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Exam Reviews // Questions HP 1420
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Flexion: reduces angle in anterior direction Exception: knee and foot Extension: increases angle in posterior direction Exceptions: knee and foot Abduction: movement away from midline Adduction: movement toward the midline Dorsiflexion: (decreasing) movement of foot towards shin Plantar flexion: (increasing extension) movement of foot toward plantar service Supination – face up Pronation – face down Refers to the unique rotation of the forearm Rotation: turning of a structure around its long axis Circumduction: combination of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction (circle – sucker punch you) Eversion: plantar surface faces laterally Inversion: plantar surface faces medially Retraction: moves structure back to anatomical position or more posteriorly Protraction: moves structure in a gliding motion in anterior direction (bulldog/underbite) Elevation: moves structure superiorly Depression: moves structure inferiorly Lateral excursion: mandible to either right or left Medial excursion: returns mandible to neutral position 3 types of joints: Fibrous: consist of 2 bones that are united by fibrous connective tissue o Sutures o Syndesmosis: bones are father apart than in a suture and are joined by ligaments Cartilaginous Joints: unite 2 bones by either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage o Epiphyseal plate: site where bone growth occurs o Costal: between ribs and sternum o Symphysis: fibrocartilage uniting 2 bones Synovial joints: (most movable joints) – contain synovial fluid and allows considerable movement between articulating bones Bone articulations (3) – going with 3 joints: Synarthrotic (fibrous joints) o Nonmoveable joint o Sutures in the skull Amphiarthrotic (cartilaginous joints) o Slightly movable joints Diarthrotic (synovial) joint o Characteristics: 1. Joint capsule 2. Fibrous capsule 3. Synovial membrane a. Produces synovial fluid 4. Synovial fluid a. Provides lubrication b. Nourishes chondrocytes c. Acts as shock absorber 5. Articular cartilage a. Acts as shock absorbers b. Reduces friction 6 Classifications of synovial joints **quiz** Hinge: elbow and knee Pivot: head of radius and proximal end of ulna Ellipsoid: connecting phalanges with metacarpals and metatarsals Saddle: base of thumb // twiddling thumbs Ball and socket: hip and shoulder Plane: intervertebral disk Terminology Origen: usually the most stationary end of a muscle Insertion: end of the muscle attached to the bone undergoing the greatest movement (limbs) Action: movement accomplished when it contracts Categories Synergist: members of a group of muscles working together to produce a movement o Biceps brachii and brachialis during flexion Antagonist: muscle acting in opposition to an agonist Prime mover/agonist: muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement Tissue types Skeletal muscle Visceral/smooth muscle o Walls of organs, blood vessels Cardiac muscle o Only in the heart Soft Tissues **quiz*** Tendons: connect a muscle to bone Ligaments: attaches bone to bone Shoulder Ligaments (Shoulder, hip and knee ligaments only!!!!) – cross out knee tendons Glenohumeral Shoulder ligaments: Glenohumeral – glenoid cavity + humerus – the big ligament Corocohumeral – coracoid process + humerus Corocoacromial – coracoid process + acromial process of the scapula Acromialclavicular – acromial process + clavicle Corococlavicular – coracoid process + clavical o Conoid – more medial (bigger ligament) o Trapezoid – more lateral Transversescapular – transverse plane + scapula notch Omit transvershumeral Hips: know front and back of hip Mark out transverse acetabulum Iliofemoral – (front of the model) – illium to femur top Pubofemeral – pubic to femur (front of model) bottom on front Ischiofemoral (on the back) – ischium bone to the femur (back middle) Knee: Lateral collateral: femur to fibula Medial collateral: femur to tibia Patellar – runs over the patella bone Anterior view of the knee Anterior cruciate – bottom front and crosses to the back and attaches at the top of the back Posterior cruciate – runs from top of back to bottom of the back / crosses on the back Exam 2 Review – Anatomy Ankle movement/ankle motion Flexion and Extention exceptions: Flexion anterior Extension posterior KNEE and FOOT Plantar flexion – point on tip toes Dorsiflexion – foot goes up Fused bones in adults Children bones = fusion = adult bones Skeletal system o Sacrum = fused with coccyx when 40 o Sternum = fused when 30 o Skull = sutures in the skull fuse together Frontanels – membrane area in the suture of a fetal skull Synotosis – fusing together of frontanel Jaw movement Lateral scursion – move jaw side to side Medial scursion – jaw is back in the middle Elevation – shoulders go up Depression – shoulders go down Lateral rotation – move forearm out Medial rotation – move forearm in Dorsiflexion – toes points to shin Plantar flexion – balance on toes Flexion – front except on knee; anterior Extension – back, posterior, exception on knee Abduction – take away fingers Adduction – put fingers back Protraction – mandible goes out Retraction – mandible goes back in Inversion – foot moves in middle Eversion – foot moves laterally Opposition – movement of fingers, especially thumb Reposition hand How many vertebrae to have for specific sections of the spinal column 7 = cervical 12 = thoracic 5 = lumbar 5 (fused) = sacrum = 1 5 = coccyx = 1 Know all the names of the suture joints in the skull frontal sagittal lambdoid sqaumous Hip joints – classification of hip joints & all possible movements ball and socket joint multiaxial Composition of bones Organic (35%) – collagen + protoglyceans – too brittle without collagen Inorganic (65%) – mineral (hydroxyapatite) – too flexible without mineral Different bone cells Highlighted 3, but named 4 bone cells Osteoblasts o Immature bone cells o Create the matrix Osteocytes o Osteocytes divide to add to matrix // some osteocytes become osteoblasts o Cell body surrounded by lamalae o Cell processes surrounded by caniculi Osteoclasts o Bone destroying cell Osteoprogeneris (stem cells) Bone cells making bone matrix o Osteoblasts make bone matrix!!!! One is making mature form o Osteocytes One is breaking down o Osteoclasts Unique action at the wrist – joints Internal rotation Pronation o Back of hand is up // opposite of anatomical position Supination o Normal wrist @ anatomical position Landmarks and bony features on scapula Anterior/posterior/lateral o Acromion process = back o Spine = back o Coracoid process = front o Subscapular fossa = front o Infraspinous fossa = back o Supraspinous = on top o Glenoid cavity o Superior border o Inferior border o Lateral border o Medial border = longer than lateral Ligaments/tendons/epineurosis/bursa Bursa = friction // synovial fluid + membrane (weak part of the joint?!) Table 6.1 – know this!!!!! (basically know all tables ugh) Ligaments – connect bone to bone Tendons – connect muscle to bone Bursa – synovial membrace and synovial liquid + reduces friction All definition for each anatomical term with description Anatomical description of humerus = proximal/distal Bony landmarks and bony features Different cartilages 3 classes o hyaline most abundant flexible and resilient make up: trachea (respiratory tree) joints!!!!!!! fetal skeleton surrounded by perichondrium precursor for most bones o fibrocartiledge – where strength is needed not surrounded by perichondrium shock absorber (like the meniscus!!!!) make up: pubis symphasis knee joints!!!! (meniscus!!!!) intervertebral disk thick collagen fibers o elastic cartiledge flexible connective tissue found in: auricle – ear epiglottis – keep food from entering the trachea surrounded by perichondrium Functions of skeletal system Which of the following is not a function of each system? –question Structure Movement Hemopeiosis (blood formation) Storage/mineral reserve of Calcium and Phosphate Protection duh! Spinal column curvatures – anterior/posterior Abnormal curvatures of the spine Scoliosis – lateral change in vertebrae Kyphosis – anterior push – hunchback Lordosis – posterior push – butt sticking out and extreme arch in back Tibia and fibula – characteristics of these two bones Proximal and distal regions Intercondylar eminence – where your meniscus goes!! C1 (atlas) and C2 (axis)– hyoid – atypical from general vertebrae Know all their specific characteristics C1: o No body o No spinous process o Deep superior articular facets for occipital condyles C2: o Normal vertebrae o Transverse ligament o DENS PROCESS Matching about terminology – terms and definitions Layers/covering systems – layers of bone tissue Periosteum – outside of bone tissue Endosteum – inside of bone tissue Fetal skull not completely fused suture joints – significant gap between frontal bone vs adult bone – suture Specific named for unfused suture bone of fetal skull frontanel Soft spot for baby’s head – frontanel Synotosis – when frontanels are fused into normal sutures Joint classification – based on structural characteristics and function characteristics Structure of joints: o Fibrous joints Fibrous connective tissues with no joint cavity Little to no movement Sutures skull Gomphosis teeth Syndesmoses – interroseus border/connective tissue on the forearm o Cartilagenous joints Unite two bones by cartilage Synchondroses – hyaline cartiledge o Found on epiphyseal growth plate Symphases – fibrocartiledge on the pubic symphasis o Synovial joints Articular cartilage (hyaline) Joint cavity Capsule: Fibrous capsule + synovial membrane Bursa – reduces friction + synovial membrane and liquid Meniscus – fibrocartilaginuos pads that absorb shock!!! Function of joints: o Synarthrosis – no movement o Amphiathrosis – slight movement o Diathrosis – free movement!!!! Bone metabolism – similarities and differences between these two bones Lamella bone – layered bone that differ in direction, mature bone; strength Woven bone – immature bone; unorganized collagen formation; formed during: o Fetal development (start at woven then develop to lamella) o Fracture (fracture so you rebuild from woven to lamella) Characteristics of long bone Head portion – called epiphysis Epiphyseal plate – growth plates – determines the growth of a particular bone o Space or plate = theres still room for growth!! o Bone growth can grow up or sideways o Appositional growth Osteoblasts make new cartilage Matrix is laid down on the surface GROWING IN WIDTH o Longitudinal growth Growing in LENGTH o Interstitial growth: Chondrocytes divide and add to matrix o Clavical is still growing!!!!!!! Bone marrow – etc Red bone marrow produce blood Yellow bone marrow = fat tissue Small bone is found in your ear – different names (3 from lab) Malleus Incus Stapes PCL and ACL!!! Functions – o ACL: keeps tibia from sliding anteriorly o PCL: keeps tibia from sliding posteriorly Characteristics o ACL – runs from front back o PCL – runs from back to front Where they are found – joint of tibia and femur Know different names for tarsal bones Ankle bone Calcaneus – heel Talus Navicular Cuboid = most lateral Lateral cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Medial cuneiform Pelvic bone/girdle consists of multiple bones Not fused together but look like one bone – synchondroses joint holds together the pubic girdle!!!!! Different segments of pelvic bone o Illium o Ischium o Acetabulum o Pubis Specific name of joints at coxal – ball and socket joint Other names of pelvic girdle Oscoccya Coccyl bone Hip joint Estabula joint Accetabulum – socket when head of femur goes in Different cartilage cells Same concept as bone cells Chondra – cartilage Oc = bone 10 questions labeling Whole skeleton models Skull bone Cartilage cells: Chondroblasts Chondrocytes chondroclasts HUMAN ANATOMY EXAM 3 Cardiac muscle (around the heart) Single and centrally located nuclei Involuntary Functions: pumping blood and moving blood through vessels Smooth muscle (inside organs, eyes, glands and skin) Single nuclei, centrally located Involuntary reflexes Spontaneous contraction Functions: moving food, regulating blood vessel diameter Skeletal muscles – attached to bones Function: body movement Multiple nuclei Voluntary and involuntary movements Connective tissue (fascia) surrounding muscle – fascicle Muscle – epimysium Fascicle – perimysium Muscle Fiber – endomysium Myofibril – contains two types of myofilaments which are actin and myosin sarcomeres Myofilaments – actin/myosin which form sarcomeres and sarcomeres create myofibrils when connected from end to end Hypothenar and thenar muscles – thumb and pinky action Hypothenar (pinky): Abductor digiti minimi Oppones digiti minimi Flexor digiti minimi brevis Thenar (thumb) Abductor pollicis brevis Adductor pollicis Oppones policus Flexor policus brevis Scapula elevation – muscles that elevate scapula Levator scapulae Trapezius Rhomboideous minor Rhomboideous major Serratus anterior Pectoralis minor HUMAN ANATOMY EXAM 3 Structure and function of skeletal muscle – actin, myosin, thin and thick filaments, components of thin filaments (thin – F actin, troponin and tropomyosin, son!!!!) Actin (thin) Myofilaments – F actin, tropomyosin, and troponin, G actin with active sites where there myosin binds to during contraction Tropomyosin – uncover binding sites for protein Troponin – move to uncover tropomyosin binding sites Myosin (thick) Myofilaments – composed of elongated myosin molecules Two heavy chains wounded together to form a rod Rod portion is parallel to myofilament and to heads Myosin chains are attached to the heads of the myosin molecule (golf club part) 3 Important Properties of Myosin Heads 1. Bond to active sites in the actin Myofilaments to form cross bridges 2. Head attached to rod through hinge region that can bend or straighten during muscle contraction 3. Heads can release energy (part of that energy is used during contraction) Respiration – major muscle causing inspiration: diaphragm Muscle associated with inspiration and respiration Scalene – elevates the ribs during forceful inspiration External intercostals – inspiration during resting Internal intercostals – exhaling and depress the ribs Transverse thoracis – exhaling and depress the ribs Diaphragm: major movement produced during quiet breathing Facial muscle: more than 10 muscles creating smiling, kissing, etc. Kissing: Buccanator and orbicularis oris Sneering: Levator labii superioris Smiling: Levator anguli oris Zygomaticus major Zygomaticus minor Risorius Pouting: Depressor labii inferior Depressor anguili oris HUMAN ANATOMY EXAM 3 Mentalis Mastication: Temporalis Masseter Medial pterygoid Strong muscles because mandibular teeth and maxillar teeth to crush food Hyoid muscles Suprahyoid Digastric Geniohyoid Mastoidhyoid Infrahyoid Sternohyoid Sternothyroid Hyoidthyroid Ornohyoid Flexors (anterior) and extensors (posterior) especially forearm Extensors: (posterior) Triceps brachii – extends shoulder and adducts the arm Anconeous – extends elbow Flexion: (anterior) Biceps brachii – flexes shoulder and elbow Brachialis – flexes elbow Brachioradialus – flexes elbow Deltoid muscle – action of the deltoid muscle FLEXOR/EXTENSOR // ABDUCTS // MEDIALLY AND LATERALLY ROTATE ** the only thing the deltoid doesn’t do is ADDUCT Anterior fibers – flex the shoulder AF Lateral fibers – abduct the shoulder LA Posterior fibers – extend the shoulder PE Retinaculum – extensor and flexor: know this Transverse carpal ligament (flexor) Dorsal carpal ligament (extensor) Muscles relating to the eyeball: rectus muscle because the shape of the muscle Medial rectus – gaze towards nose (adducts) Lateral rectus – gaze towards away from nose (abducts) Superior rectus – gaze looking up HUMAN ANATOMY EXAM 3 Inferior rectus – gaze looking down Superior oblique – pupil looking down, depressing the gaze Inferior oblique – elevates the gaze If you have to elevate your eyeball, what muscle do you have to use? Inferior oblique or superior rectus Muscles causing flexion of your wrist – know about those Flexi carpi radialus – abducts wrist Flexi carpi ulnaris – adducts wrist Palmaris longus – flexes wrist Rotator cuff muscles – how many total? 4!!! Why do we have these muscles? To keep the head of the humerus in the glenoid cavity/rotates and adducts the arm What is the general function/characteristic of these muscles? Supraspinatus – abduction (SUPRAMAN!!!!!!) Teres minor – adduction Infraspinatus – lateral rotation Subscapularis – medial rotation Location of upper leg muscles – quadriceps and hamstring muscles (know the location of these muscles) Quadriceps femoris: Vastus intermedius Vastus medialis Vastus lateralus Rectus femoris Hamstring muscles: Biceps femoris Semitendonisus Semimembranosus Origin and insertion – what are characteristics of origin and insertion? Origin – proximal Insertion – distal; move when you contract Scapula muscles – muscles attached on scapula and action Levator scapulae – elevates, retracts and rotates the scapula; laterally flexes neck HUMAN ANATOMY EXAM 3 Trapezius – elevates, depresses, retracts, rotates and fixes scapula Rhomboideous major – retracts, rotates and fixes scapula Rhomboideous minor – retracts, elevates, rotates, and fixes scapula Serratus anterior – rotates and protracts scapula, elevates ribs Pectoralis minor – depresses scapula or elevates ribs Subclavius – fixes clavicle or elevates first rib Triceps and biceps including anconeus – small or assisting triceps brachii – anconeus (beer drinking muscle) Triceps: Origin: Long head – infraglenoid tubercle Lateral head – side and back border of humerus Medial head – back of humerus Insertion: Olecranon process of ulna Action: Extends elbow Extends shoulder Adducts arm Biceps: Origin: Long head – supraglenoid tubercle Short head – coracoid process Insertion: Radial tuberosity and aponeurosis (sheet like white connective tissue) of biceps brachii Action: Flexes shoulder and elbow, supinates forearm and hand Aconeus: Origin: lateral epicondyle of humerus Insertion: olecranon process and back of ulna Action: extends the elbow!!! Coracobrachialis – where insertion, where is origin HUMAN ANATOMY EXAM 3 Insertion: midshaft of the humerous Origin: coracoid process of the scapula Action: adducts the arm & FLEXES THE SHOULDER Diagram actions – head and facial muscles Adrenal gland – kidneys Composed of: inner medulla and outer cortex Inner medulla secretes: o Epinephrine and norepinephrine Cortex has three zones and it secretes: o Zona glomeroulosa (most superficial) – aldosterone o Zona fasciculata (middle) – cortisol o Zona reticularis – androgens o Functions: o Regulate blood pressure Hormones excrete from Pancreas Exocrine gland – produces pancreatic juices // break down fats, lipids, etc Endocrine gland – pancreatic islets // control blood sugar levels o Composed of: Alpha cells – glucagon Beta cells – secrete insulin Delta cells – secrete Somatostatin Insulin and glucagon Opposite functions Insulin – increase uptake and use of sugar (glucose) Glucagon – increase breakdown of glycogen and release of glucose Somatostatin – inhibition of insulin and glucagon secretion Characteristics of pituitary gland (body functions) Anterior portion of pituitary gland = adrenohypophysis Posterior portion = neurohypophysis (because continuous with the brain) Different mechanisms // how we activate anterior and posterior lobes Anterior activation: 1. Stimuli regulate secretion of releasing hormone and inhibiting hormones from neurons in the hypothalamus 2. Releasing and inhibiting hormones pass through hypothalamichypophysal portal system 3. Releasing and inhibiting hormones leave capillaries > stimulate release of (different released) hormones from anterior cells 4. In response to stimulation, release anterior hormones travel to the blood Posterior activation 1. Stimuli cause hypothalamic neurons to increase or decrease action potential 2. Action potentials are conducted by axons of hypothalamic neurons 3. In posterior gland, action potentials cause release of neurohormones from axon terminals 4. These neurohormones travel to circulatory system 9 hormones from anterior pituitary lobe 1. Growth hormone – somatotropin 2. Thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH) 3. ACTH 4. Lipotropins 5. Beta endorphins 6. MSH 7. LH 8. FSH 9. Prolactin 2 hormones from posterior pituitary gland 1. Oxytocin (uterine contractions, milk expulsion from mammary glands) 2. Antidiuretic hormone (stop producing water, less water is lost in the form of urine) Thyroid hormones // structure of thyroid gland Composed of follicles and parafollicular cells o Parafollicular cells secrete calcitonin Hormones secreted from thyroid gland: o T (triidothyronine) o T3 o T4 3340% of T4 convert to T3 // T4 & T3 are the same but different molecularly Functions: o Increase body temp o Normal growth of tissues Parathyroid glands 2 glands on each side Secretes PTH – target tissues are bone, kidneys and intestines Stimulates osteoclasts Synthesis of vitamin D Regulation depends on calcium levels Increases blood calcium and phosphate levels Central nervous system & peripheral nerve system Functions of nervous system: o Receiving sensory input o Integrating information o Controlling muscles and glands o Homeostasis o Establishing and maintain mental activity (CNS, brain, axons!!) CNS consists of: o Brain and spinal cord PNS consists of: o Plexus, ganglion, sensory receptors PNS: two divisions o Sensory (afferent): stimuli > CNS o Motor (Efferent): CNS > effecting muscles Somatic (voluntary movement from CNS > muscles) Autonomic (involuntary movement from CNS > glands) Sympathetic (fight or flight) Parasympathetic (resting) o Enteric: wall of the digestive tract are controlled independently Spinal cord Three meninges: o Duramater – most superficial o Arachnoidmater – thin and wispy o Piamater – encloses the spinal cord and brain Spaces within the spinal cord: o Epidural – most superficial, before duramater o Subdural – space between duramater and arachnoidmater o Subarachnoid – space between arachnoidmater and piamater Definitions of nervous system Ganglion – collection of cell bodies Nerve – collection of axons and myelin sheaths o Connect CNS to sensory receptors, muscles and glands Neuron – nerve cells Plexus – network of axons that communicated with other neurons 2 different roots of action potential Anterior median fissure vs. posterior median sulcus Dorsal root of spinal cord has a ganglion Ventral root contains 2 roots merged laterally to form the spinal nerve Anterior side of spinal cord has a deeper belly vs. posterior has a larger belly White matter and grey matter White matter – contains significant amount of myelin sheaths Gray matter – groups of neuron cell bodies + dendrites Neuroglia (nerve glue) of CNS Astrocytes – covering neurons and blood vessels o Regulate between CNS and blood o Bloodbrain barrier: protects toxic substances o Prevents fluctuations in composition of the blood Ependymal cells – line brain ventricles and spinal cord central canal Microglia – inflammation Oligodendrocytes – form myelin sheaths around portions of several axons Neuroglia of PNS Schwann cells – like oligodendrocytes except wrap around portion of only one axon Satellite cells – protect from metal poisons o Surround neuron cell bodies in sensory ganglia Sympathetic & parasympathetic in PNS (Autonomic Nervous System) Sympathetic – body ready for activity Parasympathetic – body calm down and relax Anatomy of spinal column AND spinal cord Spinal cord begins from foramen magnum to L2 Cervical enlargement – supplies upper limbs Lumbar enlargement – supplies lower limbs Conus medullaris – sharp end on the spinal cord Cauda equina – horse’s tail describing the nerves at the end of the spinal cord Afferent and efferent Afferent and efferent are part of the PNS in the motor division o Afferent – stimuli from outside go to the CNS o Efferent – start from the CNS and go out to effecting muscles General functions of endocrine system “endo” – within; “krino” – to secrete To secrete chemical messengers (hormones) Structural characteristic of nerves Components: o Axon bundles o Schwann cells (in PNS) – wrap around only one portion of an axon to form myelin sheath o Connective tissue: Epineurium Perineurium Endoneurium o 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical 12 thoracic 5 lumbar 5 sacral 1 coccygeal o Nerves exit through intervertebral foramina Neurons (make up nerves) Also called nerve cells Receive stimuli and transmit action potentials Neurons composed of: o Dendrites o Cell body (soma) Nucleus // primary site of protein synthesis o Axons (nerve fibers) Trigger zone: where action potentials are generated Axoplasm: cell liquid Axolemma: plasma membrane of axon Presynaptic terminals Anatomical structure of different types of neurons Bipolar neurons: one dendrite, one axon o Located within the eye o Dendrite receives stimulus > axon conducts action potential to CNS Pseudounipolar neurons: 1 process o 1 process divides into 2 branches: function as a single axon Multipolar neurons: o Normal neuron o Many dendrites o One axon Origin of nerves and specific muscles controlled by these: Phrenic nerve Originate from C3C5 in the cervical plexus Innervates the diaphragm – helps breathing Brachial nerves Origin: C5T1 5 brachial nerves/branches: o Axillary nerve Teres minor Deltoid o Musculocutaneous Controls anterior portion of arm Innervates Biceps brachii Brachialus Coracobrachialis o Radial o Ulnar o Median Cervical plexus: Originate from C1C4 Innervates: o Superficial neck o Skin of neck o Posterior portion of head Principles of Chemical Messengers – based on source + mode of transport Autocrine o Stimulates the cell that originally secreted it Paracrine o Act locally on nearby cells Neurotransmitter o Secreted by neurons, activate an adjacent cell body o Secreted into a synaptic cleft into the synapse and then affects postsynaptic cell Endocrine o Secreted into the blood by specialized cells o Travels distance to target tissues o Coordinated regulation of cell function EXAM 5 – Anatomy Lecture: 3 parts of cardiovascular: blood, heart and blood vessels Artery – O2 rich blood to the body, heart to body Vein – Bring O2 poor blood back to the heart, with the exception of the pulmonary vein because it brings O2 from the lungs back into the heart Vasoconstriction – contraction, smaller vessels = less blood flow Vasodilation – dilate, bigger vessels = more blood flow 4 chambers of the heart: left, right, or upper/bottom chambers + valves (4) for each chamber 4 chambers Valves o Semilunar valves Semilunar pulmonary valve – from right ventricle – pulmonary artery lungs Semilunar aortic valve – from left ventricle > aorta o Atrioventricular valves Tricuspid – right atrium > right ventricle Bicuspid – left atrium > left ventricle Muscles and Tendon within the Valves Papillary muscles = muscle in the heart that contracts when ventricles contract to prevent AV valves from opening Chordae tendinae = tendon that attaches to papillary muscles to shut of valves Blood vessels – classify into different categories Arteries = carry blood away from the heart Veins = carry blood back to the heart Capillary beds = site of exchange with tissues Largest artery and largest veins Aorta = artery Stretches out because blood pressure is so high when it comes out of ventricle so it accommodates the amount of blood coming out Elastic muscle Vena cava = vein Larger diameter wise compared to the aorta Veins = larger, need valves to move the blood because blood pressure is low Artery = smaller because of thicker walls because blood pressure can get high EXAM 5 – Anatomy Lecture: 3 parts of cardiovascular: blood, heart and blood vessels Layers/covering systems of the heart – 1. Fibrous pericardium 2. Serous pericardium – release/secret fluid into cavity a. Parietal layer of serous pericardium i. More fibrous material b. Pericardial cavity i. Filled with pericardial fluid > to reduce friction c. Visceral layer of serious pericardium epicardium 3. Myocardium a. Heart muscle b. Ability to contract 4. Endocardium – most deep layer of the heart a. Covers the surface of the valve b. Allows blood to flow easily through the blood Disease of inflammation Pericarditus – inflammation of the serous pericardium Angina Pectorus – pain in the chest due to not enough blood to the heart muscle Specific blood vessels entering specific chambers Right atrium – 3 different openings (veins) Superior vena cava Inferior vena cava Middle coronary sinus Left atrium (veins) 4 pulmonary veins Right ventricle (arteries) Pulmonary trunk Left ventricle (artery) Aorta Coronary sulcus – separates the atria and ventricle Interarterial septum – separates the L & R atrias Interventricular septum – separates the L & R ventricles Hemoglobin – know functions, what it consists of, why do we have it, what are its major jobs Primary function: carry O2 to working tissues and organs + CO2 to the lungs Iron is necessary for normal hemoglobin function Oxyhemoglobin – contains O2 Deoxyhemoglobin – does not contain O2 Carbaminohemoglobin – transports CO2 EXAM 5 – Anatomy Lecture: 3 parts of cardiovascular: blood, heart and blood vessels EXAM 5 – Anatomy Lecture: 3 parts of cardiovascular: blood, heart and blood vessels Blood Types: Determine blood type based on ABO antigens A blood type – A antigens // B antibodies B blood type – B antigens // A antibodies AB blood type – A & B antigens // no antibodies – universal recipient O blood type – no antigens // A & B antibodies – universal donor because no agglutination of blood Antibodies – in the plasma RH blood type – how to determine + if it has the Rh antigen if it doesn’t have Rh antigens Hemolytic disease of newborn (HDN) Rh positive fetus with an Rh negative mother Affects the 2 pregnancy Injection of Rho immune globin – contains antibodies against Rh antigens Antibodies attach to any fetal RBC’s and they are destroyed More RBC – carry O2 but too much RBC causes blood to become thicker and harder to push through the heart, which causes a heart attack. Different types of capillaries Capillaries – site of exchange with tissues, most common blood vessel type Thinnest of all blood vessels Determined by diameter and permeability characteristics Fenestrae – gaps Structure: Continuous capillary – no gaps between endothelial cells, no fenestrae, less permeable to large molecules Fenestrated capillary – pores, endothelial cells have numerous fenestrae, highly permeable Sinusoidal capillary – large diameter with large fenestrae, less basement membrane, i.e. endocrine glands Vasal visorum A network of small blood vessels that supply the walls of large blood vessels Portal veins Begin in primary capillary network – ends in secondary capillary network Hypothalamohypophysial portal veins = blood from the hypothalamus > anterior pituitary gland EXAM 5 – Anatomy Lecture: 3 parts of cardiovascular: blood, heart and blood vessels Hepatic portal veins – gastrointestinal tract > capillaries in the liver EXAM 5 – Anatomy Lecture: 3 parts of cardiovascular: blood, heart and blood vessels Foramen ovale Opening direct blood flow from right atrium to left atrium Adults don’t have a foramen ovale Primary purpose for foramen ovale in fetus to skip pulmonary circulation Hematocrites % of red blood cells in blood Males: 4054% Females: 3847% Layer of blood vessels (veins, arteries, capillaries) Tunica adventitia External elastic membrane Tunica media Internal elastic membrane Tunica intima Lumen Arteries have more muscles than veins. Types of Arteries: Elastic Muscular Arterioles Types of Veins Venules Small veins Medium veins Large veins Portal veins Conducting systems – initiate muscle contraction Action potentials in SA (sinoatrial) node (pacemaker) travel to wall of atrium to the AV (atrioventricular) node Action potentials pass through AV node to the AV bundle, which extends through the interventricular septum AV bundle divides into R and L bundle branches Action potentials are carried by purkinje fibers to papillary muscles to cause contraction SA node > AV node > AV bundle (bundle of His) > AV branches > purkinje fibers EXAM 5 – Anatomy Lecture: 3 parts of cardiovascular: blood, heart and blood vessels Anatomical characteristics of the heart Location of the heart – mediastinum 6 layers within the heart: o Fibrous pericardium – restricts heart movement and friction with other organs o Parietal layer of the serous pericardium o Pericardial cavity filled with pericardial fluid o Visceral layer of the serious pericardium – epicardium o Myocardium o Endocardium Composition of blood 55% plasma 91% water 7% proteins o Albumins o Globulins o Fibronogen 2% other solutes o Ions o Nutrients o Waste products o Gases o Regulatory substances Buffy coat Platelets – prevent bleeding and form clotting thrombocytes White blood cells, 510 thousand leukocytes 45% formed elements RBC erythrocytes Heart Coronary arteries – supply the heart with blood Left and Right coronary arteries start near the aorta o Just plain arteries – supply the tissues with blood Left coronary artery: o Anterior interventricular artery = supplies blood to anterior part of the heart o Left marginal artery = lateral wall of left ventricle o Circumflex = posterior wall Right coronary artery: o Posterior interventricular artery = supplies blood to posterior/inferior part of the heart o Right marginal artery = lateral wall of right ventricle Major Veins Great cardiac vein on the LEFT EXAM 5 – Anatomy Lecture: 3 parts of cardiovascular: blood, heart and blood vessels Small cardiac vein on the RIGHT Together these two veins drain the tissue and dump the blood into the coronary sinus Blood Flow: 1. Superior and inferior vena cava to the RIGHT atrium 2. Right atrium to the tricuspid valve 3. Right ventricle to the pulmonary semilunar valve 4. Pulmonary semilunar valves > pulmonary trunk 5. Pulmonary trunk > pulmonary artery 6. Pulmonary artery > lungs to get O2 and gets rid of CO2 – exchange within the capillaries of the lungs 7. Lungs > pulmonary veins 8. Pulmonary veins > left atrium 9. Through the bicuspid (mitral) valve > left ventricle 10. Left ventricle to the semilunar aortic valve 11. Then through the aorta and distributed to the body Coronary arteries – from top to bottom Blood from the aorta supplies the heart Great cardiac vein & small cardiac vein dumps blood into the coronary sinus Blood flow: Arteries – arterioles – metaarterioles – capillaries – metavenules – venules – veins Diagram Blood vessels – how to memorize the blood vessels Based on location within the body Arteries in the upper section Four branches but three ways o Brachiocephalic artery Right subclavian Right common carotid artery o Left common carotid artery o Left subclavian artery Veins – lower section of the body Diagram – know the heart, all the structural characteristics of the heart Located within mediastinum Superior/inferior vena cava Pulmonary trunk Pulmonary artery – releases deoxygenated blood 4 Pulmonary veins – bring in oxygenated blood from the lungs L & R atrium // L & R ventricles EXAM 5 – Anatomy Lecture: 3 parts of cardiovascular: blood, heart and blood vessels Aorta Aortic/pulmonary semilunar valve Tricuspid // Bicuspid valve Coronary sinus – place in right atrium where blood is dumped from the great and small cardiac veins (major veins) Numb Name Function er I Olfactory Nerve Smell II Optic Nerve Vision III Oculomoter Nerve Eye movement; pupil constriction IV Trochlear Nerve Eye movement V Trigeminal Nerve Somatosensory information (touch, pain) from the face and head; muscles for chewing VI Abducens Nerve Eye movement VII Facial Nerve Taste (anterior 2/3 of tongue); somatosensory information from ear; controls muscles used in facial expression VIII Vestibulocochlear Hearing; balance Nerve IX Glossopharyngeal Taste (posterior 1/3 tongue); somatosensory Nerve information from tongue, tonsils, pharynx; controls some muscles used in swallowing X Vagus Nerve Sensory, motor, and autonomic functions of viscera (glands, digestion, heart rate) XI Accessory Nerve Controls muscles used in head movement XII Hypoglossal Nerve Controls muscles of tongue Functions of respiratory and digestive system Functions of the respiratory system: Regulation of blood pH o CO2 cause blood pH to go down Production of chemical mediators o Angiotensinconverting enzyme (hypertension drug – ACE) Voice production Olfaction Protection Functions of digestive system: Ingestion Mastication Propulsion o Peristalsis wave like muscle contraction of the esophageal muscle Mixing Secretion o Mucus, water, bile, enzymes Digestion Absorption Elimination Anatomical structure of the liver Major lobes: Left and right Minor lobes: Caudate (top) and quadrate (left) Centrally located area = porta (similar to hilus found in the lungs) Hilus: bronchi and blood vessels Porta – vessels, ducts, nerves, exit/enter the liver Hepatic ducts Hepatic portal vein Hepatic artery Lung functions Ventilation – air in and out of lungs External respiration – lungs and blood Internal respiration – blood and tissues Respiration is the process – inspiration (breathing in), expiration (breathing out) Structures of the digestive system (oral cavity, esophagus) Oral cavity: Lips > fauces o Opening into pharynx (throat) Palate o Hard palate: anterior o Supported by maxilla and palatine bones Soft palate: posterior Uvula After you eat, food goes to where? 1. Oral cavity 2. Esophagus 3. Stomach 4. Duodenum (small intestine) 5. Small intestine/jejunum 6. Ileum 7. Colon/cecum (large intestine) 8. Ascending colon 9. Transverse colon 10. Descending colon 11. Sigmoid 12. Rectum 13. Anus Specific structure of nasal cavity External nose and nasal cavities: Nasal cavity: o Nares (nostrils) o Choanae (end of nasal cavity) o Vestibule (entry room) o Hard palate o Nasal septum (separates L & R nostril) o Conchae Superior Inferior Middle o Meatus Superior Middle Inferior External nose: o Hyaline cartilage plates Frontal bone Nasal bone Cartilage Maxillary bone (frontal process) Dense fibrous connective tissue Pharynx – throat // common opening for digestive and respiratory systems Nasopharynx – nasal cavity + pharynx Soft palate Openings of Eustachian (auditory) tubes Oropharynx – oral cavity + pharynx Most stratified squamous epithelium Laryngopharynx – larynx + pharynx Epiglottis > esophagus Moist stratified squamous epithelium Laryngeal cartilages Larynx – passageway for air between pharynx and trachea 6 paired // 3 unpaired cartilages Unpaired cartilages: Epiglottis: attached to thyroid – elastic cartilage Thyroid: Adam’s apple Cricoid: most inferior, base of larynx Paired cartilages: Cuneiform (ice cream): contained in mucous membrane (embedded within ligaments) Corniculate: attached to arytenoids Arytenoids (body): attached to cricoid o Function: hold vocal cords attached to the cricoid cartilage Epiglottis Covers the trachea when you swallow food so you don’t choke Pneumocytes (found on bronchus of the respiratory zone) Type I: Thin squamous epithelial cells 90% of surface alveolus Gas exchange Type II: Cubeshaped secretory cells Surfactant Maintain structure of cell capable for cell exchange Dust cells Working as immune cells, engulfing foreign objects – phagocytes Aveoli – end of the bronchials and there are capillaries; where gas exchange occurs Vocal folds Vocal folds = true vocal cords Vestibular folds = false vocal cords (larger part and superior) Anatomical function: Determines pitch Longer vocal folds: lower pitch Higher pitch = anterior parts of the folds vibrate Lower tones when longer sections of folds vibrate Structure of respiratory system Tracheobronchial tree Trachea Primary bronchi Secondary bronchi Tertiary bronchi Bronchioles Terminals of bronchioles Respiratory bronchioles Alveoli Different parts of large intestine 1. Ileocecal valve 2. Cecum 3. Ascending 4. Transverse 5. Descending 6. Sigmoid colon 7. Rectum 8. Anal canal Liver ligaments – different membranes/ligaments Falciform ligament –between liver and anterior abdominal wall Coronary (crown) ligament – between liver and diaphragm Functions of the small intestine Digestion and absorption of nutrients and water Divisions: Duodenum (25 cm/10 in) Jejunum (2.5m/100in/8.3ft) Ileum – the longest part of the small intestine to extract all the nutrients (3.5 m/140in/11.7ft) o Connects small intestine to large intestine!!! Different layers of the digestive tract contains blood vessels Alimentary canal – also called digestive tract Passage of food from mouth to poophole Histology of Digestive Tract: Mucosa – inner most layer, mucus material, eliminate foreign objects Submucosa Muscalaris Serosa (adventitia) – visceral peritoneum Ventilation – air in and out of lungs Pancreas Endocrine function Pancreatic islets Produce insulin, glucagon, and Somatostatin Exocrine function Groups of acini (grapelike cluster) create lobules Salivary glands Parotid gland – largest and serous + mucus – secrete juices Submandibular gland – more serous than mucous (more water than mucus) Sublingual gland – smallest, primarily mucous (1012 ducts) T/F Peritoneum of the digestive tract Parietal – covers interior surface of BODY wall Visceral – covers organs Mesenteries – folds of the peritoneum // hold different parts of digestive tract, holding it to the parietal peritoneum Greater omentum – stomach > transverse colon Lesser omentum – stomach > liver & diaphragm Hormones secreted from small intestine to stimulate gallbladder Cholecystokinin, comes from the small intestine and stimulates bile from the liver Labeling organs from respiratory and digestive system Muscular System: Histology 200ish (206) bones More than 600 muscles Ephagial constriction and ephagial contraction Skeletal muscles are larger – focus on skeletal muscles in this class Cardiac muscles are a little smaller # of nucleus: multiple nuclei – 24 in skeletal Cardio muscles and smooth muscles have one nucleus located on the fiber One nucleus per fiber More than one nucleus – gets more work done faster Voluntary contraction: you choose to move – we can control skeletal muscles; sending nerve signal to that particular muscle Smooth muscles cannot move voluntary Skeletal muscles: body movement Tendon – muscle to bone 2 tendons for bicep trachea Surrounds muscles – fill in the blank!!!!! Fasciculi Muscle fibers Mysium – muscle Myofibrol – contains protein called microfilaments Need to know the different systems and what they’re covered in Slide 6 – motor neurons Arteries – oxygenated; function: take away from the heart; oxygen reach blood to muscle tissues Veins – use oxygen; back to the heart; deoxygenated blood; one exception Pulmonary artery and vein – do opposite of generic function Capillary – exchange gases like carbon dioxide Endomysium – sarcolemma Sarco – muscle || lemma – membrane Ttubule: actionpotential; muscle build up to certain point and release energy Where does actionpotential start from? The brain. // electrical impulse Muscle contraction theory Actin (thin)– two heads; contraction; 4 different molecules making up actin F actin – the strain of molecules Troponin – hold the tropomyosin Components of muscle tissues – know what we have in microfilaments Sarcomeres: fill in the blank!!! – basic structural and functional unit of skeletal muscle = muscle tissues All proteins Myofilaments – different types of protein Tropomyosin – uncovering binding sites for protein Troponin (red things) move to help tropomyosin uncover their binding sites Sliding Filament theory Causing muscle contraction Myofilaments (thin and thick) are sliding each other
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