SLCC DE World History 2nd Semester Note Bundle
SLCC DE World History 2nd Semester Note Bundle SLCC DE World History
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This 106 page Bundle was uploaded by Kristy Trahan on Monday August 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to SLCC DE World History at Louisiana State University taught by Mr. Justin Guidry in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Second Semester in History at Louisiana State University.
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Date Created: 08/08/16
Kristy Trahan 1 Islam in India Arabs were the first to introduce Islam to the outside world. The Turks also helped quickly spread the Islam religion and ended up bringing it to northern India I. Hindustan the upper triangle of India a. Mahmud of Ghazni, the “Sword of Islam” (9971030) Mahmud went to India to burn down Hindu temples and was nicknamed the “Sword of Islam” 17 raids intention was to wipe out idolatry b. Muhammad of Ghur (Delhi; 1193) Was more of a conqueror, unlike Mahmud Was the first person to successfully rule in India and conquered Delhi Brings all of northern India to Muslim control Shouldn’t have happened because of the “homefield advantage” he had way less manpower and it wasn’t familiar land to him c. Hinduism vs. Islam Hinduism thrives on visualization and imagery, caste separates social classes in a very permanent way (born into it and no easy way to move around), Islam fosters as much equality as possible, no aristocracy, very intolerant of other belief systems (Hinduism) that worshipped idols (idolatry), d. The Delhi Sultanate (established 1206) Muhammad was assassinated in 1206 A type of Muslim government that changed from ruler to ruler some rulers were harsh and some actively sought out to destroy Hindu temples e. Timur the Lame (Tamerlame) Mongols Primarily nomadic and originated from Asia, horses were mostly used (steppe land), eventually made it to northern India and began to settle for a sedentary lifestyle (became more agricultural) and most converted to Islam One of the greatest and most effective military leaders of the Mongolian people 13981399 raided villages and this one year was so destructive that you could be in Delhi (capitol of Delhi Sultanate) and not see a single person for hours (such a profound effect) Would display dead bodies and make pyramids out of the heads if he thought there a chance of rebellion When he returned to his homeland, he took back entire civilizations as slaves (the source of India’s wealth (craftsmen, etc.)) II. The Deccan the bottom triangle of India a. Vjayanagar and Bjapur Far less influenced by Islam Kristy Trahan 2 Vjayanagar “the City of Victory” o a Hindu empire in the southern part of the Deccan peninsula o population of 500,00 (substantially sized) o ruled by an oligarchy (counsel of wealthy aristocrats) o very traditional Hindu Bjapur o much more of a melting pot o a Muslim dynasty but with an extremely tolerant view of Hinduism (financially supported the construction of Hindu temples) 1565 o Bjapur won the war, but became so weak that they both ceased to exist b. Untouchability, child marriage, and Sati Untouchability o some people perform certain jobs that make them so dirty, they are disgusting to touch or even be around (based on caste) o not a positive social influence Child Marriage o young girls were married at around the age of 69 o subjugating the female population Sati o the more depressing of the three o something that widows were encouraged to do (since they couldn’t remarry) o it was a form of ritual suicide (jumped upon their dead husband’s funeral pyre) o you have a choice but there was so much pressure that they were kind of forced to do it o if you refused then you were outcast c. The Decline of Buddhism (9001200) Spread out of India and was doing well in other places, but began disappearing in India Started as soon as these invasions began because Buddhism was their target Kristy Trahan 1 China in the Song and Yuan The Tang Dynasty was the last dynasty There were no other fit rulers so the land was run by dictators and military leaders I. The Song Dynasty (9601279) a. Zhao Kuangyin Was able to restabilize the government and brought back the imperial system of government Founded the Song Dynasty 300year long dynasty (very successful) b. The Southern Song Period (11271279) Song empire began losing territory in the north and moved south because of the Ruzthen invasion Made an alliance with the Mongols (bad idea) to get rid of their invaders and once they defeated the invaders, the Mongols took over them c. The Ruzthen/ Jin Dynasty Began causing problems for the Song Dynasty Conquered their surrounding territories and began picking away at Chinese territory Began modeling the dynasty they pushed to the south and made their own dynasty and took up Buddhism Instead of changing China, China changed the Ruzthen d. Song Government Developed an intricate spy network 1. Autocracy 2. The Exam System Was a way to ensure strong leaders Began to eliminate the idea of nobility by birth Based on a knowledge of Confucianism (emphasis on roles and morality) Produced some of the best administrators in Chinese history 3. Wang Anshi (10211086) Chinese administrator that lived during first half of dynasty Poet, philosopher (very wellrounded) Strong proponent of an active government (reforms, general welfare, made exam system more effective, fixed prices of crops, abolished forced labor) o What was the point of having a government if the people never benefitted from it? Was eventually named an enemy of the state and removed from power Kristy Trahan 2 II. The Yuan Dynasty (12791368) a. Kublai Kahn and the Mongol Empire b. Yuan Government the exam system was suspended and only Mongolians were permitted into these jobs, in control for less than 100 years (no uniting idea or philosophy), couldn’t deal with the threat of a Chinese rebellion because they were too busy with holding their infrastructure together c. Zhu Yuanzhang and the Ming Dynasty (13681644) lead the Chinese rebellion that attacked the Mongol capitol and overtook the city, knew who to be friends with (scholars, etc.) and so after his rebellion they said that he had the “mandate of heaven” III. Centuries of Change a. Economic Growth 1. Rising productivity 2. Rising population 60 million to 120 million, increased the wealth of the state by increased taxes, more military power (drafts), more farmers and workers b. Social Change 1. The Rural Gentry new class of wealthy elites, there’s mobility and fluidity in this class (greater opportunities) 2. Footbinding seemed to originate in the Song dynasty and was an indicator of wealth, erotic attraction to women having very tiny feet, process starts with 56yearold girls, would break the bones in the feet and fold it over and then bind it with ribbon until they finish healing/developing, the idea was that the man would be wealthy enough to take care of a women who was basically helpless and crippled, eventually spread to all classes who could afford to do this to their daughters, many were socially pressured to do this because men wanted this in a women and they chanced their daughters never getting married c. Technology first spinning wheels and viral inoculations (taking body fluids from less sick patients and exposing this weak virus to healthy people to make them stronger against the actual virus) in the Song dynasty d. Art and Culture was essentially based on nature Kristy Trahan 1 The Renaissance (“Rebirth”) I. Introduction Knowledge and understanding of the classics had died It’s becoming more and more broadly known about (“rebirth”) a. Misconceptions b. Humanism The humanities history, philosophy Purpose was to make you a better and more virtuous human being (to make you more rounded) c. Why Italy? Birthplace of the renaissance It had to do with what happened in northern Italy o The focus of northern Italy was citylife. The wealthy aristocrats also lived more in the city, instead of in the countryside, resulting in them having a better education and becoming more urbanized. o Were far more secular II. Thought and Literature a. Francis Petrarch A philosopher who wanted to use humanism to apply to his use of Christianity o Taught people how to act and how to gain salvation through literature and literary beauty o Rediscovered and translated old Latin texts o Was called eloquence b. Niccolo Machiavelli, The Prince One of the more notorious political thinkers Machiavelli describes someone who does anything it takes to get something done “The end justifies the mean” the goal justifies whatever unethical thing you have to do to reach it The Prince a guide book on how to be a “good” king III. Art a. Painting A whole new level of technique and skill The development of the use of oil paints could work more slowly and take your time Linear perspective drawing lines toward a central point that gives it a 3D look Chiaroscurs “shading”, provides depth and structure to pieces of art 1. Sandro Botticelli, The Birth of Venus (1486) 14441510 AD Classical themes reemerge 2. Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper (1495), The Mona Lisa (1503) Kristy Trahan 2 “Renaissance Man” someone who does EVERYTHING A painter, inventor, created one of the first tanks, a musician, architect, engineer One of the most intelligent human beings to ever live Only weakness worked at a very slow pace and struggled to keep a job Paintings were very psychological; The Last Supper reaction to one of Jesus’ disciples betraying him; The Mona Lisa a bad joke, her name means jolly, so he painted her with a slight smile 3. Raphael, School of Athens (150911) From Rome Heavily influenced by da Vinci Primarily focused on classical subjects (Plato, Aristotle) Most hotly desired Renaissance paintings Very realistic style of painting 4. Michelangelo, The Sistene Chapel: Creation of Adam (1511 1512), The Last Judgement (153641) Liked to paint things the way he wanted them to be seen Humanity is the center of his paintings, very humanistic The Sistene Chapel (showed the development of his painting throughout the years): painted completely by Michelangelo, The Creation of Adam is on the ceiling, where he started He finished with The Last Judgement, very distorted and looks rushed (obviously wasn’t rushed) b. Sculpture 1. Donatello, David (1430) A freestanding nude sculpture Very younglooking, preadolescence 2. Michelangelo, David (150104), Pieta (154753) A perfect reproduction of the male musculature Fullgrown male sculpture As he got older, his sculpting style changed o The Florentine Pieta more emotional and dramatic (distorted) IV. The Renaissance in Europe Took a while for these ideas to spread 1500 the rest of Europe began to catch up to northern Italy a. Christian Humanism More Christian, less secular Away from logic and more towards practical concerns Much more selective about which classic people they wrote and read about Kristy Trahan 3 Focused on gospels and early church father b. Desiderius Erasmus (14661536) The illegitimate son of a priest (very rare) Left the monastery to go to the University of Paris Started to write about early Roman writers Most important reissued the gospels o All gospels were handwritten if they needed more, which caused many transcription errors c. Albrecht Durer Greatest painter/engraver of the northern Europeans Mastered the technique of the Italians Kristy Trahan 1 India and China Around 1500 I. The Mughal Empire Founded by Babur (14831530) Established his lineage in the Mughal dynasty a. Akbar (r. 15561605) Grandson of Babur “the Great Mughal” Reforms in government intended to eliminate the corruption of government Divided empire into several independent sections o Paid the governors with a salary and shuffled them around Eliminated the possibility of corruption There were tax breaks for areas suffering from famine o Very fair However, there were large gaps between the wealthy and the poor Key to success: had to rule India as an Indian o Not governed by foreigners o Hinduism was legalized and the law to practice Islam was lifted o Took away features of the Delhi Sultanate Most likely poisoned by son b. Shah Jahan (r. 16271658) and the Taj Mahal Grandson of Akbar Nearly bankrupted the government o Money was mostly spent on warfare and the Taj Mahal Taj Mahal o probably the world’s biggest grave sit o One of the seven wonders of the world o Mausoleum of his favorite wife th Died during the childbirth of his 14 child o Contains many Hindu features Horizontal lines and lavishly decorated Dies as a prisoner of his son c. Aurangzeb (r. 16581707) Son of Shah Jahan Ran things fairly efficiently, but lost control during second half of reign Became less and less tolerant of the Hindu religion o Undoes all the great stuff implemented before him Put laws against Hindus Paid government with land grants (corruption and greed) Nearly conquered every single inch of India o 26 years of these wars Realized he couldn’t maintain these territories so he had to give them up d. The Sikhs and Amritsar Kristy Trahan 2 The Sikhs a religion Placed on the idea that mankind was a brotherhood Emphasized that there was one divine spirit and all religions worshipped the same god, but in different ways Rejected holy books, ceremony, and scripture There was a profound duty to charity Amritsar site of their holy temple Became a military and took up arms against the Mughal Dynasty because of Aurangzeb and his reforms e. The British East India Company (1600) Biggest corporation (at the time) the world has ever seen Company began to grow very quickly after establishing trade contacts with India India began to become extremely wealthy Was run like a government o Corporation became so big it took on political responsibilities o India was colonized then coined their own currency and enforced British law o Could declare war and peace treaties II. The Ming Dynasty (13681644) “Brilliant” The Ming wasn’t actually anyone’s family name Corruption ended this dynasty Constructed the Great Wall of China in its more modern sense a. Hongwu Was originally named Zhu Yuanzhang but changed his name to Hongwu upon coming to power Very harsh ruler but his descendants proved to be much better rulers than he was b. Beijing Grandson of Hongwu established this capitol and a new imperial palace o The Forbidden City, Beijing Temple of Heaven was located here Came here to renew the Mandate of Heaven every year III. The Qing Dynasty (16441911) Group called the Manchus (from Manchuria) took over Means “pure” o Claimed they never intermingled with the southern Chinese, so they were pure Was a rough 30year long transition Restrictions over conquered Chinese o Shaved their heads bald except for a long braid (queue “line”) in the back Last actual Chinese dynasty o Resorted to communism after this and this is where they stand today Kristy Trahan 3 a. Kangxi (r. 16611722) Had extensive contact with the west (mostly Jesuit missionaries) o They had a better education system Chinese had a great love for education o Had success converting many Chinese to their religion o The Jesuits were often in trouble with the church o Their religion was banned after Kangxi died because it caused too much trouble b. Society 1. Confucius 2. Footbinding c. China and the West When establishing trade connections, they had to understand that China were in full control of the bargain To engage in the trade, they paid a lot of money and were often obligated to give the emperor a tribute o Very costly 1. Destruction of the Ming Fleet (1433) Was originally made to help foster trade Convinced emperor to destroy fleet o Was considered to be nonessential and the Mongol situation needed their full attention Kristy Trahan 1 Japan and Africa Around 1500 I. Introduction a. Geography Small land mass causes several problems All their islands are smaller than the state of California However, they are still very successful o Technological advances o Were able to be very selective Only took the best of the Chinese’s written language Only 20% of the land mass is actually farmable o Farmable areas separated by mountain ranges o Very decentralized b. Government Adopted the Chinese imperial system Emperor had semidivine powers Attempt at a central government Era of warring states (14601560) o All the Daimyo were fighting with one another o Warfare was dramatically changing Samurai would take the peasant population and arm them to make them ready for warfare o 1543 The Portuguese showed up (brought Christianity and guns) Never a good thing to bring advanced technology to a lesser civilization Very rudimentary muzzleloading guns o Used these new technologies to their greatest advantage Portuguese brought the Jesuits with Christianity once again o Always trying to win converts whenever possible o ½ million Christian converts Conversion was not in a unique and singular way Converted in groups To get more guns from Christians 1. Daimyo Aristocrats who controlled separate parts of the Japanese population 2. Samurai Loyal to the Daimyo Similar to Overlord and Vassal in feudal Europe II. Consolidation of Power There was an emperor during all this fighting, but he was under a ceremonial leadership a. The Portuguese and Nagasaki Kristy Trahan 2 The Portuguese were so welcomed that they were built a special port for them (Nagasaki) b. Hideyoshi (r. 15821598) A common foot soldier for his Daimyo He then rose up and became the last and only Daimyo left Banned guns so there wouldn’t be a chance of rebellion After he died the Daimyo started fighting again, but not for as long as the Era of Warring States c. Tokugawa leyasu (r. 16001616) Was the Daimyo after Hideyoshi Unites all of Japan during his leadership III. The Tokugawa Shogunate Period of Tokugawa’s reign Took numerous steps to consolidate power into his hands o Took complete control of the Daimyo’s lives o Regulated whom the other Daimyo could marry o Require they spent every other year in his capitol Side effects o System of roads and highways o Good impact on the economy (boosts trade) o A more interconnected population a. Changes in Politics b. … in Religion No more Christianity Missionaries were sent away or killed c. … in Society Banned all contact with Europe 250 years of peace and prosperity o Shows all the limits of the natural resources of an island nation o Not all good happened from isolating themselves o Began to develop environmental plans Ways of managing their population Abortion Kristy Trahan 1 Ottoman Empire One of the longest dynasties ever o Lasted 600 years o Until 1922 I. Origins Islamic empire Nomadic Moving into Turkey, they start settling down Very violent culture o A war basically every year to expand their empire a. Osman I Founder of the empire Moved into the Balkan Peninsula b. Expansion 1. Kosovo (1389) Kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula Ottoman forces lay siege to this city and wipe it clean Balkan Peninsula under full Ottoman control There were lower taxes for natives of the Peninsula o Ottoman taxes were lower than their lords Would take the oldest child of resistant nobles as hostages in the capitol o Were generally treated very well and were educated o They were in danger if their father were to become resistant o Vlad III Dracula (14311477) Was one of the sons taken hostage After his father died, he took over his land Turned against the Ottomans even though he was raised by them and caused resistance “the Impaler” would impale dead/dying Ottoman soldiers and stick them straight up in the ground 2. Constantinople/ Istanbul (1453) Former capitol of the Byzantine empire Eastern Orthodox Church 1453 successfully captured by the Ottoman sultanate and converted into Istanbul Ottoman sultans turned it into the Ottoman capitol Wanted to convert the city to Islam o Many mosques were built and is a very beautiful city 3. Cairo (1517) Kristy Trahan 2 Is an extremely strategic Egyptian location 1517 Take over Cairo II. Ottoman Government/ Slavery Artillery was a main component to their immense success Siege warfare a combination of good artillery and patience o Surround the city and cut off their resources and bomb their walls until they surrender or fight back Slavery was very beneficial and a tremendous advantage to them In the Ottoman Empire, slaves (POW’s) were used to run the government o They were military leaders and even took on government jobs o They could possibly even become the next Sultanate They wanted a dynamic government with new ideas They would take children form other cultures and educate and train them a. Janissaries Were the most highly trained and were the male slaves who were taken Very brainwashed and could end up fighting their native people and never know it b. The Harem The female slaves were sent here and were the personal sex slaves The Sultan had wives with legitimate children and had the Harem with illegitimate children o Wanted the most intelligent woman to give him the best son, no matter where she came from o The most fitting son would be the next heir c. Law of Fratricide Ottoman law that said the next heir would then have to kill the rest of his brothers because they would get jealous and interfere with his reign III. The Peak of Power and the Long Decline a. Suleiman the Magnificent (r. 15201566) b. Decline and Devolution The Dying Man of Europe Kristy Trahan 1 The Economy and Society of EarlyModern Europe pt. 1 I. Life in EarlyModern Europe a. Population Dynamics b. Agriculture 1. The “Open Field” System Food would generally be grown in the open fields around civilizations Most of it is owned by wealthy aristocrats and farmed by serfs Plots would be divided into smaller subsection strips for each family of serfs to farm and was very inefficient o Everyone needed to plant the same crops at the same time o Needed to harvest at the same time 2. Enclosure Started fencing off their land Purpose was to make business expenditures o Could raise sheep for the textile industry Devastating to the peasant community o Didn’t have much farm land Very unpopular with kings and monarchs o Wealthy people began to get wealthier 3. “Scientific Farming” Enclosure makes scientific farming possible and scientific farming make enclosure more likely Was able to experiment with crops more Planting the same crop in the same soil over and over again wasn’t good o MAJOR KEY: nitrogen o Learned to let parts of their land rest for a season Fallow (empty) land Learned some crops (alfalfa, turnips, etc.) returned fertility to the soil o Wasn’t edible for people but the farmers had animals that could benefit from this Corn (maize) is originally from America but globalized to Europe and the east Potatoes were originally from South America but were introduced to Ireland because of their poor soil quality c. Industry and Manufactures Early craftsmen organized themselves into guilds, which protected their ability to make a living using their skill Guild Kristy Trahan 2 o Purpose was to get all the people in a certain field to collaborate together and share/keep their secrets o Also controlled their markets by putting out of business competition that threatened their work outlook Liked to control how much of their product was in the market Entrepreneurs really came out at this time o Didn’t really have to know about the industry they were investing in o Expanded their range of consumers 1. ProtoIndustrialization (“putting out”) system Was the entrepreneurs’ system of getting around the guilds Would go from person to person with lessskilled jobs to do each step of making something Not someone who does everything and they don’t need to be as skilled Several series of unskilled laborers Many advantages to this process Guilds begin to go out of business and go underground o Freemasons 2. Changes in Transportation and Technology Roads were essentially nonexistent since the Romans Realized water routes were more preferable o Cheaper, quicker, and safer for your goods to travel this way Canals are soon developed The stage coach is new technological innovation o On a spring/shock system o From 23 mph to 56 mph!!! Lives improve because of the availability of technology Underwear becomes prevalent o Improves general health and extends people lives o Extra layer of protection II. Background to Western Expansion Vikings were the first to travel to “America”, not Christopher Columbus An expedition of voyage and conquest The native Americans discovered “America” a. The Crusading Spirit The want to go westward Wanted to spread Christianity 1. Christendom Christianity’s domain Another name for Europe More commonly used in this time Kristy Trahan 3 2. Prester John The idea that there was this long lost Christian kingdom The more common thought was that this was located in eastern Africa Oxum Christian empire that was separated from the rest of the Christians when Jesus died o Where part of the legend comes from b. Vasco de Gama and the Volta do Mar (1498) Vasco de Gama o Managed to be the first European to get around the tip of Africa o Extremely difficult o Did so with the technology of Henry’s school of navigation Henry the Navigator Volta do Mar c. The Renaissance (ALREADY COVERED IN PREVIOUS OUTLINE) Humanism, etc. 1. Leonardo da Vinci Individuality, versatility, and curiosity (humanistic qualities) 2. Christopher Columbus A selfeducated man Interested in just about anything and read about these things He was wrong about the size of the earth Thought it was way smaller than it actually is Why he was so famous Died in ignorance Went to his grave believing that he had discovered an eastern route to Asia/India, not modernday America d. The Treaty of Tordesillas 1494 Gave Portugal more land in South America Kristy Trahan 1 The Economy and Society of Early Modern Europe pt. II I. The Commercial Revolution a. Capitalism A businessoriented Takes profits made in business and reinvests them back into the business o Build better factories, etc. Continually growing kind of system “Make your money work for you” Workers’ method of pay is drastically altered o Are not paid based on amount of profit o Pd on a flat rate (wage) o Workers are in competition with each other 1. Entrepreneurs Develop among people who are already rich because it takes a lot of money just to get started Business specialists, not product specialists Individual most benefitted in this type of system b. Mercantilism The government intervening to more benefit the government Interferes with commerce Only cares about “real wealth” hard currency (gold, silver) A limited commodity Wanted to have as much as possible and for our enemies to have the least Minimize imports and maximize exports o Profits increase the hard currency To do this as efficiently as much possible, the Europeans made colonies o Most important thing a mercantilistic economy can do o Can export more and more because of greater resources Spain mined gold and brought it right back to Spain o More open to piracy and theft Very vulnerable The English the first 13 colonies o Had a lot of new natural resources Direct profit for England o Cause of revolution Didn’t want the colonies to be trading Wanted all the profit to go to them Was supposed to be the benefit of only England c. Effects Only benefactors were the entrepreneurs and the government Normal people were hurt the most o Wages were purposefully kept low for consumption reasons Kristy Trahan 2 Products become much more accessible Mercantilism gave a consistent income instead of reaping what you sow o If your farm were to fail one year 1. Banking and Credit Usury the sin of loaning people money at an interest o A moral aversion of the Catholic Church Church ended up lifting the sin because they realized how much money was in the business 2. Jointstock and Chartered Companies Jointstock Company o One way to get money is to sell off a percentage (share or stock) of your company o Divides ownership (and profits) o Uses the money from the profit of the shares or stocks to really start up the company o The shares increase or decrease in value as the company becomes successful/fails o A way of making that initial investment o The beginning of the stock market o Investments by many people Chartered Company o A charter is a legal contract saying that the government will be given a certain amount of money and the government is more in control of it o These companies usually mostly benefit the nation o Creates monopolies o Will only charter one company British East India Trading Company o Chartered by an individual 3. Inflation and Speculation a. The South Sea Bubble (1720) The bubble between price paid and actual price II. Colonization and International Trade The Spanish conquistadors colonized South America. By doing so, they had to deal with the native populations. They quickly took them over because of smallpox that the Spanish brought with them. However, this decreased their labor force and they had to import slaves across the Atlantic. a. New Spain and Peru The Spanish government had to split up the conquistador territory into two sections because it was so big. They weren’t happy with the way the conquistadors were treating the local population (Aztec, Incas, and Mayas). The purpose of these colonies was the accumulation of wealth. Spanish colonial Kristy Trahan 3 wealth was built more on silver than gold because most of the gold was excavated by the previous civilizations and silver was way more abundant. Silver became a very popular and became the world’s first global commodity (traded throughout the new world). Spain made a lot of money. However, they mostly spent this profit on the various wars and debt they were accumulating. b. English Efforts English and Spain were very hostile throughout history. 1. Sir Francis Drake Captained the Golden Hind. It was the terror of Spain and their colonies. It would attack Spanish settlements and take whatever resources they had. He was a special kind of pirate called a privateer. He had a charter from Queen Elizabeth that legally allowed him to do this. He was very good at this and Queen Elizabeth knighted him (where he got the “sir” title). 2. Jamestown (1607) Were agricultural settlements. c. The Atlantic Slave Trade 1. Sugar 2. Palmares A city full of escaped slaves. These escaped slave communities would oftentimes get back involved with the slave trade business themselves. A cheap and rapid way to make cash. 3. The Spread of Slavery Eventually spread virtually everywhere. Kristy Trahan 1 Absolutism pt. 1 I. Western Christendom Around 1500 Not as much unity as you would expect in the Holy Roman Empire More of a collection of smaller independent states a. Church and State If god didn’t want them to powerful, then they wouldn’t be The Divine Right of Kings rules with God’s authority because of his ability or skill o Most thought of their rulers in this way o The Chinese believe in the Mandate of Heaven (different) o However, the Divine Right of Kings means that the people don’t believe their kings have supernatural powers Powerful families have the right of god If god didn’t want the king to be king, he wouldn’t let him This entire situation sometimes produces undesirable results o Heir dies and the younger sibling becomes king o Seen as a moment of weakness and opportunity for the next powerful family o Will try to take advantage of the young heir by trying to become his important advisor o Allows for social mobility, including women The Clergy o Was thought to have supernatural powers o Under the direct authority of the Pope o The ordained ministers of the Catholic Church o TWO MAIN SPIRITUAL POWERS OF THE CHURCH o Transsubstantiation Considered to be a miracle and a supernatural power Essential to the function of the Catholic Church Ingesting the body of Jesus Christ (the Eucharist) Was absolutely necessary to be a good Catholic o Absolution Priests could absolve you from your sins Make a donation to the church Confession o Can also move up in ranks o Women could also move up (could join a nunnery) o However, could never move up as much as a man b. The Protestant Reformation 1. Charles V, 15191556 The Holy Roman Emperor of the time Was so powerful because he married his own family Kristy Trahan 2 o Wanted to stay in the wealth His family (Hapsburg) had very wealthy and powerful people Was also the King of Spain and King of Austria Because of this, there were many high expectations for him o Was expected to finally unify Europe Was hindered by Martin Luther’s criticism Was a prime example of how you were born into wealth 2. Martin Luther Founded Lutherism Very talented as a monk, was a Christian philosopher Came to conclusion that the practices of indulgence is wrong The 95 These was a list of the things he thought was sinful that the church was doing (his complaints) Found himself attacking the entire essence of the Church o Was a very vocal critic of the church o Concluded that the Pope was the Devil/AntiChrist Was a prime example of how you can rise in the ranks Faith came directly from God o Argued that the Catholic Clergy was unnecessary o Didn’t need the Clergy to practice your faith Considered what he did to be heresy 3. Diet of Worms, 1521 Presided over by Charles V Martin Luther was asked to recant or take back his complaints about the church Martin Luther was sentenced to be burned at the stake o Escaped his fate because Charles V was too busy with wars with the Protestants c. Effects of the Reformation 1. Calvinism John Calvin states that all religious arts and sculptures were idolatrous All churches became bland 2. Council of Trent, 1545 The purpose was to address some of the major questions raised by protestants The Catholic Church then instated many reforms o Restricted the types of indulgences the church offered o Limited the types of sins priests could forgive The Baroque Movement o Resulted from the complaint that churches were too decorative Kristy Trahan 3 o They made them more decorative to make a point about the importance of the art in the church o Very detailed art and dramatic sculptures d. A Country of Religious Wars 1. Huguenots and the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre, 1572 Huguenots were protestants Many of these noble French families are converting to Calvinism to make a political statement and express their dissatisfaction to the royal family August 24, 1572 o The French royal family decided to give a big blow to these two big Huguenot families o The two families were getting joined through marriage o The French royal family wanted to get rid of these protestant families o It was both political and religious chaos 2. The Dutch Republic Because of environmental conditions (swamps), the results were very bad for Spain An 80year long disaster The Dutch were eventually given their independence They chose a Republic form of government The results of this government were very positive o Established religious tolerance Became a safety zone for protestants Began to start establishing their own colonies 3. The Thirty Years War, 16181648 A new Holy Roman Emperor was set to take the throne o Was thought to be enforcing that everyone was to Catholic A meeting took place among the wealthiest protestant families o Didn’t go well o The Defenestration of Prague (1618) “to throw them out the window” Tossed the Catholic representatives out the window The Thirty Years War o Estimated that the Holy Roman Empire lost 2530% of its population o A guerrilla style war o Soldiers took what they could from people’s homes because the Empire couldn’t afford to pay them II. From Christendom to Europe Kristy Trahan 4 a. France 1. Louis XIV C. 16431715 “The Sun King” One of the longest reigns in monarchy history (75 years) Advisors recommended that he move out of Paris at 9 years old Was determined to become an unquestionable king because he was constantly living in fear as a child Created a modern army that was very effective o Not a very long time but still significant 2. Versailles Palace created by Louis XIV Was very elaborately decorated and spared no expense Acres and acres of the finest gardens It was the central proponent of his political strategy o He never left Versailles o You had to go talk to him if you needed to o He never wanted them to leave and he’d make them wait FOREVER o Versailles was a distraction to get the nobility off his back 3. Intendents Meant to replace the nobility Responsible for administration and taxation Were effective because they were handpicked from the rising middle class and were not the nobility Were so grateful they would do anything that was asked of them b. Russia Moscow was the capitol of the Eastern Orthodox Church 1. Tsar Peter I (“Peter the Great”) 16821725 The Tsar was the head of church and state at the same time o Religious and political leader Was responsible for modernizing Russia “Peter the Great” was literally a giant (7 ft. tall) Not a gentlemen was always drunk Didn’t enjoy hanging around the nobility (didn’t party well) Traveled around Europe secretly as a dock man to figure out what was going on in the West o Was inspired by Louis XIV Came back and started the modernization of Russia o Started cutting off people’s beards Duma noble legislature Kristy Trahan 5 o Promoted people based on their ability, not birth o Essentially tried creating the modern state Modern military o Promoted those who had experience and ability Began to be a Meritocracy The nobility started a rebellion but Peter found out very soon Executed them and hung 1200 of their bodies around Russia Realized he needed a much larger army o Drafted one in twenty peasants to be a lifetime member of the army The remainder worked farms or worked in labor camps 2. St. Petersburg Peter wanted a new capitol Moved Moscow to St. Petersburg Was a strategically better placed capitol to better defend its government Kristy Trahan 1 Absolutism pt. II I. The English Exception King Henry VIII and all his drama happened with Ann Boleyn Elizabeth became queen after Mary died 1588 the Spanish Armada o Spain sent their fleet of ships to England to try to “convince” Queen Elizabeth to that his marriage proposal was a good idea o Elizabeth told her subjects that a “protestant wind” had blown away their ships Queen Elizabeth died without an heir, which ended the line of Tudors The next branch of the family was the Stewarts in Scotland o King James became the next monarch King Charles I o The Puritans wanted to make more of a difference between Catholicism and the Church of England o Wanted to pass a simple tax, but the puritans didn’t want this o There was a short civil war that the puritans won o Was put on trial and f
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