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Chem 1062 Notes ch 20: Thermodynamics

by: mandygh926

Chem 1062 Notes ch 20: Thermodynamics CHEM 1062

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These notes include the topics: Thermodynamic Laws, Entropy, Enthalpy, Gibbs Free Energy with Equations to Calculate it, and Predicting Spontaneity of Reactions.
Chemical Principles II
Doreen Leopold
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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by mandygh926 on Wednesday August 3, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CHEM 1062 at University of Minnesota taught by Doreen Leopold in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views. For similar materials see Chemical Principles II in Chemistry at University of Minnesota.

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Date Created: 08/03/16
Chemistry Notes Ch 20: Thermodynamics: Entropy, Free Energy, and the Direction of Chemical Reactions Includes: Thermodynamic Laws, Entropy, Enthalpy, Gibbs Free Energy with Equations to Calculate it, and Predicting Spontaneity of Reactions. Corresponding Textbook: Chemistry; The Molecular Nature of Matter and Change Key Terms:  Spontaneous: describes a process that occurs by itself, without continuous input of energy.  1 law of thermodynamics: states that the total mass-energy in the universe is constant nd  2 law of thermodynamics: states that a process is spontaneous if it causes entropy of the universe to increase  3 law of thermodynamics: states that the entropy of a perfect crystal is 0 at T=0K  Entropy (S): the # of ways which something can distribute its energy among quantum states. A measure of the order of the universe, where things tend to more towards greater disorder (higher entropy).  Gibbs Free Energy (G): combines systems of entropy and enthalpy to measure the spontaneity of a process. The change in Gibbs free energy must be negative if the process is spontaneous. The following equations are all used to calculate Gibbs free energy (where k is equil. constant and R is the gas constant 8.314 j/mol*k): ∆G=∆G°+RTlnQ=RTln Q =−nF∗Ecell (k) ∆ G=∆H−T ∆S=−T ∆Suniv = -RT*ln(k) ∆Hsys ∆ Suniv=∆Ssys+∆Ssurr=∆Sys− T Key Concepts:  Relating Entropy, Enthalpy, Gibbs Free Energy, Cell Potential, and Spontaneity: ∆H ∆S ∆G Ece Spontaneo ll us? Exo - + - + Yes, at all T Exo - - T∆S X Yes, at ↓ T small Endo + T∆S X Yes, at ↑T + large Endo - + - Not at any + T  Entropy increases with: o Phase Changes  Solids have lower entropy than gases. For example, ionic solids with crystal lattice structures are very organized compared to gases that can spread out to the limits of their container. ↑S: Ssolid<Sliquid<Sgas o Mixing of reactants  Mixing increases the disorder o Increased Temperature o Greater Mass/Chemical Complexity o Expansion of gas  the gas can become more disordered with a greater space o When the number of moles increases  If there is a greater # of moles gas product than reactant then the entropy of the system increased according to the following equation. ∆ Ssys=∑Sproducts−∑Sreactants  Exothermic: ∆Hsys is negative, then ∆Ssys is positive, so S↑  Endothermic: ∆Hsys is positive, then ∆Ssys is negative, so S↓  Equilibrium constant (k): depends exponentially on ∆H, ∆S, & T. Shown by the following equation: −∆ H ∆ S k=e RT =e R  A chemical reaction going towards equilibrium is spontaneous: o If Q/k <1 then proceeds spontaneously → o If Q/k >1 then proceeds spontaneously ← o If Q/k=1 then it is at equilibrium and proceeds neither direction


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