Study Material for History of Rock
Study Material for History of Rock 226
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http://www.teachrock.org/ Tin Pan Alley (TPA) and the Birth of the Music Industry ● TPA and its social context ● 1890s: The First Emergence of TPA ○ Roots of mainstream music companies ○ music publishing companies vs. TPA ○ Rock ‘n’ Roll is antithesis of TPA ■ Music industry was highly against Rock and Roll ○ What was TPA? ■ Group of music publishing houses (dominant force) in late 1890s in NY ● Shaped an industrialized genre to produce (pop music) ■ Responsible for converting music from a business into an industry ● Industrial Capitalism: social relations, specialization of skills/roles ○ Industrial powerhouses, Urbanization ○ communication technology: printing sheet music, recording, radios, movies ○ intensification and transformation ● Business: livelihood ■ same socioeconomic dynamics of music industry than ○ How did TPA differ from past music publishing companies? ■ Market: targeting audiences and Promotion ● Manipulation of legal system for maximum profit ● intellectual property rights begin ● relationships with other companies and entertainment ■ crushed the competition: specializing in pop music to maximize profits ● Early marketing: Target Audiences and Promotion. ○ created a demand for songs, wrote to serve the people’s needs; Capitalism ○ Marketing to the middle class ■ lower class bought reed organs ■ middle class and wealthier bought pianos ● strict genderrole music ideas ● women play only ■ sentimental, love proper, moral lessons ■ TPA fostered the image they wanted drove it (“proper Victorian Parlor songs”) ○ Vaudeville Promotes TPA ■ prestige status: Vaudeville, parlor, Broadway ■ TPA gets free marketing, while Vaudeville gets the best, newest songs and money ■ Lantern Slides: worked any place with people and music ○ Song plugging (aggressive) ■ ad for the interview ■ bribery and trades to advertise for music ■ Shil, passing out lyrics of songs ■ manipulating the culture and dominating the industry ○ This hurt spectrum of music, producers, consumers, and musicians ○ TPA and the New Media Technology (1870s) ■ Cylinders recordings: loud music, bands and operas ● 1890s, business technology ● 1900s, cylinders were used for a commercial use ○ Comedy sketches, Vaudeville, band, operas ● 1905s, popular music, TPA parlor songs ● System of conflicts mediated by the Law ■ Radio ● NBC and CBS ● 1 radio in every three houses ● ASCAP and TPA fight radios for royalties given to the publisher for broadcast via CPA (Tension increases) ■ Movies ● silent films ● talkies (1920s) ● Broadway Melodies 1929, Hollywood kept making movie musicals ● Relationship with Movies similar to Vaudeville (deals) ● ● Press Congress for Copyright Acts of 1909 ○ Royalties and Intellectual Copyright Laws ○ Lobbied Congress for PCA of 1909 ■ Laws were written by those who wanted the money and lobbied for it. (publishing companies) ■ 2 cents goes to publishing house (guaranteed royalties) ■ Fix it in permanent form, able to earn off of ideas (sheet music, cds, etc) ■ holding companies based on Intellectual Property Ownership ○ 1914: American Society of Composers Authors and Publishers (ASCAP) ■ musically restrictive ■ larger royalties to older songwriters ■ represented white composers ■ still present (competes with BMI) Musical Style in TPA ● Introduction. Some general features of this music ○ Instrumentation ■ vocalist singing melody, piano accompany, small orchestra ○ An emphasis on the song, not the singer; songwriters ○ Melody and harmony ○ Rhythm ■ 1920s: percussion appears ■ 1930s: drum kit ○ Lyrics ■ 1920s: crooning begins, PA systems, microphones, sound amplification ● Fred Astaire, Bing Crosby, Dick Haymes ■ Victorian parlor songs: elevated poetry and rhetoric, 5 minutes ■ Vaudeville: vernacular, 3 minutes (length of space on a cylinder) ■ Golden Age: witty vernacular, sophisticated, literary techniques, 3 min ○ The three minute pop tune ○ Form evolves meaning, manipulation of form and features to create an image ○ Urbane, sophisticated, young adults, wealthy, upper class = TPA ○ Verse / Chorus Form ■ Verse ■ Bridge: novelty element to link sections ■ Chorus ■ A V/C Form: Intro, VBC, VBC, Solo or Instrumental, VBC, Outro ■ Hooks memorable parts ● An early example of TPA ○ A V/C Form: Intro, VBC, VBC, Solo or Instrumental, VBC, Outro ● A 1920s example of TPA ○ Form: Intro, Chorus, Chorus, Outro ○ Melody:sold the music, arcing contours, carefully constructed and memorable ○ lyrics: rhymes, alliteration w/in lines, personification ○ Big orchestra: lush, full, bass and percussion heard, anyone can dance The Blues ● Roots of the Blues ○ Social Context ■ WW2 out of South and rural to cities (great Migration) ■ loans and poverty, common AA experience ■ Jim Crow Laws ■ Plessy v. Ferguson (separate but equal) (defacto no dejure) ■ systematic pattern of terror and racism (lynching) ■ TPA ignored AA; AA hard to tour ● Minstrel music ● Ragtime ○ Musical predecessors to the blues ■ African American music and West Africa ● Middle Passage Cultural Traditions moved cross sea ● callandresponse ● rhythmic complexity ● interactions with audience ● improv ■ African American music before the Civil War ● Negro spirituals ● work songs ● traditions ■ African American music after the Civil War ● Ragtime ● Minstrel ● Vaudeville ● some artists ● General musical features of the blues ○ Lyrics: often about love, traveling, anxiety (sometimes in metaphors) ■ musicians travel, travel becomes culture ■ anxiety, threats, violence, rage, <white folk> ○ Introducing some musical concepts: Prelude to the twelve bar blues ■ Scales and chords ● octave: ½ frequency of lower note ■ Tension and release ● Dominate V, most tense ● Tonic I, tension release ● SubDom IV, gentle tension ■ Melody, rhythm and chord progression ● Rhythm/ Pulse/ Beat ● Time/ Bar/ Measure ● Tempo/ Speed ● Phrase ○ The twelve bar blues (basic variation) ■ / I / % / % / % / ■ / IV / % / I / % / ■ / V / IV / I / V // ○ Blue notes ■ Notes of the major scale: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 ■ Important notes: 3 5 7 ■ Blue notes: b3, b5, b7, and all the notes between flat three and three, flat five and five, flat seven and seven ○ Call and response: woven simply and complex ■ organizing melodies ■ C&R secondary melody ■ (2 measure C, 2 ms. R ) x 3 ○ The Blues: An African American music ■ Euro music ideas + AA = Blues ● Three Blues Styles ○ Rural blues ■ ignored AA since 1920s ■ Vaudeville black and white ■ turn of 20th century ○ Classic (or city) blues ■ records ■ race music ○ Boogie Woogie ■ WW1 (crazy popular later) ■ blues piano, instrumental ■ bars and rent parties (dancing) ■ music had to cut through the sound of the party ■ fast, aggressive, up tempo songs ***Despite the music industry trying to keep White music and AA music seperate, often there were cross cultural blends in musical influences. Blacks are generally more aware of both “types” of music Country Roots of Rock and Roll ● Country Music: Musical and Social Context ○ Introduction ■ Working class white southerners ■ Blues, TPA, and folk influences ○ Social Context ■ N USA: industrial and modernization ■ S USA: wrenching social changes in 1800s, reactions against urbanizations, nostalgia or rural hard ties, working class identity ○ Musical roots ■ Genres ● Ballad Tradition: factual details, narrative,listener decided emotions ● Fiddlers ● NonBallad: lyrical ■ British Isle folk music and folk of South ■ 19 Century developments ● guitar, fiddlers, banjos, bass, washboard percussion ● choral singing (shapenote singing or harmony singing) ● Early Country Music ○ Early country music and the music industry ■ Radio ● regional genus style of C&W (pittsburgh 1920s) ● live musicians during radio ● barn dances ● grand ol’ opry ● radio transmitters in MX could be heard in CA ■ Recording industry ● wove all western genres into one central genre ● Bristol sessions ○ 1913 Ralph Pier records fiddler from GA ○ Bristol TN: signed and recorded musicians (20, Jimmie Rogers and Carter Family included) ● Hilly Billy music (similar to race music) ■ Movies (1930s) ● Western films, cowboys vs. Indians, singing cowboys ● TPAcountryfolk cowboy occupation music ○ The Carter Family and the Mountain Style ■ Focus on family life ■ famous through the radio ■ Traditional elements ● Tradition instrument arrangements ○ Guitar playing focus, instead of fiddler as the melody ○ Guitar for the Carter family was Accompany and Melody ● Choral (root) singing that are similar to shapenotes ● High clear nasal timbres ● lyrics match up with the religious transformation ● Blend: singing precisely in perfect tune so harmonics ring out ● beautifully sculpted dynamics (swelling; breathing) ■ New musical features ● Thumbbrush technique: timeshare between melody notes and full chords (alternating between the two) (melody on bass strings, chords on rest of strings or on the upper strings) ● Thumbbrush technique allows a combination between melody, accompany, and chords (alternating bass accompaniment) ● VerseChorus Tune: Story about how the mother dies, chorus ties together the narrative ○ Associated with TPA ○ Jimmie Rogers and the Country Style ■ Working class guy making do and survival in difficult world ■ Floating through life job to job on hard manual labor ■ Yodeling: moves from full voice to falsetto and also back again, ornate, ● full voice: lower voice, fuller vocal quality, (not falsetto, which is thin and breathy for untrained) ■ Traditional elements ● high range, nasality ● acoustic guitar ● bass guitar ■ New musical features ● solos ● wide range of instruments: steel guitar (HI), cornet, clarinet, trumpet (New Orleans Jazz) ● wide range of themes and genres: cowboy songs, blues, labor, lullaby ● Influences: TPA and AA music ● Country Developments, Cowboy Songs and Honky Tonk ○ Country music in the 1930s ■ Mountain Style becomes less popular; Country style becomes dominant ■ Electric guitar, steel guitar, fiddler, etc ○ Western movies and cowboy songs ■ Cowboy and Indians movies ■ Singing Cowboys (Tex Ritter, TPA Country songs) ■ Hollywood Occupation Folk music; Moved from Hillybilly music to Country and Western music ○ Western swing ● Honk Tonk: End of 30s and begin of 40s ○ beginning of ww2, dominant ○ Social context: More industrialization and the Honky Tonk ■ 1933: Prohibition ends; Oil is discovered in TX and OK ■ Industrial activity ■ Rural Working Class Guys goes to work on the oil rigs b/c economy ■ Honky Tonk bars → Honky Tonk Music ■ After WW2 and leading into 50s, dominant ● Music is played across the country to all people ● TPA borrows from HT in the 1950s ■ Single men ■ Emotionally intense: Heartache songs (Pathos and Emotions) and Partying ○ Musical Features ■ hard drinking and partying, undertones of sadness and despair ■ sadness, loneliness, singleness, new and bewildering world ■ falsetto and nasality, vocal tension, intense, clear smooth sounds ■ Electric Instruments, Steel Guitar, Fiddle, Piano, Bass, ■ Rhythmic texture ● Acoustic guitar: drives Tonic ● 2nd and 4th beat has emphasis ● Triplet Feel ○ Musical Examples ■ Hank Williams Sr. ● Vocal tension ● Ornamentation ■ Ray Price ● Partying ● Fiddle Virtuoso ● Electric Steel Guitar TPA in the 1940s TPA meets jazz: The big bands ● Jazz ○ strongly associated with New Orleans ○ moral panic of white people listening to black music ○ race politics, defacto segregation, Jim crow Laws ○ “strongly rhythmic and highly danceable” ● TPA and jazz ○ TPA: large ensemble, sweet jazz, society bands, Vocal Pop, Fred Astaire ○ Jazz: pure straight up jazz ○ Jazz + TPA = gray areas of mixing = swing jazz, big band music, etc. (dom in 1930s) ■ Mainly instrumental tunes Jazz Band ● Musical features of popbig band music ○ Instrumentation: 12+ instruments, sections (full reed section (melody and harmony), full brass section (melody and harmony), rhythm section (time and chords)), vocalists sometimes ■ Rhythm section: double bass section (walking bass lines, time), piano (fills chords), drums (fills rhythm) ■ Drum kit: Bass Drum (pedaled), snare drum, 3 tomtoms, ride cymbals, crash cymbal, hihats ○ backgrounds (brass and reeds): behind the main melody, filling the chord or adding time, secondary chords ○ SOLOSSSSSSSSSSSS ○ Serious listeners: swing dancers and etc ● Big bands fade from popularity ○ died after WW2 ○ Unionized Musicians; Musician Strike (economic) ■ Vocalists worked with nonunionized musicians ■ vocal lyrics son increase ○ Wartime Rationing (economic) ■ Rationing gas, postwar tours were rare ○ Associating Big Band with WW, new sound (cultural?) ● Importance of big bands ○ Jazz Rhythm section, popularizes it and becomes center of American Culture ○ Big Band Swing Jazz, strong accent on 2 & 4, more aggressive rhythms ○ Makes it ^^^ more acceptable in American Culture ○ Main melody + backgrounds, becomes central to pop music ● PostWar PoP/TPA ○ Smaller ensembles and vocalist ○ 1 trumpet, 1 clarinet, 1 accordion, 2 vocalist, piano, 1 bass ○ functions like a big band ○ ballads Rhythm and Blues Roots of Rock and Roll ● Changes in society and the music industry that lead to rhythm and blues ○ explosion of creativity and growth and development “golden age” ■ AA taste catch fire ○ Social context ■ Great Migration rural→ suburbs→ urban ■ by WW2, developed into large AA minorities across the states in the large cities ● Harlem Renaissance ■ Economy begins to move forward, in 46 and 47 fear of depression repeating, America economy continues to fly ■ AA got a smaller piece of the economic boom ■ Spent extra money on leisure and music ■ Significance of WW2: ● never satisfied of being a 2nd class citizen ● increased the dissatisfaction ● Sacrifices to fight fascism and for freedom ● Segregation continued; don’t have the freedom ● disconnect of the rhetoric of freedom leads to a stronger dissatisfaction and AA identity ○ African American's changing tastes ■ wanted a new music that wasn’t rampant in whiteness ■ losing interest in big bands because it’s mainstream ■ Jazz musicians reclaimed it as a AA tradition (Bee Bop) ● didn’t want to be confused for pop ■ Rhythm and Blues (R&B) ● traditions of AA identity and contemporary ● danceable, enjoyable ● nimble, agile, aggressive dancing and rhythms, 2 & 4 beats ● electric instruments ● R&B is to Blues, Honky Tonk is to Old Country ■ demographics, economic, cultural, musical styles, technology ○ Postwar changes in the music industry ***Textbook ■ BMI ● < 1930s: only ASCAP, white artists that wrote in TPA style ○ radio hated ASCAP, had to pay royalties to ASCAP ● 1939: BMI is created by NBA ○ AA and Country is represented with BMI ○ Radio boycotts ASCAP because ASCAP continually asks for more royalties for their songs ● Boycott by ASCAP by radio opens options for C&W and R&B ● after 10 months the boycott ends ● Technology: smaller lighter durable cheaper ○ Tape: ○ Transistors: durable, cheaper ○ Long Playing records: less room physically, more room on records ■ indepe ndent record labels respond to local tastes ○ TV (50s): bite out of radio profits and audience, radio uses local records to help supplement record fees ● Four strains of Rhythm and Blues (Rhythm and Blues) ○ Jump blues: particular style**** ■ Wild Wild Young Men ■ Shake, Rattle, and Roll ● hand claps and snare drums for 2/4, traditional visions of gender, Bill Haley, backbeat, ■ aesthetic of the style after WW2 ■ shrinks the big band to 5 7 instruments ● shrunk big band playing blues bass music with aggressive rhythms and blues emphasis ■ emphasis on 2 & 4, boogie woogie ideas, central style ■ Predecessors ● Smaller big bands connected to some jazz and lots of blues (Kansas City) ■ Instrumentation: sax, trumpet, piano, bass (boogie woogie left hand piano), drum kit, interplay between vocal and rhythm sections, other instruments offer responsorial parts ■ form: I V C Bridge V C Bridge ● 12 bar blues for verse, chorus different, instrumental bridge is 12BB ● Can hear bass line, how can I tell which 12BB ○ Hear the sound of the 12 bar blues ○ listen to the tracks with clear 12 bar blues ○ focus on lower parts, there is 12 bar blues ○ honky tonk train blues ^^^ ■ riff: repeating and varying a rhythmic ideas ■ beyond the building blocks ● sounds more “modern” than glenn miller and fred astaire ● beginning of our stuff ■ Direct and immediate predecessor for jump R&B ○ Guitar oriented, electric blues band: tendency ■ virtuoso electric guitars at the center of the band ● Acoustic Guitar Vs.. Electric ○ AG ■ Acoust ic guitar is really quiet vs. other acoustic instruments ■ energy fades away in AG ■ Moder n AG are built like EG ○ EG ■ EG amplifies the steel strings sounds ■ EG was originally made to be used in big band in the 1930s ■ notes fluidly connected, how you hold the pick ■ Guitars are all over American music ■ EG revolutionary on the world ■ Global instrument, musical possibilities expand ■ long flowing fluid lines ● BB King ○ Jump blues with a virtuoso guitar ○ Early Every Morning ■ Phrasin g: musical sentences, soloing over 12 bar blues, bent notes connect across chord changes ● TBone Walker ○ Distinctive regional rural blues in Texas ○ Guitar players and physical technique ○ Makes it big in Los Angeles ○ CallandResponse ○ Chicago blues: particular style ■ emerged from Chicago ■ Guitars have the pickups ■ regional rural Blues, Mississippi Delta Rural Blues ● Songs built out of a single riff ● raspy growl in their voice ■ Electric Guitar ● Electric Modern sound ■ Polyphonic and heterophonic textures: “multiple instruments playing distinct melodies at the same time” ■ Development of Rock and Roll Chapter: NY LA New Orleans Chicago and ■ Local recording companies got the rock and roll out of the bars and to the people ■ Chess Records ● Muddy Waters, Howlin’Wolf ● Jews had two immigrants from Poland ● Felt resonances with AA ● Recorded the Chicago Blues ● Not really Rock and Roll, Jump Blues is closer ● Developed a particular sound and style, influenced British Rock and Rollers ● Recorded Comedy Albums as well (Patsy Abbot) ■ Muddy Waters ● Sexuality ○ Stronger embrace of cultural identities ○ Paradoxical musically: space and emptiness but also busy and complex ● I just want to make love to you ○ rhythm section, rhythm ensembles and textures, ^^^ (harmonica bass drum bass piano) vocals and guitar, agonizing and deliberate. Fluid florid flowing piano part. 30 seconds to change a chord (riff). spare and empty, smash down, paradoxical, heavy and emphatic, harmonically simple and rhythmically complicated, slow and melodic, harmonica and reverb, raspy voice, less control, letting notes go ● Long Distance Call ○ polyphonic textures: 2+ different melodies at the same time ○ heterophonic textures: 2 different versions of the melodies at the same time ○ slap style bass, electric guitarslides (slide: non porous material used to change a guitar to be brassier and glassier) ○ small ensemble but busy texture, transfer of emotions between the two instrument ● Similar to heavy metal; influenced the 70s (Black Sabbath and etc) ○ “heavy, serious, plotting rhythmic texture” ● "I'm Your Hoochie Coochie Man ○ no drums, (harmonica, bass, vocals), slower tempo (6070 bpm), not light, flowing, heavy, dense, emotionally intense, slap style bass, electric guitarslides (slide: non porous material used to change a guitar to be brassier and glassier), rhythmic texture, guitar moves and harmonica stays and vice versa (tight, complex, spare, dense, relationship), ○ Heavy rhythmic texture, interlocking parts that have a repeating “main riff” , aggressive, emphatic ○ References to AA folklore, supernatural beliefs ■ Howlin’ Wolf ● British ● Extravagant Style ● Smokestack Lightning ○ Viagra Commercial ○ piano, harmonica, 2 guitars, raspy vocal ○ nonharmonic components ○ Jimmie Rodgers Falsetto influence ○ Phrasing ■ Speech Formal Oratory Rhythm and Phrasing ■ Builds phrases in declaratory speechlike phrasing ■ Unique and new ■ not like a long flowing BB King Solo ● Spoonful ○ This track is about…. ■ Desper ate need for her love ■ How couples argue ■ Fightin g over her love ■ lustful ■ Panhan dling ■ Theme : Meditation of Desperation and Lust, addicted to routine, spoonful of water, fighting ● V ERY VERY far from Doris Day and Wild Wild Young Men ○ Spoonful: drug reference to heroin ○ Musical and Textual devices ■ Brass timbres, busy sounds, rhythmic stuff ● Influences 2nd gen of rock and roll (60s) ○ Rhythm and blues with a gospel influence: tendencies, 1950s ■ controversial (sacred vs. secular) ■ Sacred musics made their ways into secular blues based styles ■ <1950s, sacred and secular were very different ● Blues associated with dangerous fun ■ How it happened ● Some gospel artists decided to leave gospel musics to join R&B and brought some traditions ● Heard gospel music growing up and wanted to bring in elements of gospel music into R&B (Ray Charles) ● ^^^ both freaked people out ^^^ ■ Gospel Music ● 1940s, gospel divided into a capella male quartets and virutoso female singers with a choir and keyboard instrumentrs or a full band ● Male A Capella ○ Golden Gate Gospel Train ○ Smooth Blend: singing vowels, pitches tuned precisely, ○ Clear Vocals, Singers cover a wide frequency range ○ Complex arrangements (Unison, Duets, Trio, Quartets) ○ Imitate sounds of trains, other instruments, etc. ● Virtuoso female singers with band and choir ○ How I Got Over ○ Callandresponse, Clear Voice, Climax ○ Syllabic Melismaic Embellishments: refers to the relationship between words and melody. ○ Pacing and voicing of the chords: ■ Pacing: expectations for chords to change ■ Voicin g: Selecting which notes from a chord (ex. different between traditional chords) (i.e. C4, E3, and G5) ○ Know when chords form and how they act and stuff on the organ. Typical voicing and pacing ■ The Dominos ● Have Mercy Baby ○ Combination of the gospel songs, ○ Some male quartet with one virtuoso; echos and callresponse ○ Jump Blues Instruments ○ Backbeat ○ Jump Blues Sections with an A Capella Quartet ■ Direct and clear connection to both Jump and Gospel Blues ○ Walking Bass, Big Backbeats, handclaps, 12 bar blues ○ Lyrical Confession ■ Ray Charles ● I’ve got a woman ○ Raspy vocal timbres, gospel organ in the woodwinds ○ Melismatic Ornamentation ○ “I’ve got a Savoir” Shock effect ○ Paradoxical Gender Politics ■ Wome n are homemakers and have occupations ■ Pressur e after WW2 to return to the home ■ Return to “what was before the war” ■ Emergi ng feminism ■ Over thetop aggressive sexism ○ **The Sexism in this song is not a R&R R&B specific feature. Not uniquely or distinctively there. ○ Golddigger by Kanye West (similar?) ○ The woman in the tune is a resource ○ Two shifts, domestic labor, homemaker 1950s Rock and Roll: Part 1 ● Contexts for the emergence of rock and roll ○ Understand how the things flowered in a particular socioeconomic political context that led to the R&R. Understand the creative industry and the contexts. ○ The demographic and economic contexts ■ R&R came about “through the unique constellations of the situations.” ■ Demographic: ■ Economic: ● American Economy takes off with the 1948 ● People have more money in their pockets and more disposable income ● Economy took off because of the lack of competition ● Other countries were destroyed by the war (fighting on territory) ○ No direct economic competitors ○ America helped Europe create enough wealth in europe to buy American products ● Heavy industry, Consumer products ● Increased Government spending ○ Housing, Schools, Military, Interstate Highways ● Baby Boomers ● Suburbanization Real Estate Mass Production ○ Actively promote the idea of owning Homes ○ Increase of segregation (de jure and de facto) ■ Suburb s intensified the segregation ■ Stark, Sharply Separated ■ Racial, Ethnic, ○ Population increased by 47% in the 1950s ○ Banks ■ Suppor ted segregation ■ Red Lining ○ Automobile (Suburban Sprawl) ● Teenagers would ○ Cultural context: Consumption, race, and sexuality ■ Consumption: consumer capitalism takes off ● Buying things that have meaningful things for them ● Cultural consumption is a piece of their identity ● Consuming brands ● Music become a product that is with a particular identity and lifestyle ● Industries target Teenage consumers so they build their identity around them, except the mainstream pop music industry (but yes in the independent music industry) ● Teenagers as consumers was a new idea ● disposable income is adults with full time jobs ● in the 1950s, teenagers with money begin to be targeted as industries ● teenagers culture emerges in 1950s ● tween cultures emerges in the 2000s ■ Race: ● Covered many pieces earlier ● legally segregated society ● Exoctic sexualized and urban, ● Attracted white teenagers (cause they weren’t supposed to be liking it) ● Race politics ● Civil Rights began in the 50s ■ Gender and Sexuality: ● Some truth in straightway gender roles and sexualitty ● 1950s Media: stigma against not macho men and not fem women. ● Feminine movement takes off ● tensions between the media of “supposed to” and the active roles ● Advertising culture is enormously sexual, common and manipulation ● Straightway gender roles but extremely sexualized stuff (paradox) ● Sexualized women on male and female LP covers the albums ● straightlaced and proper in the 50s ○ The music and music industry context ■ Indie labels expand (transistors, vinyl LPS, TV hurt radio, radio bought more local music) ■ ○ The meanings of rock and roll for first audiences ■ How did these different contexts influence the meaning people found in R&R? ■ Central cultural firestorm when white teens listens to the black R&R ■ Fun fun fun ● Most teens rock and roll was powerful and significant ● Breaking segregation by turning the radio dial ● Antiracist statement ● Listening to “opposite music” was to break boundaries ● Who you chose to listen to influenced their music ● (This is where the rebellious teenagers began) (Rebel w/o a cause) ■ Interpretation ● Can be compared to Rap music today ● What is going on in each context and how it interprets the music ● The emergence of rock and roll ○ Rock and roll radio ■ Alan Fried, 1951, Cleveland, Leo Mintz ■ Wanted to make a music entrepnuer ■ Moon Dogs Rock n Roll Party ■ Sell R&B to White teenage audience ■ Trying to find the right terms: Rock and Roll ● Changed the R&B music ALREADY EXISTING MUSIC ● so he can drawn in white teenagers ● Rock and Roll in black society was sexual slang ■ Moon Dogs Cornanation Ball ● 20,000 listeners arrive to the concert; intergrated teenagers ■ Moves to NYC in 1954 ○ Crossovers: Recording is recorded, aimed for an audience, aimed for a chart, but were in a completely different audience and different chart. ■ 60 Minute Man by The Dominos ● Novelty Song ■ Rocket 88 by Jackie Brenston ● boogie woogie piano, overblown saxophone ■ 1954, the year of the crossovers ● ShBoom by the chords ○ Audience driving the music ○ The variety of rock and roll styles ■ Crossovers ■ Black music that white teens makes ■ white musicians covering r&b ■ Rockabilly ○ Influences on rock and roll ■ R&B and Jump Blues ■ Gospel Quartets (lead singer with backups) ■ Country Music ■ Some similarities with TPA (but still antithesis) ■ Latune Music ○ Common musical elements of these styles ■ Rythmn section, reed instrument or two, boogie woogie lines in bass, electric guitar ■ stop time breaks, contrast to create energetic effects, coordinated band hits ■ Banging on piano, overblown winds, distorted guitar, extreme displays of emotion on short solos ■ Blues Tradition, Country Tradition ● Some African American rock and roll stars ○ Fats Domino ■ NBC Mercury ■ Ain’t that a sham ● backbeat, snare drum, triplet piano part, laidback relax raspy, ● stratified texture: instruments play with greater density as the frequency increases (Whole note bass notes, eighth note soprano) ● RnR about recordings and tracks ● Driving force intense band, laidback vocals. (paradox) ○ Little Richard ■ Outrageous, chaotic, weirdo ■ Blue Collar background, rock n roll ■ Bad behaving son in a religious family ■ RCA records ■ Tutti Frut i ● repeating chorus, 12 bar blues ● verse chorus form, stop time break, solo, Response and Call, boogie woogie in piano, melismatic, falsetto leap (clear), raspy in dynamics distinction, percussive constants (vocalable hook), controlled technique to make the energy feel out of control ● Percussive constants: strong syncipated accents ● syncopation: ryhtmic surprise; accents between beats ● Timbre: tone color (not rhythm, pitch or dynamic) the instrument sound; tone (not texture) ● Years of technique and practice ■ Controlled technique for energy ■ Gospel Music in 1957 ■ 1962 in a Gospel tour and switches to Rock and Roll ■ Flips around the rest of his life ■ Visual Performer, “genderbending look” ○ Chuck Berry ■ pivotal figure in Rock and Roll ■ Blue Collar Background and Roots ■ Sir John’s Trio, Blenner Chess ■ Write songs targeted with white teenagers ■ Duck Walk, stage style is a part of his show ■ born in 1925, star in 1955 ■ Wrote Rock and Roll Anthems ■ Allen Freed didn’t write any of the songs ■ Maybellene ● alternating bass part , highly distorted guitar sound ■ Major guitar playing ■ Johnny B Good ● Back to the future ● Guitar Solo ● Double Note Voicings strong ● Danceable rhythm (syncopation), (rhythmic surprise) ● accented syncopation ● energetic and drive ● R&R Anthem, class, overcoming class background, ● European American rock and roll stars ○ R&B + Country, Crossover tracks ○ Rockabilly: boundaries complicated ○ Bill Haley and the Comets ■ Rise and Decline speak to Rock and Roll ■ Born 1925, Chester PA, Blue Collar, Music, Western Swing Music, Bob Wills and the Texas Playboys, committed to styles and listened creatively, Louie Jordan, ■ Bill Haley and his Saddleman → Billy Haley and his Comets ● Space themes are all over american culture ■ 1955, First Rock and Roll star that is white: Rock Around the Clock ● Sound of Transgression; increasingly becomes higher ● Energetic and out of control music blue guitar, coutry, jazz elements ■ 1956, Elvis Presley’s year; tanks Billy Haley ■ Keeps his career going to a old nostalgia group ■ Decline: Rock and Roll Meaning, 30 years old in 1955, in a year he sounds old fashioned, Fats Domino ( ), ■ Comparing artists: by 1956, white suburban teens listened to white teens (by virtue of being black) as a an older guy and etc (Fats Domino, Chuck Berry); White r&r were listened to because they were younger and more energetic (Elvis Presley). Billy Haley wasn’t either black or young, he was older and looked older. ■ Short Style Peroids: 55 (Haley) to 56 (Elvis) ■ Moral Panic: an intense feeling expressed in a population about an issue that appears to threaten the social order. A Dictionary of Sociology defines a moral panic as "The process of arousing social concern over an issue usually the work of moral entrepreneurs and the mass media." ■ Blackboard Jungle ● Credits: Rock Around the Clock ● Idealistic YM that wanted to share Math with people; stream jazz records ● Jazz s the music of white intellectuals, supposed to reach to moral delinquents teenagers, in the 1920s Jazz was a moral panic, ○ Elvis ■ Biographical background ● only surviving twin ● shy until high school ● working whites could be more involved with African Americans ● Elvis exposed to cultural and musical experiences ● Memphis ● Music as communicating your identity (R&R and present) ● Styles vary; became palatable to a large audience ○ Racial Transgression (breaking boundaries and rules) ■ White man, negro sound, negro feel, make a billion dollars ■ Lots of people enjoyed R&R ○ “Cool”: Sexuality, Young, Rebellious, Self Confidence, ■ Person al rejection of authority; 50s, I’m my own person ■ accepti ng the terms of the authority ■ Sexual Transgression (Means to an end (to be himself)) ■ Keeps cool; sings with intense self confidence ● Elvis enormous popularity created that firestorm of controversy; everyone had an opinion ■ Elvis as icon, persona and style: The meanings of the early Elvis ● Transgressive ■ The Sun years ● first 10 tracks: 5 country; 5 R&B (45s) ● Sun Studios ● Johnny Cash, Elvis, Jerry E. Lewis, Roy Oberson, Carl Perkins, ● 1953: Elvis is 18; makes a demo so he can make a recording for his mom ● Interpreter of the Songs of others; did not write his own music ● Combine R&B with Country: slap style bass, acoustic guitar, no drums, ● That’s Alright Mama ○ meaning about creating Elvis’ identity ○ song is a vehicle to create his persona ○ Connection to blues and country ■
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