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Human Development Through the Lifespans

by: Austin Maddox

Human Development Through the Lifespans FLHD 1500

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Austin Maddox

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These are notes straight from powerpoints and the books. These notes are pretty helpful for the open book final exam, and a bit more abridged so the test won't take so long!
Human Development through the Lifespan
Rea Gubler
Human, development
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This 28 page Bundle was uploaded by Austin Maddox on Friday August 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to FLHD 1500 at Southern Utah University taught by Rea Gubler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Human Development through the Lifespan in Human Development at Southern Utah University.

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Date Created: 08/05/16
Chapter 1 Notes Sept 3, 2014 Human Development: The science of how and why all kinds of people change over time. It is multi directional, multi-contextual, multicultural, multidisciplinary, plastic - Multidirectional: Characteristics change in every direction. o Critical Period: Time when certain things MUST occur for normal development o Sensitive Period: Time when a particular development occurs most EASILY. - Multi-contextual: Each person is affected by many social contexts and interpersonal interactions. (Look at the ecological model) o Cohort: A group of people born around the same time. - Socioeconomic status (SES): A person’s position in society, determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, place of residence. - Multicultural: Patterns of behavior passed to generations o Any group can have its own culture o Ethnic group o Language, religion o Race is not just a biological category, rather a social construction - Deficit or Difference? o They are not synonymous!  Diversity is not bad  Difference is not automatically deficit - Multidisciplinary: Genetics and neuroscience are the two newest in lifespan research. o Depression is genetic and neurological o Depression is developmental o Etc…. each factor is related to research from a different discipline - Plastic: Human traits can be molded, yet people maintain a certain durability of identity 3 factors improve predictions: - Nature and nurture always interact - Certain periods of life are sensitive periods - People are differentially sensitive. Nature vs. Nurture - Nature refers to the influence of genes we inherit - Nurture refers to environmental influences o Health and diet of embryo’s mother o Family o School o Community - - To solve this argument, there is no right side, behavior is affected by HOW MUCH of each, not which. FLHD 1500 Epilogue Notes Thanatology - The study of death and dying – especially the social and emotional aspects - Reveals the reality of hope in death, acceptance, and reaffirmation of life. Life expectancy – 40-79 Technology prolongs life, death often occurs in hospitals Cause of Death no longer mainly disease Kids struggle with death - Happy one day, sad the next. They don’t get over it. - They take explanations literally. (grandpa went on a trip… DON’T USE THESE EXPLANATIONS!) Older children turn to more concrete operational thinking - They seek specific facts - Become less anxious about death and dying. Teenagers have little fear of death - Take risks, high value on appearance, seek thrills - Adolescents often predict that they will die at an early age, thus, the tendency toward risk taking can be deadly. Adulthood - Responsibility of work and family changes perspective - Death is to be avoided or at least postponed cause others depend on you! - Take precautions – stop smoking, wear a seatbelt, etc… - Age 25-60: worry about leaving something undone or leaving family members. Late adulthood - Death anxiety decreases and hope rises. - Acceptance of own mortality is a sign of mental health - Accept death by writing wills, designate health care proxies, reconcile, plan funeral - IT DOESN’T MEAN THEY’VE GIVEN UP!! Role of Religion and Hope - People who think they might dies soon are more likely to turn to religion or afterlife belief - Every religion provides and rites and customs to honor the dead. Near death experiences - An episode where a person comes close to death but survives, reports some out of body experience - Often include religious elements. - Survivors adopt more spiritual view of life How do people accept death - Tend to hope for a “good death” o Peaceful o Quick o Painless o After a long life o With family - “Bad death” o – lack the above o Dreaded, particularly by the elderly - Stages of Dying o Denial o Anger o Bargaining o Depression o Acceptance Maslow Hierarchy of Needs for death - Psychological needs (freedom from pain) - Safety (no abandonment) - Love and acceptance - Respect (from caregivers) - Self-actualization (spiritual transcendence) Communication with the Dying Use honest conversation! - Tell the truth with death. To dying people and family members. - Don’t withhold info if the patient asks for it. - Hospital personnel need to respond to each dying person as an individual, not merely as someone who must understand that death is near. Hospice Founded in London by Cecily Saunders - And institution or program in which terminally ill patients receive palliative care. - Relieve pain and discomfort - Avoid measures to delay death - Make dying easier 2 principles of healthcare - Patient’s autonomy respected - Family members counseled before death Advanced Directive - Individuals instructions for end of life medical care Grief - Absent grief o Private people cut themselves off from community and customs; leads to social isolation - Disenfranchised Grief o Certain people, although bereaved, are prevented from mourning publicly by cultural customs or social restrictions. - Place blame o Regrets for medical measures not taken o Unhealthy habits not changed o Sometimes blame the dead person, themselves, or others o Not necessarily rational. - Incomplete Grief o Situation in which circumstances, interfere with process of grieving o Mourning is cut short or if other people are distracted from their role in recovery - Seeking Meaning o Starts with preserving memories Chapter 1 last half Sept 5, 2014 Theories of Development - What is a theory? o An idea or supposition set for to explain something. - What do theories do? o Summary of current knowledge o Not all the theories are useful all the time. Each theory has value in its usefulness Theories - Psychoanalytic theory o Originated with Sigmund Freud  Irrational, unconscious drives and motives originating in childhood are the basis for human behavior - Erickson Theory o Erik Erickson  8 developmental stages, each with a challenging developmental crisis  His first 5 stages are like Freuds - Behaviorism o John Watson  Studies observable behavior  No stages  Classical conditioning – Pavlov and the salivating dog  Pavlov was able to train a dog to salivate at the ring of a bell by using classical conditioning so the dog would start to associate the bell with food. Parents use classical conditioning a lot! - Social learning theory o Emphasizes the influence of others on behavior -> modeling (learning by observing others) o Self-efficacy: how effective people think they are when it comes to changing themselves. - Cognitive Theory o Thoughts and expectations affect actions and individuals o Focuses on changes in how people think over time. o Humans seek mental equilibrium  Assimilation: incorporate new events into existing schemas  Accommodation: change schema  Think of a filing cabinet, if it fits in a classification in the file box, the new file can be assimilated in. If it doesn’t fit in a classification, a new folder for the file must be made. - Humanism o The potential for all humans is good, all people have the same basic needs regardless of culture, gender, etc… Scientific Method - 4 methods to test hypotheses o Observation o Experiment o Survey o Case Study Ethics in research - Ensure that participation is voluntary, confidential and harmless - Participants must understand procedures - Promote research accuracy, honestly, and truthfulness - Report data Chapter 2 notes Part 2 - Prenatal Development o Germinal period – weeks 1-2(differentiation) o Period of the embryo – weeks 3-8  Coincides with missed menstruation o Period of the fetus – weeks 9-38 o Growth happens from head to tail (cephalo to caudal), then inside to outside (proximo – distal). o 4-7 week  Heart beats  Facial features form  Arms and legs appear o 8 week  Ends period of embryo  Mostly external development o Fingers, toes eyelids  Most organs in place  Heart divides into two chambers. o Period of the fetus: 9-12  Muscles, bones, organs continue  Sex organs take shape o Second trimester (weeks 16-24  Dramatic change in size  Fetus weighs 2.5 lbs  Hair on scalp and brows  Fat – 2 functions  Insulation  Protects organs  Vernix – waxy gray substance coating baby skin – protection  Lanugo – fine hair, no function o Age of Viability  Viable: capable of living  After 5 months, fetus MIGHT survive o Third trimester: 28-40 weeks  Arms and legs fill out  Active brain  At birth: average wt 7.5 lbs  Most newborns are born within two week sof date - Things that might go wrong…. o Teratology: study of birth defects o Teratogens: substances or conditions that cause birth defects  Potential of teratogen depends on:  Timing of exposure (which trimester?)  Amount and duration of exposure  Genetic vulnerability  Types of teratogens: diseases, drugs, environment  Diseases: o Rubella: causes physical and mental abnormalities o HIV/AIDS: positive moms = 1 in 4 babies also positive o Toxoplasmosis: parasite in raw meat and cat feces o Eclampsia/toxemia: blood inefficient at removing fetal waste o Rh factor: if mom and dad are different blood types (only + or -, so like dad is A+ but mom is A -)  If baby is opposite than mom, ex: +, mom sees baby’s blood as intruder and builds antibodies when blood systems mix (birth). Causes anemia, hemolytic disease, etc…  Drugs: medicinal o Thalidomide: helped with morning sickness – caused limb damage o Tetracyline: stained baby’s teeth yellow o Aspirin: blood thinners o Propecia: if absorbed by mom, may cause sexual malformations in males o Phenobarbital: anti-seizure medication  Drugs: recreational o Alcohol: fetal alcohol syndrome o Tobacco: low birth weight  Preterm, stillborn, ectopic o Marijuana: born addicted, malformations, jaundice, respiratory difficulties  Environment o Air and water pollution o Radiation and X-rays: increased risk for leukemia - Low birth weights (LBW): less than 5.5 lbs o Causes: early birth, multiple births, complications  Poverty, inadequate nutrition  Social support  Healthy lifestyle o Do premature and preterm mean the same?  NO!  Preterm: 3 or more weeks early  Premature: not fully developed Chapter 2 Notes: Genes and Prenatal Development Nature: - Fertilization: occurs when a sperm cell penetrates an egg cell -> creates a zygote o Genetic inheritance is determined due to genes in DNA  There are 64 trillion possibilities for human uniqueness - Mitosis: exact duplication and division of cells – ALL THE CELLS ARE IDENTICAL - Meiosis: Each gamete (sex cell) contributes half o Males Xrdfemale XX o The 23 male chromosome determines gender  Ideal family constellation: 3 kids -> boy, girl, boy Nurture side of development - Do societies influence development? o Traditionally no family planning  Unavailable contraceptives  Children an asset  Woman’s duty to multiply the earth o It’s changed now  Now we plan for children, we want children  Lots of contraceptives available  Children now a liability -> EXPENSIVE!!!! o Is it a positive change or negative?  It’s positive if we’re planning on children and want a good childhood for them. o Changes in child rearing  Fewer children per American couple  1.8 per family in 1990’s  First child later in life o American attitude trends  Women have greatest say in # of kids nd  Child rearing conflict = 2 cause of divorce  Father is wage earner, mom is nurturer o Other cultures  China  98% sterilizations on women  Single child families are rewarded o 5 yen/month for a boy, 6 for a girl (to counteract killing female offspring….)  Why? o Society prefers male offspring Development and birth - Conception o Upon ovulation, approximate window of time for fertilization is 24 hours o At the moment of fertilization, the egg creates a barrier to prevent other sperm from entering o First week of fertilization:  Zygote is in motion.  Day 3 -> 16 blastomeres  Day 5 -> differentiation  Implantation: Day 6-10 -> or spontaneously aborts (about 58% never implant)  Implantation: normal = midsection of uterus  Complicated = low, high or outside uterus  Ectopic implantations: implantation outside of uterus o Spontaneous abortion  Approximately 31% of all zygotes = newborn  ½ of miscarriage/ sp. Abortions due to chromosomal abnormalities  Nature’s way of dealing with a malformed organisim o Infertility  Occurs in approx. 15% of couples (after trying for a year or more)  Causes: low sperm production, blocked fallopian tubes, hormonal or ovulation irregularities.  Options: artificial insemination, In-vitro fertilization, Surrogate motherhood. - Prenatal Development o Germinal period – weeks 1-2(differentiation) o Period of the embryo – weeks 3-8 o Period of the fetus – weeks 9-38 Chapter 3 Body changes - Height and Weight o Average wt. at birth: 7.5 lbs o Average length: 20 in o Growth is rapid o Infant usually loses 5-10% of body weight, then gains 1 oz per day, 1 in per month  Doubles weight by 4 months, triples weight by 1 year o Low birthweight babies  “birth catch-up”  Doubles weight by 2 months, 5 times weight by 1 year  Larger babies grow at slower pace… o Boys are slightly taller and heavier  First 8 months, weight gain is fat - Body proportions o Infants head = ¼ total body length o Adults head = 1/8 total - Body changes o Well-baby checkup  Measures baby’s growth  Height, weight, head circumference  Headsparing: a biological mechanism – fat storage o Protects brain when malnutrition disrupts growth o The brain is the last part of the body to be damaged by malnutrition o Brain development:  Neuron: nerve cell, billions in CNS  Cortex: the outer layers of the brain  Axon: neuron fiber, transmits to dendrites  Dendrite: “branches” of the neuron  Myelination: enables faster bran impulses, increased efficiency  Neurons proliferate, then prune (eliminate unnecessary connections)  The last part of the brain to mature is the prefrontal cortex  The area for anticipation, planning, impulse control  Shaken baby syndrome: a life threatening injury that occurs when an infant is forcefully shaken – ruptures blood vessels in the brain and breaks neural connections - Brain structures o Areas of the cortex specialize in specific functions  Visual  Auditory  Sense of touch - Body changes o Newborns sleep about 17 hours a day o Newborn’s sleep is primarily active sleep  Dozing, easily awakened, go back to sleep quickly o Quiet sleep  Slow brain waves, slow breathing - Moving and perceiving o Sensation and perception  Sensation: response of sensory system to stimulus  Perception: mental processing of sensory info  Sensory development: typically precedes intellectual and motor development  Gross motor skills: large body movements – crawling, walking, jumping  Fine motor skills: small body movements – fingers and hands o Reflexes= involuntary reactions to stimuli  2 types  Critical to survival: generally become stronger o 1. Maintain oxygen supply: breathing, hiccups, sneezes o 2. Maintain body temperature : cry, shiver, tuck legs o 3. Manage feeding: sucking, rooting, swallowing  Non-critical: generally disappear o Babinski: stroke the feet, see if feet fan out, or curl up o Stepping: feet move like baby can walk o Swimming: Place on stomach, look like they’re swimming o Grasping: place object on palm, fingers wrap o Moro: false drop or startle – arms and legs fail  First movements are not skills, but reflexes! o Gross motor skills:  Locomotion: moving from place to place  Nature or Nurture? o Always both!! - Fine motor skils o 2 months – touch object o 4 months – grab object o 6 months – reach, touch, grab, hold o Mature grasp= pincer grasp (pick up small things - Moving and perceiving o Hearing develops during last trimester  Already acute at birth – most advanced of newborn’s senses o Vision is the least mature sense at birth  Newborns focus on objects 4 – 30 inches away  Binocular vision – coordinate the two eyes to see one image (3 months)  Sensation is essential for normal development - SIDS o Sudden Infant Death Syndrome  Cause still unknown  Risk factors:  Low birth weight  Soft bedding  Maternal smoking  Heaving clothing  Teenage parenting  Putting infants on back to sleep reduces but not eliminates SIDS  SIDS death could be twice as bad if we didn’t have:  Child care  Clean water  Adequate nutrition  Medical treatment  Preventative care  # 1 factor increasing infant survival is IMMUNIZATION  Still a controversy, parents worried about side effects, stats prove that it’s still safer to immunize o Stat that immunizations cause autism was proven to be FAKE Chapter 4 Emotional Development - Smiling and Laughing o Social smile 6 weeks – evoked by viewing human faces o Laughing 3-4 months – often associated with curiosity - Anger and Sadness o First expressions at around 6 months o Healthy response to frustration o Indicates withdrawal o Accompanied by increased production of cortisol o Stressful experience for infants - Fear o Emerges at about 9 months sin response to people things or situations - Stranger wariness – anxiety o Infant no longer smiles at any friendly face o Cries or frightened -> unfamiliar person too close o Begins at 6 months, peaks 9-15 months - Separation anxiety o Tears, dismay, anger when familiar person leaves  If it remains strong after age 3, it may be an emotional disorder o Begins 8-9 months, peaks around age 2. - Toddlers’ Emotions o Social awareness  Anger and fear become less frequent and more focused  Laughing and crying louder and more discriminating  NEW EMOTIONS  Pride  Shame  Embarrassment  Disgust  Guilt  Require an awareness of other people  Emerge from family interactions -> influenced by culture - Self-awareness o Realization that he/she is a distinct individual o Body, mind, actions are separate from other people o First 4 months, infants have no sense of self  Sees themselves as part of their mothers o 5 months, begin to see themselves as individual - Mirror Recognition o Called the Rouge test -> experiment for self awareness where infant/toddler is placed in front of a mirror - Experience and culture o Promote specific connections between neurons and emotions o Shape functional anatomy of self-representation - Emotional self-regulation o Directly connected to maturation of the brain - Memory o Contributes to all emotional reactions o For people: occurs as facial recognition improves - Temperament o Inborn differences between one persona nd another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation o Often changes in early weeks, more stable by age 3 o Extreme temperaments at age 3 tend to carry over to adolescence and young adulthood. o Temperament can change or be changed. - Goodness of Fit o A similarity of temperament and values  Good Fit: parents of difficult babies build a close relationship  Parents of exuberant, curious infants learn to protect from harm  Parents of slow-to-warm-up toddlers give them time to adjust - Synchrony o Child and parents in sync -> dad does, baby does, mom does, baby does  In the first few months:  Becomes more frequent and elaborate  Helps infants learn to read others’ emotions and develop skills of social interaction  Usually begins with parents imitating infants. - Attachment o Lasting emotional bond that one persona has with another  Begins in early infancy  Influences a person’s close relationships throughout life o Secure attachment: infant obtains both comfort and confidence o Insecure avoidant: infant avoids connection with caregiver, doesn’t care about caregiver’s presence o Insecure resistant/ambivalent: anxiety and uncertain o Disorganized attachment: marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return - Social referencing o Seeking info about how to react to an unfamiliar object Effects of Parenting - Proximal parenting o Caregiving practices that involve being physically close to the baby  May produce toddlers who were less self-aware but more obedient - Distal parenting o Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from the baby, providing toys, food, face to face communication with minimal holding and touching.  May produce children who were self-aware but less obedient Fathers as social partners - Usually spend less time with infants - Less involved because: o Mothers often limit father’s interactions - Happier husbands tend to be more involved - Different influences o Fathers encourage exploration and curiosity o Mothers tend to be more cautious and protective Chapter 5 Body Changes - Growth Patterns o Children become slimmer o Each year from age 2-6, well-nourished children add almost 3 inches in height and 4.5 lbs. each year - Nutrition o Children need fewer calories per lb. of body weight than infants o Obesity is a more frequent problem than malnutrition. o Many children want foods high in fat, salt, sugar and adults tend to give in. o Too much sugar and too little fiber rot teeth  Tooth decay is the most common disease of young children o All - Allergies and obsessions o Between 3-8% of all young children have a food allergy  Cow’s milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, soy, wheat, shellfish most common. o “Just right Phenomenon”  Kids insist on eating only certain foods prepared and presented in a particular way.  Normal for children under 6  Most kids will outgrow. - Improved motor skills o Children develop all their motor skills spontaneously as they play. o By age 6, most Americans  Ride tricycles, climb ladders, swing on the swings, throw, catch, kick balls o Muscle growth, brain maturation, guided practice advance every gross motor skill. o Practice improves fine motor skills -> LET CHILDREN PLAY!! - Fine motor skills o Require more assistance and practice o Children’s Art  Much more than scribbles -> relates to cognitive growth, social, and biosocial  #1 rule regarding children’s art: Never ask a child “what is it?”  Art skills are acquired in uniform stages, like language - Injuries and maltreatment o Accidents are the leading cause of death for people under age 40 o 2-6 year olds at greater risk  Primary prevention: actions that change overall background conditions  Secondary prevention: avert harm in a high risk situation, stopping a car  Tertiary prevention: immediate medical treatment, put a bandaid on a scrape - Brain development o Childs brain 75% adult brain o Reaches 90% of adult brain weight by age 6 o Growth of corpus callosum = communication between brain hemispheres more efficient o Lateralization: refers to the specialization by each side of the brain  Being right-handed or left-handed. Right or left side dominant  Right brain function: visual, artistic, perceptive  Left brain function: logic, language, speech  BOTH HEMISPHERES ARE REQUIRED FOR COGNITION o Maturation of the prefrontal cortex around age 2-6  Enables kids to focus attention and curb impulsiveness  Perseveration: some children stick to one thought or action, unable to quit. Opposite to normal behavior  Benefits of prefrontal maturation:  Sleep is more regular  Emotions more subtle  Temper tantrums decrease o Speed of thought  Due to myelination  A gradual increase in myelination makes 5 yr, olds much quicker than 3 yr. olds - Thinking o Piaget: preoperational thought  Before logical operations  The child’s verbal ability permits symbolic thinking  Centration: focuses on one idea, excluding all others  Egocentrism: thinks about the world entirely from their own perspective (self-centered, not selfish!)  Focus on appearance: ignores all attributes that are not important  Static reasoning: nothing changes  Irreversibility: thinks that nothing can be undone ( ex: cut hair can just be put back on)  Conservation: the amount of a substance remains the same, even when appearance changes.  Animism: natural objects and phenomena are alive (everything thinks and feels like the child does) o Vygotsky: social learning  Every aspect of cognitive development is embedded in the social content  Apprentice in thinking: a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society  Zone of proximal development (ZPD): a person can exercise only with assistance  Scaffolding: temporary support that is tailored to a learner’s needs aimed at helping the learner master the next task. - Children’s Theories o Theory-Theory: children attempt to explain everything they see and hear o Theory of Mind: a person’s theory of what other people might be thinking  Must realize that people don’t think same as self  Seldom achieved before age 4  Can be seen when young children try to escape punishment by lying. - Vocabulary o Early childhood is a sensitive period -> best time to master vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation  Age 2: about 500 words  Age 6: able to learn more than 10,000 words o Fast mapping: rapid vocabulary expansion o Over-regularization: over use of grammar rules : Ex “goed”, “runned” o By age 5 – kids understand most any word o Kids define words egocentrically (literally) think Amelia Bedelia - Early Childhood Education o Homes and Schools: quality matters!  If the home educational environment is poor, a good preschool aids health, cognition, and social skills  If a family provides extensive learning opportunities and encouragement, the quality of the preschool is less crucial o Teacher Directed Program  Emphasizes academic subjects taught by a teacher to an entire class  Letters, numbers, shapes, colors, how to listen and sit quiety  Makes a clear distinction between work and play o Intervention programs: Project Head Start  Most widespread early-childhood education program in the US  Thought to be highly successful at raising children’s intelligence, 10 yrs later, early gains found to fade. Chapter 6 - Emotional Development o Emotional Regulation: the ability to control expression of emotions o Initiative vs. Guilt  Erikson’s third psychosocial crisis  Children undertake new skills and activities  Feel guilty when they do not succeed  If resolved with initiative, pride grows. - Pride o Self-concept: understanding of who he/she is  Self-esteem, physical appearance, personality o Self-esteem: Evaluation of own worth o Characteristics of self-esteem/concept  Protective optimism: ppl predict they can solve impossible puzzles, remember long lists of words, control their dreams  Helps them try new things (take initiative!) - Guilt and Shame o Guilt = self-blame o Shame: Blame from others, then internalized  Child feels others disapprove or are disappointed in them. - Motivation – Why do kids try new things? o Intrinsic motivation: a drive or reason that comes from inside a person o Extrinsic motivation: a drive or reason that arises from the need to have one’s achievements rewarded from outside - Brain maturation influences psychosocial o Neurological advances: prefrontal cortex growth around 4-5 yrs o Myelination of the limbic system o Improved behaviors: longer attention span, increased capacity for self control. - Sex differences in Emotional regulation o Boys tend to be aggressive (externalizing) o Girls tend to be anxious (internalizing) - Play o The most productive and enjoyable activity children do o Piaget: A child’s play is his work o Play is universal o Peers and Parents:  Peers: ppl of same age and social status  Provide practice in emotional regulation, empathy, and social understanding  Children prefer to play with each other rather than their parents. o Solitary play: child plays alone, UNAWARE of other children o Onlooker play: watches another child o Parallel play: children play with similar toys, but NOT together o Associative play: Children interact, observe, share, but not mutual play o Cooperative play: children play together, creativity, and elaborating a joint activity or taking turns. - Active play o Rough and tumble play  Play that mimics aggression through wrestling, chasing, or hitting, but no intent to harm o Socio-dramatic play  Pretend play where children act out various roles and themes - Parenting Styles, o Baumrinds patterns of parenting  Authoritarian: high standards, strict punishments, little communication  Children become conscientious, obedient, quiet but not happy  Permissive parenting: High nurturance and communication, little discipline or control  Unhappy, lack self control, immature and lack friendships  Authoritative: Sets limits and enforce rules, but flexible and listen  Successful, articulate, happy kids  Neglectful/ uninvolved: indifference towards children. - Media Content o Violence on TV is often depicted as morally acceptable o Children become more violent when watching violent TV - Gender Awareness o Age 2: kids know their own gender and apply gender labels - Moral development o Prosocial and Antisocial behavior  Empathy: understands emotions and concerns of another person  Antipathy: feelings of dislike or hatred for other person. o Aggression:  Instrumental aggression: hurtful behavior to GET something  Reactive: impulsive retaliation for another person’s intentional or accidental action  Relational: Nonphysical -> insults or social rejection aimed at harming  Bullying: Unprovoked, repeated physical, cyber, or verbal attack on usually defenseless victims Chapter 9 - Puberty: time between first hormones and full physical development o Puberty usually lasts 3-5 years o Influences: Age 11 or 12 is most likely age of VISIBLE onset o Precocious puberty: sexual development before age 8 (VERY RARE) o Early maturing girls tend to have:  Lower self esteem  More depression  Poorer body image o Early maturing boys tend to be more:  Aggressive  Lawbreaking  Alcohol abusing o Slow developing boys tend to be more anxious, depressed, and afraid of sex. o Puberty also impacts Nutrition  Many teens deficient in vitamins and/or minerals  Minerals needed for bone and muscle growth  Deficiencies result from food choices. o Body image: a person’s idea of how his or her body looks  Another reason for poor nutrition is anxiety over body image  Girls diet because boys prefer to date thin girls  Boys want to look taller and stronger because girls value well- developed muscles in males  Eating Disorders  Anorexia nervosa (self starvation) depriving vital organs of nutrition  Bulemia nervosa ( binge eating and purging) - Sexual Maturation o Primary sex characteristics develop  Male penis, female vagina o Secondary sex characteristics  Visible changes, males get beards, females get breasts, etc… - Sexual Awareness o Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI)  Broader scope than STD  Spread by sexual contact o Child Sexual Abuse  Any erotic activity that arouses an adult and excites, shames, or confuses a child  Regardless if victim protests or if genital contact is involved.  Age of consent: 14-18  Underage voluntary sex = statutory rape  Consequences of sexual abuse depend on extend and duration of abuse - Cognitive Development o Neurological development  Different parts of the brain develop at different rates  Limbic system (fear, emotional impulses) develops before prefrontal cortex  Prefrontal cortex: planning ahead and emotional regulation o When emotions are intense, the logical part of the brain shuts down! o Stress, arousal, passion, sensory stimulation, drug intoxication, or deprivation is EXTREME, the adolescent brain is overtaken by impulses. o Positive aspects of brain development:  Increased myelination  Enhanced dopamine activity  Synaptic growth more efficient  Enhances moral development and openness to new experiences and ideas o Adolescent egocentrism  Adolescent thinking (age 10-14)  Focus on themselves to the exclusion of others o Personal Fable  Adolescent egocentrism characteristic  Belief that his or her thoughts, feelings, or experiences are unique, more wonderful, or awful than anyone else’s.  Invincibility fable  Egocentric conviction  He/she cannot be overcome or harmed by anything  Imaginary audience  Many teenagers are self-conscious, think everyone is focusing on them o Piaget’s final stage of cognitive development  Formal Operational Thought  More systematic logic  Deductive reasoning: reasoning from general statement  Inductive reasoning  Dual-process model: idea that two networks exist in the human brain, one for emotional, one for analytical  Intuitive thought  Arises from an emotion or hunch  Analytic Thought  Results from analysis Chapter 10 - Identity o ID vs. Role Confusion  Erikson’s 5 thstage  Figure out “who am I?” o Identity: Definition as one’s self as a unique individual o ID achievement: Erikson’s term for the attainment of identity  The point at which a person understands who they are and what they plan to do o Role confusion: when adolescent doesn’t seem to know or care what their identity is o Erikson Terms:  Foreclosure: premature identity formation. Adolescent adopts parent’s/society’s roles or values without questioning or analyzing  Moratorium: choice of a socially acceptable way to postpone identity decisions o Four areas of identity achievement  Religious identity  Gender identity  Gender identity  Sexual Orientation  Political/Ethnic Identity  Vocational identity: (lifetime career)  Rarely achieved until age 25  Few teens can find meaningful work - Relationships with Elders and Peers o Conflicts with parents  Parent-adolescent conflict peaks in early adolescence -> more of an attachment than distance  Bickering  Neglect: although teens may act as if they no longer need their parents, neglect can be very destructive o Closeness within the family  Communication: Do parents and teens talk openly?  Support: do they rely on one another?  Connectedness: How emotionally close are they  Control: Do parents encourage or limit adolescent autonomy? o Emotional dependency  Adolescents are more dependent on parents if female and/or from a minority ethnic group  Can be repressive or healthy o Parental monitoring: parents awareness of what their kids are doing, where and who with. o Consequences:  Positive: a warm, supportive relationship  Negative: overly restrictive and controlling  Worst: Psychological control -> disciplinary technique o Parents make child feel guilty and indebted by threatening to withdraw love and support o Cliques and crowds  Clique: group of close friends  Crowd: larger group, not necessarily friends o Choosing friends  Peer pressure  Encouraged to conform to friends’ behavior, dress, attitude  Negative o Peer support  Facilitation: peers facilitate both destructive and constructive behaviors  Makes it easier to do the wrong thing AND the right thing  Helps kids do things they wouldn’t normally do on their own.  Deviancy Training: destructive peer support, one person shows another how to rebel against authority or social norms o Sexuality  Teens transition from asexual to active  Sequence of male-female relationships  Group of friends, at first exclusively  Loose association of boys and girls, public interactions  Small mixed sex groups  Formation of couples  Romance  Straight: o First romances, rarely last more than a year o Girls claim steady partner more often than boys o Breakups and one way crushes o Adolescents crushed by rejection  Gay o Many don’t acknowledge their sexual orientation o Many date members of other sex to hid orientation o Higher rates of clinical depression, drug abuse, suicide than heterosexual peers  Sex education  Learning from peers o Strongly influenced by peers, depends on group  Learning from parents o Parents underestimate need for info o Know little about adolescents’ sexual activity o Wait too long to talk about sex  Learning in school o Abstinence only programs  Goal to prevent teen pregnancy and STI’s  No information about other info was provided  ABSTINENCE ONLY CURRICULUM HAD LITTLE EFFECT  How to improve sex ed o Start early! o Most effective programs:  Begin before high school  Include assignments that require parent-child communication  Focus on behavior  Provide medical referrals on request  Last for years - Sadness and Anger o Depression  Self esteem for boys and girls dips at puberty  Signs of depression are common  Clinical Depression: feelings of hopelessness, lethargy, and worthlessness that lasts two weeks or more  Rumination: repeatedly thinking and talking about past experiences, can contribute to depression and is more common in girls o Suicide  Thinking about suicide  Usually with some serious emotional, intellectual, or cognitive implications  Adolescent suicidal ideation is common  COMPLETED SUICIDES ARE NOT  Cluster suicides  Several suicides committed by members of a group within a brief period of time  Parasuicide  Any potentially lethal action against self that doesn’t result in death  Parasuicide is common, completed suicide is not  4 reasons for increase risk in teens  Availability of guns  Use of alcohol and drugs  Lack of parental supervision  Culture that condones suicide - Drug use and Abuse o Variations among adolescents  Age differences  Drug use increases from age 10 to 25 and then decreases  Drug use before age 18 is the best predictor of later drug use  Cohort differences  US teen drug use has decreased since 1976  Adolescent culture: greater effect on drug use than laws do  Most US teens have experimented with drugs o Generational Forgetting: New generation forgets what previous one learned


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