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by: Rebbecca Taing

Biodiversity BIOL1362

Rebbecca Taing
GPA 3.0

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Chapter sections 24.2-5, 25.3-4, 26.2-5, 27.3-4 Figures 26.2, 26.15, 27.5, 27.1
BIOL 1362
Ann Oliver Cheek
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This 8 page Bundle was uploaded by Rebbecca Taing on Thursday August 4, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL1362 at University of Houston taught by Ann Oliver Cheek in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see BIOL 1362 in Science at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 08/04/16
Biodiversity 8:21 PM Chapter Sections 24.2-5, 25.3-4, 26.2-5, 27.3-4 Figures 26.2, 26.15, 26.16, 27.5, 27.10 Table 24.2. Characters distinguishing the 3 domains. Bacteria Archaea Eukarya nuclear envelope 0 0 1 membr-bound organelles 0 0 1 circular chromosome 1 1 0 peptidoglycan cell wall 1 0 0 RNA polymerase 1 >1 >1 initiator aa formyl Met Met Met Ribosome assembly sens to antibiotics 1 0 0 growth at > 100°C 0 1 0 membr lipids unbranched hc tail some branched hc tail unbranched hc tail introns rare some many histones 0 0/1 1 See Table 24.2 Prokaryotic Diversity Proteobacteria Chlamydias Spirochetes Cyanobacteria Gram + bacteria From <> 1. Representing relationships among organisms • Phylogenetic tree- represent a hypothesis of evolutionary relationships among organisms -subject to change if new info discovered -based on shared characteristics inherited from a common ancestor -read left to right, old to new • Taxon- group of organisms • Branch point- where lineages diverge 2. Three domains (Fig 24.18) 3. Prokaryotic diversity (24.2-5) 1. Archaea • Extremophiles- inhabit extreme envmt -extremely salty -extremely hot • Methanogens: producers -use CO2 to oxidize H2 to make CH4 -hydrothermal vents, cows, & termite guts 2. Bacteria • All have cell wall • Categorized by cell wall morphology -liposaccharide mem surrounding cell wall (Gram negative) -"naked" cell wall (Gram positive) a. Cyanobacteria Unicellular ○ Unicellular ○ Photosynthetic ○ Oldest fossil photoautotroph ○ Ancestor of chloroplast ○ Forms soil crust ○ Symbiotic relationship of cyanobacteria + fungus = lichen b. Proteobacteria ○ Cell wall w/ additional mem ○ Some autotrophs, chemo/photo -Rhizobium spp symbiotic w/ plants in bean/pea fam, convert N2 to NH4 fertilizer ○ Some heterotrophs -Pathogenic: Salmonella, Vibrio, Helicobacter pylori -Non-pathogenic: Escherichia coli- live in mammalian hindgut c. Chlamydia & Spirochetes ○ Chlamydia -parasites of animal cells ○ Spirochetes -some spp free living -pathogenic parasites  Borrelia burgdorferi- lyme disease  Treponema pallidum- syphillis d. Gram positive bacteria ○ No additional mem covering cell wall ○ Non-pathogenic -Streptomyces  Decomposers in soil  Kill off other competitor bacteria  Source of antibiotic ○ Pathogenic -Bacillus anthracis- anthrax -Clostridium botulinum- botox, paralytic of muscles 4. Eukaryotic diversity (25.3-4) A. Phylogenetic hypothesis of extant/still living eukaryote relationships (Fig 25.9) • 4 supergroups • Divergence pattern from common ancestor actively debated • Most eukaryotes are single celled (yellow shading) No more kingdom protista b/c not all protists share a common ancestor Excavates & SAR clade ○ Grouped by phenotype: morphology, biochemistry, & genotype ○ Categorized by energy source -autotrophs: producers  Symbionts -Heterotrophs: consumers  Predators  Parasites  Decomposers a. Excavata ○ Feeding groove along one side of cell ○ Mitochon don’t use O2 Many are heterotrophs ○ Many are heterotrophs ○ Parasites -Giardia intestinalis- intestinal parasite in mammals, transmitted by infected feces -Trypanosoma- parasite that causes sleeping sickness in mammals, tsetse fly bites b. SAR clade ○ Stramenophiles, Alveoclates, Rhizaria ○ Contain a sim photosyn plastid-organelle surrounded by multiple mem (2-4) & contain own DNA ○ Many live in marine & freshwater plankton i. S  Unicellular diatoms  2 part silicon dioxide wall  Important producers ii. A  Dinoflagellates- 2 flagella -important producers- photosyn -some sym w/ corals (animals: Cnidaria) -overgrowth of some free living pop can cause red tide Some free-living marine species are bioluminescent B. Multicellular eukaryotes (Fig 26.2) • Colonized land history -475 mya- plants & fungi col land -420 mya- first animals on land: insects _375 mya- first evidence of tetrapod on land, fish like C. Archaeplastida: land plants (Fig. 26.16) • Green algae- ancestor characteristics shared -chlorophyll a&b • Shared derived traits shared w/ charophyte algae -process for making cell wall -sperm w/ flagellae • 4 shared traits of plants -sporangia ○ Multicellular organs produce desiccation resistant species -gametangia ○ Makes 1 kind of gamete -apical meristem -Embryo that develops protected w/in female parent to prevent desiccation -Apical meristem- cell dicision occuring @ tip of roots & shoots (stems) -Alternation of generations- 2 multicellular life stages ○ Sporophyte produces spores that grow in to gametophyte ○ Gametophyte can produce either sperm or cells ○ Fertilization creates embryo that grows into multicellular sporophyte ○ Spores coated w/ sporopollenin- resistant polymer that prevents spores from drying out or being crushed • Non vascular plants -short & small -live in moist envmt -flagellated sperm -Liverworts ○ gametophyte is dominant/obvious to us stage of life -mosses -mosses -hornworts ○ Most are aquatic • Seedless vascular plants -vascular-having a system of vessels transporting fluid ○ Xylem- transports water, ions, & minerals from soil to tissues ○ Phloem- transports sugars from photosyn tissues to other tissues -Lycophytes- club mosses -Pterophytes- ferns ○ Sporophyte is dominant generation ○ 3 separate tissues: roots, stems, leaves ○ Flagellated sperm • Vascular seed plants -seeds, ovules, pollen -sporophyte is dominant generation ○ Spores develop into a microscopic gametophyte w/in parent sporophyte -Gymnosperm- "naked" seed, seed not enclosed in a chamber -Angiosperms ○ Flowers, specialized fruits & leaves ○ Seeds develop inside an ovary ○ Fruits D. Unikonta A. Fungi (Fig. 26.15) ○ Heterotrophs -Saprotrophic- acquiring energy by absorbing nutrients from envmt  Decomposers  Parasites  Mutualists (symbionts) -cells surrounded by cell wall, chitin -cells secrete enz that digest surrounding material -body made of hyphae- thin tubes that infiltrate the material the fungus is absorbing -symbionts  Mycorrhizae- sym relationship btw fungus & plant rots  Fungus secretes enz that digest org matter in soil improving mineral absorption by plant  Plant supplies fungi w. carbohydrates B. Animalia (Fig 27.10) a. Porifera  cells are not organized into tissues  2 layers of cells held by collagen- extracellular matrix protein -Animal phylogeny -markers indicate ancestral characteristics shared by all descendants to the right 1. Genes encoding ribosomal RNA, chaperone proteins, tubulin 2. Collagen 3. Gastulation & formation of tissues -Blastula- hollow ball of cells -Blastopore- opening that forms in blastula to start gastrulation -Ectoderm- skin & central nervous system -Endoderm- gut & liver/hepatopancreas -Mesoderm- muscle -Endoderm- gut & liver/hepatopancreas -Mesoderm- muscle b. Bilateria 1. Bilateral symmetry 2. 1st embryonic opening formed during gastrulation becomes mouth, 2nd anus- Protostomes 3. 2nd embryonic opening formed during gastrulation becomes mouth, 1st anus- Deuterostomes c. Edysozoa  Arthropoda -Chelicerata -Myrapoda  Crustacea  Insecta (Hexapoda) 1. Exoskeleton & jointed legs 2. 6 legs  Nematoda  Ecdysis- shedding the exoskeleton to grow d. Lophotrochozoa  Annelida  Molusca 1. Development: spiral cleavage pattern of embryonic cells 2. Genes: nox genes (regulate devel of body shapes), genes for enz important in cell resp Reading: Chapter Sections 24.4-5, 25.3-4, 26.2-5, 27.3-4 Concept Check Questions: 24.2 Q1; 24.3 Q2; 24.4 Q1 & Q3; 24.5 Q4; 25.3 Q3; 26.3 Q2; 27.2 Q1; Chapter Review Questions: Test Your Understanding Chapter 24 Q’s 7 and 9; Question in Concept 25.1 summary; Test Your Understanding Chapter 25 Q’s 3, 4, 6, 9; Test Your Understanding Chapter 26 Q7; Test Your Understanding Chapter 27 Q’s 4 and 6


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