Intro to Psychology 100 Semester Notes
Intro to Psychology 100 Semester Notes PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
Popular in Into to Psychology
PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1010 - 001
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
PY 101 - Intro to Psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 137 page Bundle was uploaded by Sarah Ford on Friday August 5, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PY 101 - Intro to Psychology at University of Southern California taught by Ann Renken in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Into to Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Southern California.
Reviews for Intro to Psychology 100 Semester Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/05/16
Chapter 1: Psychology and Scientific Thinking 1/10/2012 18:22:00 What is Psychology? ▯ It’s what we do-behavior ▯ The scientific study of behavior o Behavior: thinking, feeling, and action 6 Levels of Analysis ▯ Social: social interaction (person to person), large group influence (culture/political structure/religion) o ex. Social Learning ▯ generally learning manners of behavior, o ex. Sibling Comparisons ▯ Behavioral: the environment operating on people (increasing or decreasing behaviors ▯ how has behavior changed? ex. Talk, smile, gesture ▯ increased or decreased as a function of experience in life) o ex. Unfamiliarity/Novel Environments ▯ environment is creating stress o ex. Embarrassing Past Experience ▯ you are going to remember that, we don’t like to repeat things that don’t go well for us ▯ Mental: thoughts and feelings, interested in your ideas (Cognitive Psychologist) o ex. Sibling Comparison ▯ mental process contributing to their shyness o ex. Unfamiliarity/Novel ▯ feel mentally anxious ▯ Neurological/Physiological: function differences within the brain o ex. Using a Pet Scan or FMRI the brain of someone who is shy might look different than someone who isn’t o ex. Unfamiliarity/Novel ▯ more action in the anxious parts of the brain o ex. Permanent brain damage ▯ Neurochemical: include neurotransmitters and other chemicals like hormones etc o ex. Someone with social phobia could mean certain neurotransmitters are off ▯ some people may go to therapy or be prescribed an anti-depressant ▯ Molecular: genetic contributions to a behavior (figuring out what genes are involved in a behavior) o Study who is related to you, what percentage of genes you share and study the differences in their behavior o A lot of behaviors have a genetic component k Shyness ▯ Embarrassing past experience (Behavioral) ▯ Unfamiliarity/Novel (Behavioral/Mental/Neurological/Physiological) ▯ Parent ▯ child o Social Learning (Social/Mental) o Genetics o Sibling Comparisons (Social) Historical Perspectives in Psychology ▯ mid to late 1800’s modern day approaches began ▯ Structuralism: What the mind is o Wilhelm Wundt o Trying to figure out what consciousness is o Trained is biology and physiology o Came up with brand new methods to study the mind ▯ Introspection was a main method ▯ Asked these participants about very sensory topics ▯ Showed them a stimulus and then asked them to introspect on that ▯ Goal was to build a table of all the sensual experiences that people are capable of having (very ambitious with no psychological research) ▯ Found it to be very unreliable, couldn’t find two different people to describe the same stimulus in the same way ▯ Very important in establishing some psychological research labs ▯ Functionalism: What the mind does o William James ▯ Knew of all preceding early psychological practices (Freud etc) but wanted to add something new ▯ Focusing less on what the mind is, but more concerned with what purpose it serves, why do we have a mind? ▯ Encouraging people to keep psychology applied and connected to everyday behavior ▯ He wrote a very famous book called The Principles of Psychology Volumes 1& 2 and went topic by topic (was quite accurate, even with no data for some things) ▯ Introduced evolutionary theory into psychology ▯ Credited for doing more applied psychology ▯ Behaviorism o Ivan Pavlov. John Watson, B.F. Skinner ▯ Objectively observable behavior ▯ Thought the field was going in the wrong direction, they didn’t want it to be about figuring out thoughts and feelings on a mental level, they thought it should only focus on what we could observe ▯ If two or more people could stand there and record the exact same thing from whatever they are studying or watching (rat in a maze ▯ no subjectivity) ▯ How reinforcement and punishment will change behavior overtime ▯ Pavlov (mid to late 1800s) ▯ Studying salivation in dogs and found that there is a relationship that can be formed in the nervous system ▯ You can form relationships between certain things ▯ Classical conditioning ▯ Watson (early 1900s) ▯ Interested in experimentally creating fear (conditioning fear) ▯ Can we experimentally induce people to be terrified of things o Would recruit infants to toddlers because they were naïve to see if he could instill a fear o Way before there were anything ethical codes ▯ Skinner (50’s and 60’s) ▯ Psychodynamic Perspective o Sigmund Freud (mid to late 1800’s) ▯ Freud and his followers emphasized the contents of the unconscious mind ▯ consciousness was a big thing ▯ Memories buried in your unconscious ▯ Most of what you do that is significant is driven by unconscious prophecies ▯ Trained as a neurologist ▯ His goal was to unearth the contents of the unconscious ▯ Began psychotherapy movement ▯ Emphasis on early childhood experiences, thought to be very critical for later life ▯ Still investigated today ▯ First few years of life were thought to be almost everything ▯ Cognitive Perspective o Cognition is primarily thoughts (memory, language, feelings) o Mind was viewed as an information processor o 40’s and 50’s was the major hay day of behaviorism o brought the mind back into psychology o doing a lot of human research ▯ shown stimuli and then asked to respond accurately measuring speed o everything that was mental was understood as an analogy as how computers work o input and output (what you remember and what you forget) o cognitive research questions: (some of many examples) ▯ How long do memories last? Are the accurate? ▯ How is language different in a monolingual and bilingual people? ▯ How do imagined scenes compare to what we actually see? ▯ Gets the idea of studying something that is mental ▯ Imagination seem to work the same as physical ▯ used in a somewhat realistic way ▯ Psychobiological (aka biopsychology or neuroscientific) perspective o Some are very molecular, some are looking at the big picture ▯ Genes ▯ Neruochemicals ▯ Brain structure and connections o Some Specializations: ▯ Cognitive Neuroscience ▯ Mostly thoughts, language, memories, reasoning ▯ Affective Neuroscience ▯ Affect means emotion ▯ Social Neuroscience ▯ Newest/fewest number of people ▯ The study of what is going on in the brain that connects directly to any kind of social behavior (attraction and relationships) ▯ Brains that are in love look different from brains that do not ▯ What happens to the brain when someone is rejected from a social group? Is Psychology mostly just common sense? ▯ T or F o The more people present at an emergency, the more likely it is that at least one will help F ▯people will let someone else do it o In general, it is better to express anger than to hold it in F ▯ not generally better to express any kind of negative emotion o Hypnosis can help us to recall things we’ve forgotten F ▯ still used but controversial in recalling memories (can come up with false memories) Two Errors in Reasoning ▯ (1) Confirmation bias o the tendency to look for supporting evidence and not to look for evidence against your ideas ▯ illustrated by the Wason selection task: ▯ turn over exactly the cards needed to test the following: ▯ if a vowel is one die, then an odd number must be on the other side ▯ E C 5 4 ▯ If you turn E over and there is a 3, then we have supported our hypothesis ▯ If you turn 4 over and you find a vowel, that will disprove your hypothesis ▯ (2) Belief Perseverance o Even when people are told firmly that something is false, sometimes they still cling to that idea ▯ MPL Watch: Magical Thinking Children ▯ Have a theme that a lot of people think magically ▯ Examples: ▯ “implanted” memories ▯ someone has been lead to believe something happen that never did happen ▯ in some cases something may come out that it isn’t true, but they still believe it ▯ can be traumatic ▯ stereotypes ▯ having a stereotype about a certain people and encountering people who are part of a group that don’t fit the stereotype ▯ a lot of people will dismiss the exceptions to the rule as opposed to adjusting their whole believe system Psychology as a Science ▯ Scientific claims are always tentative o Theory is an explanation that applies to many study findings, based on quite a bit of prior research ▯ Try and poke holes in it and run further studies ▯ Every study goes back and speaks to a theory o Hypothesis is the prediction of the outcome in one individual study o Ex. Facial Feedback Theory: Facial expressions create the associated emotion in the brain ▯ Hypothesis #1: Smiling increases happiness ▯ Usually true ▯ Hypothesis #2: Scowling increases anger ▯ Usually true ▯ Hypothesis #3: A pathway from facial muscles to emotion areas in brain exists ▯ Hypothesis #4: Facial expressions should increase chemicals in the brain associated with emotions ▯ Hypothesis #5: People with facial paralysis should have less intense emotions ▯ Generally experience a dampening of those emotions, your experience of happiness might be diminished ▯ People agree to studies for free Botox ▯ Using Botox diminishes emotional experiences Six Principles of Scientific Thinking ▯ (1) Ruling out Rival Hypotheses o brainstorming for other explanations for a study o this is what you do as soon as you read someone’s study or evaluate a theory o Rival hypotheses are proposed: ▯ In the peer review process ▯ In subsequent research ▯ You might use an article as a spring board for another study ▯ Ex. Facial Feedback Theory ▯ Problem of “Demand characteristics” (when the study’s purpose is obvious—characteristics of a study that demand certain behavior) ▯ People knew what was being tested, so they had to come up with a way that was more discreet ▯ Used pen in the mouth to create facial expressions ▯ (2) Relicability o Why repeat a study? ▯ Sometimes same results cannot be found when re- tested (first thing you want to do is repeat your study) ▯ Study sample could be unusual ▯ Sample = group you test ▯ Population = group your sample comes from ▯ Validating results ▯ Lending credibility to them because you have gotten the same pattern of results twice now ▯ Are the results stable and global? ▯ Do generational changes affect studies ▯ Global = applies across different domains or different areas of life ▯ Trying to make sure all of our research is applicable outside of the US ▯ (3) Extraordinary Claims o Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence ▯ Ex. Ordinary evidence (survey response, what people tell you, something someone tells you) ▯ (4) Falsifiability o one of the core principles of science o Could you find evidence against the theory be found? ▯ Isn’t much you want to study where it would be impossible to find evidence against it ▯ Energy fields, hands-on healing ▯ You should be able to measure healing/energy ▯ People get better when they go to healers ▯ Believing that it is going to work can cause changes in the body (mind-body connection) ▯ Some argue that medical devices have a different energy (not falsifiable) ▯ Past-life regression ▯ There is no way we can download your past life data ▯ It can be a theory but it can’t be a scientific theory ▯ (5) Occam’s Razor o aka “parsimony” o seeing an aura is usually an ‘after image’ o there are a couple of different explanations for visual illusions ▯ aura ▯ after image (more parsimonious) o If you are following Occam’s Razor you are putting forth the simplest possible explanation (fewest inferences or assumptions) o Parsimony was championed by the behaviorists because up to that point there wasn’t very much parsimony going on Chapter 2: Research Methods 1/10/2012 18:22:00 *You will not be tested on the “Statistics” material in this chapter* Ethics in Research: Balancing scientific progress with protecting people ▯ Institutional Review Board (IRB) o They evaluate study applications and decide if the study will harm any one o Hardly an psychologists o 45 questions with essay responses and citations (VERY THOUROUGH) o have to prove that the risk to participants are outweighed by the benefits ▯ Informed Consent o You are told generally what the study will involve o It will be kind of vague (so as not to bias you), but they will tell you the basic task o Signed consent vs. information sheets ▯ If they don’t ask you to sign it that’s ok (then they don’t have any record of your name-anonymous research) o It’s fine to ask questions! ▯ Debriefing Procedures o Also you want a debriefing (telling you why they had you do what you did) Describing Behavior: Observation and Case Studies ▯ Recording what you can observe—what do you see, what do you hear o Watching and writing things down o Journaling o Sometimes more structure with a tallying approach ▯ have a list of behaviors and check out how often they can happen o Audio/video recording allowed for certain cases (they will tell you normally, rarely secret) ▯ Naturalistic observation o When your participants do not know they are being observed o Large group of people, but looking for a few behavior o Minimizes participant reactivity ▯ The tendency for people to act a certain way because they know they are being studied o Maximizes external validity ▯ Something being meaningful ▯ Whether your study results apply in the real world ▯ Do your study results generalize? o Negative Effects: ▯ Mainly description ▯ Can’t determine cause and affect ▯ Case studies o Very few people, but a whole lot of behaviors being observed (sometimes just one person ▯ gifted or talented person, what is it about that person compare to the rest of us) o Long period of observation, broad range of data o Motivated by curiosity ▯ usually ends up being a ‘wow’ factor o Lots of interviewing o Games to test their abilities o Relatively flexible o Negative Effects: ▯ You can’t generalize, but sometimes people try and learn lessons o Examples: ▯ “Supermemorists” ▯ man who has memorized pi/many numbers ▯ his secret is study hard ▯ People with brain damage Predicting Behavior: Correlational Reaserch ▯ Correlational Research vs. A correlation o Correlational Research ▯ You are trying to find relationships between behaviors— can be any two things you might what to find a connection between ▯ ex. Intelligence and income, height and income o Correlation ▯ Something you calculate statistically ▯ Take all the raw data ▯ Visualizing Correlations: The Scatterplot ▯ Direction of the correlation ▯ people score high on one variable and high on the other (positive=direct relationship) ▯ if negative, you’ll know it is an inverse relationship ▯ not about the direct number but relationship to each other ▯ also how strong they are ▯ close to zero is a weak relationship ▯ zero correlation when there is no connection between numbers ▯ Evaluating Correlation Research o Strength: ▯ Allows you to study things you cannot manipulate (like characteristics) ▯ Ex. Age, health status etc ▯ You are able to find out if there are relationships between variables ▯ You can see what the nature is ▯ You can use scores on one variable to predict others o Limitation: th ▯ Correlation does not equal Causation (6 principle of scientific thinking) ▯ 1) Reverse causality ▯ one variable could be influencing other or vise versa, but we don’t know what the direction is ▯ could be one direction for some people and the opposite for others ▯ e.g. self-esteem level and frequency exercising ▯ 2) Third Variable Problem ▯ something that could influence both of the variables that you have measured ▯ could be something that causes people to score high on both variables ▯ e.g. number of leaves on the ground and commute time o you might take longer to commute seasonally when it is time for leaves to fall o Third variables ▯ rainy ▯ less daylight o so we cannot find a direct connection between these two Explaining Behavior: Experiments ▯ A lot more power than the other methods because you have total control ▯ Dependent Variable (DV) o What you measure ▯ the scores you actually collect ▯ Ex. Speed, accuracy, correct answers on a test, personality trait, intelligence score, attitudes ▯ Independent Variable (IV) o Unique to a specific experiment ▯ factor you are manipulating o you pick what you think will effect behavior but you actually implement it ▯ Ex. Does listening to music while studying affect learning? o DV: Grade on the test o IV: ▯ You often want a control group (ex. Studying with no music) o Control of possible confound ▯ A confound would occur if you have another variable that could influence the DV ▯ Undesirable in research ▯ Examples ▯ Volume ▯ everyone has the same volume ▯ lyrics vs no lyrics ▯ same material ▯ same amount of time o Random assignment of participants to groups ▯ You will still have individual differences, but hopefully they balance out across all of the groups The Influence of Expectation ▯ The Placebo Effect: When you are experiencing some kind of physiological effect because you are expecting it to happen o Mood change, behavior change o Usually improved in some way o Drug trials: testing pharmaceuticals ▯ Drug group ▯ Control group (the placebo pill ▯ convincing) ▯ Warn people that they may get one or the other ▯ Usually a pay off in the end where everyone gets treated ▯ Ex. Wellbutrin ▯ that group the happiest, then placebo, then no drug (successful study) o Alcohol studies ▯ When drinking alcohol people engage in more risky behavior, become tired, slurring words etc ▯ One group given actual alcohol, one placebo o Part of therapy? ▯ “Double-blind” study design o protects against experimenter expectancy effects: the risk of the experimenter introducing bias o the people who are administering the pill is NOT aware of that Chapter 3: Brain-Behavior Relations and Neurons and Neurotransmitters 1/10/2012 18:22:00 *Flashcards/notes helpful *No genetics or endocrine system* Divisions of the Nervous System ▯ Central Nervous System (CNS) o Brain o Spinal chord ▯ Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) o Autonomic: brain, heart etc ▯ Sympathetic ▯ Parasympathetic o Somatic: muscle control Cross-Species Comparison of Size of Cerebral Cortex ▯ All have Cerebrum, Cerebellum, and Brainstem ▯ Cerebrum o Planning o Memory o Critical thinking/reasoning o Language ▯ Cerebellum o Balance and coordination o Anything you can do “mindlessly” ▯ Brainstem o Areas that are highly critical for maintaining cardio vascular activity Ventricles: holes in your brain ▯ Filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) o Goes down spinal chord and surrounds spinal chord o Provides a tissue for your spine o “spinal tap” is used to see what is going on in the CNS ▯ larger ventricles = less brain tissue ▯ Lateral ventricle ▯ Third ventricle ▯ Fourth ventricle ▯ Central canal Two Cerebral Hemispheres ▯ Structural Organization o Gyrus vs, Sulcus or Fissure ▯ Gyrus: the tissue in the cortex, the ridge on the cerebral cortex ▯ Sulcus or Fissure: space between the gyrus o Gray matter vs. White matter ▯ Grey matter: the cell body ▯ has a nucleus and dendrites ▯ White matter: axon ▯ appendage that comes off the neuron and allows it to connect to other neurons o Corpus Callosum ▯ Connects right and left brain o Functional Differences ▯ Left ▯ Logical ▯ Task ▯ Stereotypes that ‘left-brained’ people are more math and science majors ▯ Right ▯ Visual ▯ art Film: Discovering Psychology ▯ Psychologists connect brain injury with human behavior ▯ Frontal lobe: controls your emotion ▯ Tools to measure the brain function of normal people o EEG: Electro Encephalon Gram ▯ Record brain waves with scalp electrodes ▯ Electrical activity ▯ Just records functional activity o CT: Cat Scan ▯ Show brains structure ▯ Detailed photograph o PET ▯ First image the brain in action ▯ Functional recording technique ▯ Mind’s Eye (used PET scan to examine) ▯ Many things we use for vision are used while we imagine ▯ Mental imagery allows us to manipulate what we have stored in visual memory ▯ 2/3 of mental imagery same visual perception o fMRI: Functional Magnetic Resonance Imagining ▯ watch people thinking live while it’s happening ▯ shows the brain at work in high resolution ▯ When our brain is active it uses up the oxygen supply in that area followed by a rush of oxygen to that place ▯ change in magnetism ▯ picture can be formed ▯ 40% of our brain is connected to vision ▯ Retinotopic Mapping ▯ Records relationship of what your retina sees and how it shows up in the brain ▯ Recording of things we see photographically ▯ Can view the back of the brain and how it responds to different visual stimuli ▯ Parietal Cortex helps us determine where things are in space ▯ Temporal Lobe: what kind of objects we are looking at o Concerned if the face processing area deals with faces or just features present in faces? ▯ Ex. Of Ruling Out Rival Hypothesis and Occum’s Razor (less parsimonious because we don’t have specialized areas for specific things like a face) ▯ However not just contours, it’s the face shape ▯ Maybe because we look at faces all the time, we have a special area or some critical for our ancestors that natural selection created something of race recognition The Forebrain ▯ Frontal Lobe: governor of your whole brain, connected to the rest, executive functions o Motor cortex ▯ initiates muscle functions ▯ output o Prefrontal cortex ▯ Emotional regulation ▯ Creates emotion and controls it ▯ Many examples of emotional disregulation ▯ Personality ▯ The ability to think and make a plan/make decisions/think on your feet ▯ Stuck in the moment o Broca’s Area ▯ Key for producing speech ▯ putting words into sentences ▯ Necessary for normal speech production ▯ Broca’s Aphasia ▯ Language disorder ▯ speech production deficit ▯ Parietal Lobe o Sematsensory cortex ▯ Where you receive input from your skin sense ▯ Input o “Association” areas ▯ where all of your sense converge ▯ you can represent your entire surroundings/environment in one part of your brain ▯ put together a nice map of everything ▯ called ‘spatial awareness’ ▯ Temporal Lobe o Auditory Cortex ▯ Wernicke’s area ▯ Where you understand speech ▯ Wernicke’s Aphasia ▯ Prevent people from being able to understand speech ▯ Their own speech becomes pretty non sensical ▯ People pretty unaware that they have this problem ▯ Middle Row ▯ Memory ▯ forming new memories ▯ Bottle Row ▯ Visual recognition, object recognition ▯ Occipital Lobe - Vision o Primary Visual Cortex ▯ Pixilated image of the world around you ▯ Neurons are firing if there is something there or not o Ventral Stream—“What Pathway” (Occipital to Temporal) ▯ Cells recording things as whole objects ▯ organized someone categorically ▯ Also a face processing area o Dorsal Stream—“Where Pathway” (Occipital to Parital) ▯ How close/far something is ▯ depth, distance, size, and motion ▯ Deficit ▯ People with deficit can’t see motion (ball will hit them) ▯ Can’t pour liquids ▯ Other Key Structures o Basal Ganglia (ganglia means a cluster of cells that work together) ▯ A bunch of ganglia that are all connected ▯ Voluntary movement ▯ connected to primary motor cortex ▯ Help you to refine your movement (more targeted and precise) ▯ Over time they mature and lay down memory ▯ Reward-related movement ▯ Area at the bottom of the frontal lobe called the ‘reward center’ that reacts a lot to dopamine ▯ Bursts of dopamine you experience as rewarding and good ▯ Connected to the basal ganglia so sets you up to repeat activities that you perceive as rewarding ▯ Circuit between actions and reward ▯ Parkinson’s disease affects this area of the brain ▯ Input from the Substantia Nigra in brainstem ▯ Dopamine ▯ has input in the basal ganglia ▯ For Parkinson’s, this is what is lost first and therefore people lose motor control ▯ The Limbic System—Emotion/Memory Center o Hippocampus ▯ The part of the middle of your temporal lobe that is part of creating memories /learning new information ▯ Doesn’t store memory itself, but the cells in the hippocampus are connected to all the different parts of your brain (sensory/perception areas) ▯ When you form a new memory the hippocampus is a mediator between different parts of your brain ▯ Creates association on a neurochemical level ▯ Deficit means you are unable to make new memories ▯ One on each side of your temporal lobe o Amygdala ▯ Almond-shaped structure ▯ One within each temporal lobe ▯ Adjacent to the hippocampus ▯ It has a pathway that comes off of it that is connected to things ▯ Specialized for FEAR ▯ allows us to remember things that threaten us, therefore helps with survival ▯ Triggers the fight/flight mechanism ▯ People who are prone to anxiety/depression has excess activity in the Amygdala o Hypothalamus ▯ Cluster of cells that are all specialized for different aspects of your physiology ▯ Regulates cardio-vascular function, hormones ▯ Connected to the pituitary gland ▯ produces lots of important hormones (progesterone, testosterone, estrogen etc) ▯ Common site of tumors because hormones tend to feed tumors ▯ Connects to part of your brain stem that connects to fight or flight, breathing etc ▯ Stimulating Activity in the Cortex o Basal Forebrain ▯ Stimulates cortex and limbic system with Acetylcholine ▯ Where the axons end up they will put acetylcholine (increases activity, gets cells going) ▯ One of the first pathways that degenerates in Alzheimer’s o Reticular Formation ▯ Contains the “Reticular Activating System” (RAS) ▯ Stimulates cortex with Norepinephrine (stimulates activity) ▯ Arousal level (refers to how alert you are as opposed to how tired you are) Major Regions of the Brainstem ▯ Thalamus o sensory relay station; most of your sense make a pit stop there before going to your cortex (ex. Vision, hearing etc funneled through the thalamus) o Highest point of your brainstem ▯ Cerebellum o important for balance and coordination, input from your vestibular system (your inner ear balance ▯ monitoring your orientation) o Highly practice expert movement sequences (writing with a pen, driving stick shift etc) ▯ Pons o Connects the cerebellum to the rest of your brain (structurally and functionally ▯ neurons and axons run front and back) o Vital function groups of neurons (breathing and heart-rate) o Reticular Formation: keeps you “aroused” (awake) ▯ Medulla o Prominent role in vital function (neurons would start in medulla, down spinal chord, out to vital organs—heart rate, blood pressure, breathing) o Axons are running through the medulla (up to the brain and down to the spinal chord) ▯ Spinal Chord o Everything below the medulla o Size of your pinky o Relay between brain and P.N.S o Somatic Nervous System—carries messages to and from skin, sensation in organs, and muscles o Two types of nerves: ▯ Afferent: sensory input ▯ End of the afferent pathway: the somatosensory cortex; where skin sense gets processed ▯ Efferent: motor output ▯ Starts in your motor cortex, then goes to spinal chord, then out to muscle group ▯ Can start in motor cortex with an idea, but can be triggered by sensory motion (reflex) o The Reflex Arc ▯ Reflex: something that is automatic on your part ▯ Ex. You get hit in your hand (sensory input), hand moves (motor out) ▯ Requires no brain or cortex ▯ A lot easier to make a move that is a reflex (blinking) than to stop a reflex from happening (knee tap) o Autonomic Nervous System ▯ Sympathetic Nervous System: Fight or Flight ▯ An increase in activity that would allow you to fight or run away ▯ Effects: increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, lungs dilate (increase in cardio-vascular function) ▯ Anything that is cardio-vascularly active would be sympathetic nervous system dominated (running etc) ▯ Your pupils dilate when your sympathetic nervous system is dominating (ex. Certain drugs) ▯ Can’t control ▯ Sign of interest/attraction levels (people find dilated pupils more attractive) ▯ Parasympathetic Nervous System: Rest and Digest ▯ In parasympathetic dominant mode if you aren’t using your sympathetic system ▯ Ex. Heart rate normal, lower blood pressure, pupils constrict, digestion etc (opposite of sympathetic basically) ▯ What is working when you are sleeping Neurons and Neurotransmitters ▯ Approx 100 billion neurons ▯ Average of 10,000 connections for each neuron ▯ 10,000,000,000,000 (10 trillion) neural connections! Neural Development and Plasticity ▯ Plasticity: flexibility in the nervous system, brain is more flexible when you are younger o Ex. If you have brain damage as a young child you are more likely to be able to regain normal functions ▯ What about neurons is fixed, and when? o You develop most of the neurons you’ll have for you lifespan prenatally (before you are born) o However, you do produce new neurons throughout your lifespan (mainly in memory areas, but seems very limited) o All other cells in your body have a life-cycle, but neurons don’t work that way o Neurons are much more vulnerable than other cells o During development, they migrate to where they need to be (prenatally) o Babies have all the cells but the connections are fairly limited ▯ What about neuron changes? o Modified by experience (forming associations) o Can change throughout your lifetime o This is the flexible part of the nervous system Three regions of a Neuron ▯ Dendrites—root of the word is the root of the word tree o Branching off regions of the cell body o Where you receive signals o Grey matter ▯ Cell Body or Soma o Like any other cell o Nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus etc o Grey matter ▯ Axon o Long appendage that reaches out to the neighboring neuron o Not structurally connected—communicate over a small space called the synapse ▯ This is what allows them to be flexible, they aren’t connected o Can vary from nano-scale to a few feet o White matter o Corpus callosum: think band of axons that connects the two hemispheres together Communication Pathway ▯ Presynaptic Neuron: the one before the synapse o Sends a signal to vvv ▯ Postsynaptic Neuron The Neural Impulse: From “Resting” to “Action Potential” ▯ The Neuron at Rest: just hanging out o Neuron is never “inactive”; most important stuff happens at rest o “binding to receptors o movement of ions o Ligand: something that can affect something else (for us, we encounter neurotransmitters and drugs; drugs basically work by limiting neurotransmitters) o Extracellular fluid: space between cells o Intercellular fluid: much more protected and regulation, protective, stuff cannot get out of the neuron—impermeable o Channel: pore or hole that is very much regulated that will allow stuff in or out, long protein chain that folds in and out of the membrane ▯ The receptor is on a channel, neurotransmitters match them and when the neurotransmitter lands on it, it ‘unlocks’ and starts certain behavior o Na+ is sodium, so you have increased the positively charged stuff within the neuron, however it has reacted to a neighboring neuron’s dopamine molecule, over time if you let enough sodium in you can trigger an action potential ▯ Action Potential Defined: o The technical name for a neural impulse or “firing” o The change in charge inside the neuron that leads it to release neurotransmitter ▯ Nothing happens just with ion movement, releasing neurotransmitter is the important part ▯ What triggers and action potential? (triggered if a fairly quick influx of sodium in a cell, if important to a lot of functions being performed at once) o Reaching “threshold” ▯ If certain neurons are extremely necessary for a function, lots of sodium coming in at once, can move neurons from resting to action potential state ▯ Neuron at rest net charge is -60v because there are negatively charged proteins hanging out inside ▯ Need to have enough channels all at once so it goes from -60 to around -55 ▯ everything changes and we have a new kind of sodium channel that comes into play (voltage gated sodium channel) o “Voltage-gated” sodium channels open ▯ detecting when they reach that -55 charge and let sodium in ▯ its being triggered from the inside ▯ ions are not lazy so when they enter the cell they will move around and trigger the next voltage gated channel ▯ progresses all the way down the axon o Propagation down axon ▯ Moving incrementally all the way down o Neurotransmitter is released ▯ Once you get to the end, this happens Close up at the Synapse ▯ Cycle of a Neurotransmitter (produced by the neurons and comes and waits for the message) o Synaptic (or Storage) Vesicles ▯ Positive charge causes them to move to the very edge of the axon o Release into Synaptic cleft of “synapse” o Binding at receptor sites ▯ Of neighboring neurons and gets the whole next chain of events going (minority) o Reuptake or breakdown by enzymes ▯ Reuptake: taking it back up into the cell and reuse them ▯ Breakdown by enzymes ▯ Everything used or reused, the cycle continues Glial Cells ▯ 10 times more than neurons! o Support (ex. Get stuff out of the blood stream into the cells) o Clean up (ex. Like an immune system cell, eats up what isn’t needed) o Facilitate neural communication (ex. Neurons involved in learning and memory ▯ they participate and probe those connections to be made) o Have a life cycle (die and regrow) ▯ Myelin: a fatty substance formed from a type of glial cell o Have a normal cell body and grows a lipid layer o Insulates (wraps) around the axon o Allows signal to travel more efficiently and quickly ▯ Helps prevent the electrical ion from leaving the neuron ▯ You need less ion movement over all because myelin protects ions from bouncing out o Multiple Sclerosis (MS): immune system attacks myelin in brain/spinal chord ▯ Might have visual/audio disturbances ▯ Motor weakness ▯ Abnormalities in skin sense ▯ Usually rides a cycle of symptoms ▯ Every time this happens, they have scar tissue near their axon (gets in the way of the myelin regenerating) and this can’t be repaired o Cells that form myelin leave gaps between themselves called a Node of Ranvier ▯ where the action potential takes place Neurotransmitters (by general effect on brain and behavior) ▯ General increase or decrease in activity (found throughout entire nervous system): o Glutamate ▯ The main excitatory (action promotes action potentials) neurotransmitter ▯ Most neurons have glutamate receptors that open then channel and lets sodium in ▯ Not linked to a certain behavior/pathway o GABA (gamma minobutyric acid) ▯ Same as Glutamate, but lets in a negatively charged ion (instead of a positive one) ▯ Anxiety drugs bind to GABA receptors (to quiet the activity in your brain, ex. Zannex) ▯ When people have seizure disorders, they are also prescribed drugs that increase GABA (reduces the likelihood of a seizure ▯ too much retroactivity all at once) ▯ Makes people tired and groggy and impairs concentration ▯ Feel, Don’t Feel, and Perceive: o Serotonin ▯ Mood stabilization ▯ Works in weird negative feedback cycles (no predictable pathway) ▯ Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) block the reuptake from happening which makes the serotonin hang out in the synapse for a longer amount of time ▯ Some depression means they do not have enough serotonin, therefore use these kinds of drugs ▯ Melatonin is a biomedical cousin ▯ promotes sleep and serotonin is involved in sleep a little bit too (helps you relax) ▯ Involved in a lot of the perceptual areas ▯ Hallucinogenic drugs alter serotonin ▯ Make people tired/hungry (what serotonin is related to) o Endorphins ▯ Many types ▯ Body’s natural pain killers ▯ Focused behaviorally ▯ only involved in pain control ▯ Released when you are physically and emotionally injured ▯ When people takes drugs that are more potent than your natural production (ex. morphine, codeine, heroin) they bind to endorphin receptors and mimic it ▯ Receptors in your brainstem that goes down your spinal chords to release a GABA like neurotransmitters that blocks you from feeling it o Anandamide ▯ THC binds to this receptor (acts like anandamide in the brain) ▯ Helps you promote hunger (in the hypothalamus) ▯ Legitimate reason for why people get marijuana prescriptions (diseases where you aren’t hungry, chemo etc) ▯ Blocks memory formation in or around the hippocampus ▯ Can produce hallucinations (classified as a hallucinogenic) ▯ Attention and Movement o Norepinephrine ▯ Arousal neurotransmitter ▯ Helps you be alert and focused and maintain attention ▯ Stimulant drugs increase it (methamphetamine, cocaine, decongestant drugs) ▯ Stimulates your cortex ▯ Adrenaline ▯ Stimulates your spinal chord activity ▯ Work together in your body (increase one, increase the other) o Acetylcholine ▯ Movement ▯ Released onto your muscle in your PNS and works to contract muscles ▯ If you take something that blocks this movement, you would be chemically paralyzed ▯ Alzheimer’s is a disorder of memory formation, so acetylcholine is important for forming memoires in the hippocampus ▯ Nicotine binds to acetylcholine receptors in the brain (doesn’t cause you to contract all of your muscles), helps people to think and learn and form memories o Dopamine ▯ Reward neurotransmitter ▯ drives you to do again what you just did ▯ Movement (Parkinson’s, Huntington’s) ▯ Feeds into the basal ganglia (important in voluntary controlled accurate movement) Discussion: ▯ Grey matter: a lot of cell bodies ▯ White matter: axons—long tracks ▯ Lateral means a side view of the brain, medial is more towards the center, top of the brain is superior/dorsal, bottom is ventral, front of the brain anterior/rostral and back of the brain is posterior/caudal ▯ Sulcus buttom loops (fissure is a deep sulcus) and gyrus is surface wrinkles Chapter 6: Learning and Behavior Theory 1/10/2012 18:22:00 Learning ▯ A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience (not hardwired like reflex) ▯ usually when you learn something you retain it for a very long time, but not guaranteed ▯ Types of learning o Classical conditioning o Operant conditioning o Observational learning Classical Conditioning: Associations between Stimuli ▯ Examples (anxiety, fear, avoidance, nausea ▯ a lot of research based on fear and pain) o Sound of a dentist’s drill and sweaty palms o Sight of significant other and smiling o Smell of a certain beverage and nausea o Hear a song and memories ▯ Pavlov’s Serendipitous Discovery o Studied digestion in dogs ▯ Gave a dog meat powder flavor and knew it would create salivation ▯ DV: amount of salivation (used a cannula in the salivary gland) ▯ Dogs would start salivating before he could gave them food – why? ▯ Used environment stimuli to see if dogs would salivate ▯ Phase 1) Before Conditioning o Reflexive response: Food (US/UCS: unconditioned stimulus) ▯ salvation (UR: unconditioned response) o Tone (NS: neutral stimulus): nothing ▯ No environment noise that causes animals to stimulate ▯ Phase 2) Acquisition o NS is repeatedly paired with the US (co-occur in time) ▯ Pretty easily associate but the most reliable way is NS before the US and closer in time is always better ▯ Ex. Play sound and then give food back to back ▯ Phase 3) After Conditioning o The CS (conditioned stimulus, formerly NS) now elicits the CR (conditioned response) ▯ Now your formally neutral tone now causes salivation (a neural pathway created) ▯ UR becomes the CR (same thing but with a new trigger) ▯ Ex. Roommate Conditioning o US: gun ▯ UR: pain/anxiety o NS: ‘easy’ button sound o Uses both together o Then…stops with the gun o So…CS: ‘easy’ button ▯ CR: anxiety/flinching ▯ Strength of Classically Conditioned Reponses over Time o Extinction o Spontaneous recovery o Strength of the CR will go up but plateau eventually (a response can only get so strong) o Acquisition Period (NS + US) ▯ Confounding variables : food or tone o Extinction Period (CS only): process through which previous conditioned responses diminish ▯ people will catch on ▯ If the behavior sustains in the first trail (stays strong) then you can confirm that classical conditioning has occurred ▯ Phobias viewed as classically conditioned fears ▯ can treat people with OCD to learn that nothing bad will happen through behavior therapy o Rest period ▯ what will happen the next time you encounter that previous stimulus (CS)? ▯ First time you’re exposed you’ll have a moderate response, but the more exposure the more extinction you’ll have ▯ So overtime the affect of the CS will go down ▯ Spontaneous recovery (followed by extinction) ▯ Does vary from person to person Operant Conditioning ▯ Examples (Behavior ▯ Consequence that comes from the environment—Behavior Modification) o Tantrums are punished ▯ fewer tantrums o Tantrums bring attention ▯ more tantrums (backfired behavior modification, punishment sometimes has unanticipated effects) o Slot machine pays out ▯ gamble more o Reward dog for sitting ▯ dog is likely to sit ▯ Thorndike (first person to propose this idea and write about it) o Referred to this as “Instrumental Conditioning” o Puzzle Box ▯ Cat is trying to explore the box randomly, eventually it will flip the switch and get out of the box ▯ that’s the moment when learning occurs ▯ Random behavior followed by a consequence=learning, so next time the cat is in the box, he will get out faster o Law of Effect: behaviors followed by positive (enjoyable or rewarding) consequences tend to be increased ▯ B.F. Skinner ▯ “Operant Conditioning” o Operant Chamber (Skinner Box) ▯ Rodent, lever, and food box ▯ Mouse explores its environment and sooner or later it will accidentally push down that lever and then the food pellet comes down ▯ Can make it more specific by only flashing a green light when they can get food ▯ Tallying up cumulative responses so the more uphill the line goes shows that they have performed the desired behavior and can see if they push the lever faster etc ▯ Reinforcer: anything that increases the desired behavior ▯ Operant Conditioning: Principles o Reinforcement: anything that increases the frequency of behavior ▯ Praise is a learned reinforcer ▯ Negative Reinforcement: taking away something unpleasant ▯ Positive reinforcement: getting something pleasant o Punishment: anything that could decrease behavior ▯ Positive Punishment: applying an unpleasant stimulus to decrease behavior ▯ Negative punishment: taking away something pleasant to decrease behavior o Positive: something that is applied/given o Negative: something taken away, removing some type of stimulus—can be good or bad o Examples Reinforcement Punishment Positive Smile, praise Spanking, shock Negative Morphine, parole Paying a fine, “Time-out” Higher Order Conditioning ▯ A second CS is conditioned when introduces along with the original CS (at the SAME time) o CS=Tone ▯ CR=salivation o + o CS=Light ▯ Then dog just salivates to the light (no tone needed) ▯ Tend to get weaker the more distal they are from the original one o “Occasion Setters” in cravings (because of higher order conditioned stimuli) ex. Video: Treating Drug Addition ▯ Drugs have a physiological affect ▯ He has a classically conditioned drug craving just being around the paraphernalia (mentally and physically) ▯ Extra CSs become attached to the paraphernalia (ex. Of higher order stimuli) ▯ Money ▯ Matches ▯ Cigarettes ▯ Dealer ▯ Context ▯ Neighborhoods ▯ Even you get them physiologically withdrawn they used to still have issues with “occasion setters” sooooo they had to give them take home kits to stop the outside stimuli from affecting them through behavioral tools o Ads use classical conditioning (higher order) ▯ Connection between attractive thing and their products (ex. burgers and girl) Stimulus Generalization and Stimulus Discrimination ▯ John B. Watson o Conditioning Children: can you instill conditional emotional responses o Ex. “Little Albert” 8 mo-2 yr old babies ▯ Let him play with a little white rat (NS on day one) ▯ They classically conditioned them to fear it by making a loud noise behind the child while he was playing with the rat ▯ Then he started swapping out the white rat with other stimuli o Stimulus Generalization ▯ White rat is the first CS then beard, bunny, dog, muffler etc and anything that was white and fuzzy became affective in creating a fear response ▯ Stimulus generalization because you n
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'