terms that relate in some fashion to the experience of audience like telling a story about yourself that relates to the topic of your speech (Personalization)  Changes in a speakers rate, pitch, volume, that give the voice expressiveness (Vocal variety)  Clemson’s title IX survey posted invasive questions; the university suspended the survey to review its intent (Cause and Effect)  Speaker, message, channel, listener, feedback, interference, situation (Communication process)  This term refers to the times and place in which speech communication occurs, like this class for instance (situation)  Informative speeches based on these are more complex bc they center on more abstract topics like ideas beliefs, theories or principles (Concepts)  You discuss your friends experience with a weekend working with habitat for humanity while discussing the organization in you informative speech (peer testimony)  Speeches about these involve speeches that are tangible, visible, or stable in form (objects)  These are the three criteria for assessing sources (authorship-who wrote it, sponsorship-bias of the organization aka whose behind it, recency)  A type of an informative speech, reflecting a systematic series (process)  Using an interview with a communication professor in your speech on social media (expert testimony)  Morning of Dec. 7, 1941, during afternoon , the fight had ended (chronological)  Track and field events, court events (topical)  “Not everyone may like brownies, and that’s okay. My only hope is that you gain a healthy understanding of their many wonderful qualities” (building good will)  Restating or summarizing another person’s ideas while still giving them credit (paraphrasing)  The speed at which you speak (rate)  The Greek term for credibility (ethos)  Rhetorical questions, shocking statistics, stories, or jokes are examples of this (attention grabbers)  Transitions, internal summaries, internal previews, and sign stops (connectives)  A single phrase you use to state exactly what you hope to accomplish with your speech (Purpose statement- guides you into what you will “to inform” (goal))  A method of generating ideas by free association of words and ideas (Brainstorming)  A one sentence statement that sums up or encapsulates the overall goal of your speech (thesis statement- what speech will be about)  The one things you want the audience to remember after you finish your presentation (residual message)  This should account for no more than5 to 10 percent of your speech (conclusion)  If you were to repeat ken Robinsons speech word for word (global plagiarism- taking the whole entire things) (patch work plagiarism) (incremental- taking random and passing them off as your own ideas)  How you structure your main points (organizational pattern)  You typically want two or three of these in your speech (main points)  “First we will discuss the ingredients of brownies…” (preview statement)  “As a 20 year veteran of eating brownies and top chef…” (building credibility)  Discussing similarities and differences (compare & contrast)  The branch of philosophy that deals with the issues of right and wrong (ethics)  Presenting another’s language or ideas as your own (plagiarism)  Draw a visualization of the communication process


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