Psychology 1300; EXam 1 Study Guide
Psychology 1300; EXam 1 Study Guide Psych 1300
Popular in Intro to Psychology (Allison Blair Martir)
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ENGL 1102 036
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Date Created: 08/06/16
Psychology 1300: The Scientific Method and Experimental Research 1. Human error: why we need good research a. Hindsight bias i. Once created, it seems obvious ii. “I knew all along” b. Overconfidence i. What are the odds? ii. Feels very good about our ability to predict c. Patterns i. Gamblers Fallacy the idea or feeling that a certain event is less likely to happen after another event d. Overgeneralizations i. “if you see it once, you’ve seen it all” e. Rationalization i. James Randi illustrates ii. Making yourself believe that 2. Scientific Method a. Describe behavior: operational definition (*Key features of the scientific process always looking for the alternative explanations Replications of finding) b. Explain behavior: theory ( an explanation using a set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events) c. Prediction: hypothesis ( a tentative statement or prediction about the relationship between 2 or more variables) d. Research and observations i. Naturalistic observations – observing behaviors in natural habitats ii. Survey – getting selfreported attitudes from a large number of people iii. Case study – one person us studied in depth in hope of reveling universal principles e. Correlational methods – allows us to take our data to see if there is a correlation between different things ( height & weight) i. Correlation coefficient – number between 1 and 1 showing strength and direction of this relationship ii. Correlation does not mean caution iii. Spurious correlations 1. When two things are correlated yet have nothing to do with each other iv. Third variable – a variable responsible for the relation between two variables ( ice cream consumption & drowning – third variable is summer) f. Replication 3. Explaining behavior a. Experimental research – actively manipulating a variable (independent) to observe effects on another variable (dependent). b. Experimental group – group that a researcher manipulates c. Control group – group not exposed to the independent variable but rather a control condition d. Independent variable – thing were manipulating e. Dependent variable – the effect of the independent variable getting manipulated f. Problems & Solutions i. Confounding variable – uncontrolled that change along with the independent variable 1. Solution – randomization: if you use truly random assignments you will avoid any systematic differences between results ii. Generalizability – does what happen in the “lab” happen in “real life” 1. Solution – if it matters, researchers should complement experimental research with research done naturally. iii. Participant expectancies Participant has belief about that the impact of the independent variable on the dependent variable. Placebo effect 1. Solution – single blind study: participants do not know what condition they are in. iv. Researcher expectancies researchers has belief about the impact on the independent variable on the dependent variable 1. Solution – double blind study: neither participant nor the experimenter know who is in what condition 4. The Biology of the Mind: Nerves and Neurons a. Why do we care about the nerves system: the nerves system i. Senses your external and internal surroundings ii. Communicates information between your brain and tissues iii. Coordinates voluntary movements iv. Coordinates and regulates involuntary functions like breathing, heart rate, blood pressure b. Intro the Nervous System i. Neurons 1. Nerves cells 2. Different types of neurons a. Sensory i. Body sends messages to brain b. Motor i. Brain sends messages to body c. Interneurons i. Messages between neurons in brain Axon takes message away from cell body 3. How neurons communicate a. Within electron: electrochemical b. Between neurons: chemical c. There are excitatory and inhibitory signals. If enough excitatory signals exceeds threshold starts action potential d. Action potential i. All or nothing ii. Threshold of excitatory iii. Electrical charge that’s fired iv. Generates electricity through chemical evens (like battery) v. Absolute refractory period e. Synapse i. Meeting point between neutrons ii. Synaptic gap is less than a millionth of an inch iii. “protoplasmic kisses” 4. Neurotransmitters a. The chemical messengers b. Are released at synaptic gap and fit into the next like a key in a lock c. Reuptake d. The sending neuron reabsorbs extra neurotransmitter e. Chemicals that carry the signal across the synapse from one neuron to another f. More than 50 different types g. Some send signals to fire while others send signals not to fire h. Dopamine – influences movement, learning, attention, emotion i. Endorphins – elevate mods and ease pain j. Norepinephrine – helps control alertness and arousal k. Secretin – affects mood, hunger, sleep, arousal c. The Nervous System ii. Two parts: 1. The central nerves system a. Brain and spinal cord b. Brain and spinal cord serve as main “processing center” for the entire nervous system, and control the working of your body 2. The peripheral nervous system a. Connects the central nervous system (CNS) to the sensory organs (such as eyes and ears) other organs of the body, muscles, blood vessels, and glands. b. Somatic nervous gland i. Voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles c. Autonomic nerves system i. Homeostasis ii. Mostly unconscious control, involuntary actions iii. Affects heart rate, digestion, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, urination, and sexual arousal. iv. Sympathetic – gets you ready for action v. Parasympathetic – gets your body back to normal 3. The endocrine system a. The nerves systems slower cousin b. Uses hormones to transmit messages instead of neurotransmitters i. Travel through blood stream c. Pituitary gland most important: pea sized, core of brain i. Sex hormones, growth hormones d. Adrenal glands i. Fight or flight 5. The Brain a. Overall i. 3 pounds ii. Combination of neural networks iii. Spinal cord: information highway between peripheral nervous systems and brain b. Older Brain Structures i. Brain stem 1. Medulla – circulation, breathing, muscle tone, and regulating reflexes 2. Pons – sleep/arousal and movement 3. Reticular formation – filters information going to brain ii. The cerebellum 1. Sits on either side of brainstem a. Baseball or tennis ball size 2. Judge time 3. Modulate emotions 4. Discriminate sounds and texture 5. Play a role in coordinating movement and balance 6. Cerebral palsy – non progressive, motor conditions that cause physical disability in human development, chiefly in the various iii. Thalamus 1. Combines and relays signals from senses to higher levels of the brain 2. Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) c. Newer Brain i. Cerebrum 1. 2 hemispheres 2. Right – specializes in language 3. Left – specializes in spatial processing 4. Contralateral control 5. Contains: a. Limbic system b. Cerebral complex ii. Limbic System: the emotional nervous system 1. Lies on both sides of the thalamus, just under the cerebrum 2. Includes hypothalamus, __________ 3. Amygdala – aggression, fear and even sexual responses 4. Hypothalamus a. Keeps body regulated b. Hunger, thirst, body temperature, sexual behavior c. Built in reward systems: release dopamine with activities like eating, sex, and sleep. d. Homeostasis i. Four F’s 1. Fighting 2. Feeding 3. Feeling 4. “Reproduction” iii. The cerebral cortex 1. A thin surface layer of interconnected neural cells 2. Higher thinking a. Ultimate control and information processing center 3. Made up of four regions a. Frontal lobe i. Prefrontal cortex ii. Inferior frontal gyrus iii. Motor cortex b. Parietal lobe i. Somatosensory cortex c. Occipital lobe d. Temporal lobe iv. The prefrontal cortex 1. Located at the very front of brain 2. Executive functions a. Working memory, planning, and decision making b. Abstract thinking c. Regulating behavior d. Social control v. Inferior frontal gyrus a. Makes up about one third of the frontal lobe of the human brain includes i. Representation of the face in the primary motor cortex ii. Broca’s area – language production iii. Your language comprehension – the ability to understand others vi. Motor cortex (move) 1. Controls the more than 600 muscles involved in voluntary movements. 2. Rear of the frontal lobe 3. Highly organized, with each area corresponding in the vii. Parietal lobe 1. Processes sensory information a. Sensory cortex 2. Spatial information (distance, size, shape) viii. Somatosensory cortex (feel) 1. Area at the front of the parietal lobe that registers and sensation and feeling 2. Highly organized 3. Visual and auditory cortex on the back and sides of brain. ix. Temporal lobe 1. Primary auditory cortex, hearing, memory of sounds 2. Wernicke’s area a. Destruction of this which impairs comprehension of language b. Grammar, syntax, intonation are all preserved but the language is meaningless. x. Occipital lobe 1. Reception and interpretation of visual information xi. Plasticity 1. Neurons do not regenerate 2. However, plasticity is availability of the brain to modify itself after damage 3. Stem cells? a. Cells that aren’t told what type of cell it’s going to be… research to see if they can take cells and “tell” them what kind of cell it’s going to be d. Hemisphere Communication i. Corpus callosum 1. Connects the left and right cerebral hemispheres and facilitates communication between the two 2. “Split brain” results when patients have their corpus callosum served, generally in order to reduce seizures. ii. Left brained or right brained? 1. The right hemisphere of the brain handles spatial task, emotions 2. The left hemisphere of the brain handles verbal task 3. This is called lateralization iii. It is probably not true that 1. We are either “right brain” or “left brain” dominate Class quiz The endocrine system uses HORMONES to send messages The brain stem is responsible for Responsible for regular functions, sleep, ect. What does the hypothalamus do? Keeps body regulated What does the motor cortex do? Controls movement If you are split brained your _________ is disconnected Corpus callosum 1. Chapter 11 a. Motivation the factors that direct and energize behavior i. Instincts 1. Inborn patterns of behavior that are biologically determined rather than learning ii. Drive theory 1. Internal biological needs which motivates us to perform a certain way a. Food b. Water c. Sex 2. Drives, are defined as internal states or arousal or tension which must be a. Thirst b. Hunger c. Sex drive 3. Drive reduction approaches a. Drive – motivational tension or arousal that energizes behavior to fulfill some need b. Primary drive – basic drives related to biological needs of the body or the species as a whole c. Secondary drive – associated with primary drives d. Needs are brought about by prior experience and learning 4. Arousal approaches: beyond drive reduction a. Arousal approaches to motivation i. We try to maintain a certain level of ______ iii. Arousal theory 1. People take certain actions to either decrease or increase levels of arousals 2. When arousal levels get too low, a person might watch an exciting movie or go for a jog 3. Yerkes Dodson law – states that simple tasks require a high level of arousals to get the motivation to do them, while difficult task require low arousal to get the proper motivation. a. Easy – high arousal b. Difficult – low arousal iv. Incentive approaches : motivational pull 1. Suggest that motivation stems from the desire to obtain valued external goals, or incentive v. Cognitive approaches: the thoughts behind motivation 1. Suggest that motivation is a product of peoples thoughts and goals a. Intrinsic – causes us to participate in an activity for personal benefit b. Extrinsic motivation – causes us to participate in an activity for a treat or reward vi. Mallow’s Hierarchy of needs 1. Physiological needs a. Biological needs b. Water c. Food 2. Safety needs – Security of: a. Body b. Employment c. Health d. Family e. Property 3. Love affection and belongingness needs a. People seek to overcome feelings of loneliness b. Involves both giving and receiving love, affection, and the sense of belongingness 4. Needs for esteem a. Needs of selfesteem and for the esteem a person gets from others 5. Needs for selfactualization a. Motivation to realize one’s own maximum potential and possibilities b. The belief that a person needs or wants to do what they were meant to do vii. Hormones and sexual behavior 1. Testosterone a. Most important of male hormones b. Growth of the male organs during fetal period c. Development of the male sex characteristics 2. Estrogen sex hormones a. Estradiol, secreted in greater viii. The psychology of sex 1. Sophisticated brain allows us to experience sexual arousal both from what is real and imaged a. External stimuli i. Men more aroused when erotic material align with personal interest ii. Content and intensity of sexual experience arouse women b. Sexual orientation – enduring sexual attraction toward i. Members of either one’s own sex (homosexual) ii. The other sex ( heterosexual) iii. Or both (bisexual) c. Sexual orientation as a spectrum i. The Kinsey scale, also called the heterosexual – homosexual rating scale, describes a person’s sexual experience or response at a given time d. Gay – straight brain differences i. Only hypothalamic cell cluster is smaller in woman and gay men than straight men ii. Gay men’s hypothalamus reacts as do straight women’s to the small sexrelated hormones. e. Genetic influence i. Shared sexual orientation is higher among identical twins rather than fraternal twins ii. Sexual attraction in fruit flies can be genetically manipulated. f. Affiliation and achievement: the need to belong i. Humans are still innately social beings 1. Needs to belong affects thoughts, emotions, and behaviors 2. Feeling of love active brain reward and safety systems 3. Pain of being shut out a. Worldwide, many forms of ostracism are used b. Social isolation is equivalent to physical pain g. Connecting and social media i. Mobile networks and social media 1. Three in four U.S. teens send 60+ texts daily 2. More, or less socially isolated? 3. Healthy selfdisclosure? 4. Accurate personality reflections in profiles and post? 5. Promotion of narcissism? 2. The Psychology of Hunger a. Humans automatically regulate caloric intake through a homeostatic system to prevent energy deficits an maintains stable body weight i. Stomach contractions ii. Blood sugar glucose regulation iii. Appetite hormones 1. Insulin: hormone secreted by pancreas: controls blood glucose 2. Leptin: protein hormones secreted fat cells; when abundant, causes brain to increase metabolism and decrease hunger 3. Orexin: hunger trigger hormone secreted by hypothalamus iv. Set point v. Basal metabolic rate b. Glucose i. Is form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues ii. Triggers feeling of hunger when low c. Hypothalamus and other brain structure i. Accurate nucleus: pumps appetite suppressing hormones ii. Ghrelin: involves hunger arousing hormones in pancreas d. Understanding the Obesity Epidemic i. Determined by BMI ii. Muscles weigh more than fat iii. 2/3 of US is overweight or obese iv. Hazards of excessive weight 1. Cvd 2. Diabetes 3. Sleep apnea 4. Respiratory disease 5. Arthritis 6. Cancer v. 17% of children in US are overweight or obese vi. Low income children at greater risk vii. Causes 1. Body takes in more calories than it can burn 2. There are genetic variations in how individuals lose weight and gain weight 3. Some hormones have been shown to potentially play role in obesity 4. There are metabolic differences between individuals 5. The toxic environment a. Fast food in power b. Supersized portions 6. Physical inactivity 7. Psycho/social factors 8. Stimulus cues 3. Trying to manage the problem: success and failures of treatment a. On average i. 40% of women and 25% of men are trying to lose weight at any given time ii. $50 + billion/year weight loss industry b. Behavioral weigh control i. Selfmonitoring ii. Problem solving iii. Assertiveness training iv. Social support v. Goal setting vi. Cognitive resurrecting vii. Relapse prevention c. General findings i. The weight loss and regain trend among patients in treatment programs is remarkably consistent ii. Initial weight loss is rapid and then slowly declines iii. 20 – 50% of people drop out of treatment program after 6 months d. Problem i. Satisfaction with diet ii. Commitment to engage in weightcontrol behavior iii. Feeling of freedom e. Mindfulness i. Being aware of what and how much are you eating. Are you looking for sensation, satisfaction, or legitimately hungry? f. Other tools i. Small changes ii. Limiting variety iii. Increasing awareness iv. Social support
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