BIO 111 Study Guides and Notes from Entire Semester
BIO 111 Study Guides and Notes from Entire Semester BIO 111-01
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This 56 page Bundle was uploaded by bjwall on Monday August 8, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIO 111-01 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by John J. Lepri in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Principles of Biology I in Biology at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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BIO 111 Exam 2 Study Guide Key Concepts Adenosine usually binds to adenosine receptors in the brain, which tells your body that you need sleep. o How will coffee keep you from going to sleep or feeling tired? Caffeine blocks adenosine receptors in brain o Why is coffee able to do this? Caffeine has similar shape and can bind as the competitive inhibitor Glycolysis produces 4 ATP total, but only 2 net ATP because 2 are used to start ATP. Steps of aerobic cellular respiration: GLYCOLYSIS, PYRUVATE TRANSITION, KREB’S CYCLE, ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Where do these processes occur? Cytosol and mitochondria Oxygen will break up the lactic acid. Why might a runner have shorter, more frequent breaths after running a long distance? Oxygen is being used to break up lactic acid so you need more 2 types of phosphorylation: Substrate phosphorylation and Oxidative What could cause the receptor to dysfunction? Inhibitor Fill in the Blank _______and water go into light _____reactions to make ____,____, and _____ Answers: Light, dependent, ATP, O2, NADPH ____, ______, and ATP go into the light _____reaction, known as the _____cycle to make ____, _____, and _______. Answers: CO2, NADPH, independent, Calvin, ADP, NADP+, carbohydrates Important Insulin Facts What is insulin? Hormone responsible for low blood sugar levels When is it released? High blood sugar, after eating Where does it go? Receptors, on cell membrane What changes does it cause? Add more protein Sample Questions 1. This organelle has a “double set” of membranes a. Nucleus b. Ribosome c. Nucleolus 2. Membrane-bound proteins form especially “strong” connections between adjacent cells when they form: a. Gap junctions b. Tight junctions c. Leaky junctions 3. The complete catabolism of 3 molecules of glucose produces _____molecules of FADH2. a. 4 b. 8 c. 12 d. 6 4. Glycolysis takes place in the _____and the citric acid cycle takes place in the _____. a. Cytosol; cytosol b. Cytosol; mitochondria c. Mitochondria; cytosol 5. Caffeine “antagonizes”: a. The adrenaline receptor proteins b. The adenosine receptor proteins c. All receptor proteins 6. Something that could only come from your mother: a. Your smile b. Your ribosomes c. Your mitochondria d. Your Golgi apparatus 7. The role of oxygen in chloroplasts is: a. Form ATP b. Produces CO2 c. Limited to being byproduct d. Catalyze reactions in glycolysis 8. The role of oxygen in human cells is: a. Form ATP b. To react with glucose to split water c. To accept electrons from the respiratory chain d. To produce CO2 9. A “double set” of membranes is a characteristic of the: a. All have double membranes b. Nucleus c. Chloroplast d. Mitochondrion BIO 111 Exam 3 Study Guide Key Concepts Each diploid cell of an adult human female contains 46 chromosomes. Cytokinesis occurs at the end of the M phase. DNA replication occurs during S phase. In mitotic metaphase, a cell with 8 sister chromatids has 4 centromeres. This process increases the genetic diversity that can appear among offspring: Sexual reproduction Replication of DNA occurs during S phase. The molecules in chromosomes include DNA and proteins. In plant cells, cytokinesis include by the formation of a cell plate. The S phase of the cell cycle can proceed only after CDKs and cyclin have bound together. As a result of undergoing meiosis, a single diploid parent cell forms 4 haploid daughter cells. If guanine is 20% of the bases in a sample of doublestranded DNA, the percentage of the cytosine bases is 20%. The 2 strands of DNA are held together by hydrogen bonds. Sample Questions 1. During the cell cycle, for most cells, most time is spent in: a. Telophase b. Metaphase c. Anaphase d. Interphase e. Prophase 2. Ribosomes are composed of: a. rRNA and proteins b. proteins and phospholipids c. DNA and proteins 3. A diploid cell is a cell: a. With pairs of each chromosome b. Containing two nuclei c. That is found only in the ovaries and testes d. That can result only from meiosis st 4. During the cell cycle, for most cells, the chromosome condense and 1 appear as paired chromatids in: a. Telophase b. Anaphase c. Prophase 5. In animals, separation of daughter cells is completed by the actions of the: a. Contractile ring b. Centromere c. Cell plate d. Spindle e. Centriole 6. In a diploid organism with 23 pairs of chromosomes, there are ____chromosomes in each gamete cell. a. 1 b. 23 c. 46 d. 12 e. 6 7. RNA splicing: a. Occurs as RNA polymerase reads the template strand of DNA b. Removes introns and attaches together exons c. Extends RNA molecules past the stop codon 8. Basepairing between complementary bases is an essential feature of: a. DNA replication b. Transcription c. Translation d. Choices A,B,C are all correct 9. This compound is composed of amino acids that have been covalently bonded together. a. Insulin b. DNA c. Glycogen d. Cholesterol 10. Choose the ingredient used in transcription but not in DNA replication. a. UTP b. TTP c. GTP d. ATP 11. Identify the transcription factor that regulates certain patterns of gene expression. a. Estrogen + its receptor b. tRNA + rRNA c. ligase + suppressor d. RNA polymerase 12. A doublestranded DNA molecule with 35% thymine must contain ___% guanine. a. 35 b. 15 c. 40 13. RNA polymerase is a: a. Protein b. Lipid c. Nucleic acid sequence 14. An mRNA molecule wit 360 codons has ____nucleotides. a. 1080 b. 120 c. 180 d. 2160 15. In prokaryotes, the ribosomes are: a. The site of DNA replication b. The site of translation c. Not found d. The site of transcription BIO 111 Exam 1 Study Guide Key Concepts The following is true of all cells: It is the fundamental unit of life In a multicellular organism, nearly all of the cells: contain the same genome The nucleus of animal cells: contains DNA packaged with several proteins Elements _____whereas molecules _______. Answer: are composed of only one kind of atom; are all composed of one or more kinds of atoms. Table salt, NaCl, is electrostatically neutral. When dissolved in water, it: dissociates to form Na+ and Cl- ions that interact with water molecules The _____”building blocks” of the complex carbohydrates become ____as the polymer is formed. Answer: monosaccharide; covalently bonded Entropy: is related to the disorder or randomness of a system A typical atom of CARBON has ____protons and ______. Answer: 6 protons in the nucleus; 4 electrons in the outer orbital shell A transporter protein is required for _____to enter most cells, and it enters via ____. Answer: glucose; facilitated diffusion True or False? An extreme heat stroke could cause denaturation of an enzyme in the human brain. Increasing the amount of inhibitors will decrease the enzyme’s reaction rate. Steroids, carbon dioxide, and oxygen can diffuse across the plasma membrane. A plasma membrane containing a lot of cholesterol will not be very fluid. A kinase adds a phosphate to molecules. A kinase is an example of an enzyme, but not a protein. A protein helps move particles from a solution of 3% concentration to a solution of 12% concentration. This is an example of facilitated diffusion. Answers: #1.True #2.True #3.True #4.True #5.False #6.False Application Problems Acetylcholine (Ach) is a neurotransmitter released from the axon terminals of neurons. Ach is stored in membrane-bound sacs called ______, which then fuse with membranes allowing Ach to leave via _______. The neurotransmitter binds to a _____protein on the next neuron, allowing for the message/signal to be communicated between neurons. The binding of Ach causes a change in conformation of the protein. The protein opens so sodium can move into the cells; therefore, this is also a _____-gated sodium ____. o Answers: vesicles, exocytosis, receptor, Ach ligand, channel Acetylcholine-gated sodium channels allow for sodium to move into the membrane of a muscle cell. This influx of sodium eventually creates a muscle contraction. If the Ach-gated sodium channels are blocked by an antagonist, what will happen to the muscles? o Answer: the muscle would not contract Dopamine is a neurotransmitter whose function can result in pleasure reward seeking behavior. If a drug is an antagonist of dopamine is in the body, what effect will this have on the mood? Why? o Answer: more feelings of pleasure because dopamine receptor recognizes the agonist as dopamine, thereby increasing effects of dopamine If a drug that is an antagonist of dopamine is in the body what will the effect be? Why? o Answer: signs of depression because dopamine unable to bind the receptor, which prevents effects of dopamine What hormone is produced in response to an increase in blood glucose levels? o Answer: Insulin Multiple Choice Addition of transporters in the membrane will: o Require more ATP o Have no effect o This is not possible o Speed up the rate that a particular molecule is taken into the cell More Key Concepts What is the basic unit of life? Cell What role do proteins play in hormone regulation? Your brain wouldn’t know when to stop producing hormone and there would be a buildup Definitions Antagonist – opposes normal effect Agonist – have normal effect (exaggerate normal effect or medication to bring back to normal levels) Prokaryotes – do not have a nucleus Tight Junctions – prevent water from moving between cells Gap Junctions – allow for cell-to-cell communication in animal cells Plasmodesmata – allow for cell-to-cell communication in plant cells Transporter/Carrier Proteins – receives messages in brain Sample Questions 1. DNA differs from RNA that: a. DNA contains uracil instead of thymine b. DNA is single-stranded, whereas RNA is double-stranded c. DNA encodes hereditary information, whereas RNA is an intermediate in information transfer d. DNA contains ribose, whereas RNA contains deoxyribose 2. Myoglobin, an oxygen-binding protein, has quaternary structure, implying that it has: a. At least 2 different protein subunits b. Binding sites on the surface of membranes c. The capacity to form a quadruple nucleotide d. Hydrogen bonds between its DNA sequence 3. Negative feedback mechanisms are: a. Important for homeostasis b. The cause of diseases c. Rarely found among prokaryotes 4. The active site of an enzyme: a. Is specific for all inhibitors and activators b. Is specific for the substrates 5. Evidence indicates that all life on Earth today: a. Requires oxygen for life b. Has single common ancestor c. Is multicellular 6. Cells: a. Are composed of many types of tissues b. Can be building blocks for complex organisms c. Must contain DNA within a nucleus 7. The nucleus of animal cells: a. Contains DNA packaged with several proteins b. Is the site where protein synthesis takes place c. Is the smallest organelle in the cell 8. The mitochondria are responsible for: a. Protein synthesis b. ATP synthesis c. Ribosome production d. DNA transcription 9. During diffusion of a solute, the molecules move from ___concentration to ___concentration. a. Low; high b. High; high c. High; low d. Low; low 10. Carbon to carbon double bonds are found in: a. Saturated fatty acids b. DNA c. Amino acids d. Unsaturated fatty acids e. Both A and D
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