Biology 3A at Saddleback Study Guide
Biology 3A at Saddleback Study Guide Bio 3A Saddleback
Cal State Fullerton
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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Bryce Perog on Tuesday August 9, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 3A Saddleback at California State University - Fullerton taught by Dr. Huntley in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Biology 3A in Biology at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 08/09/16
1. Reduce complex systems into smaller and more manageable parts to study 2. Arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases 3. Parts of a system 4. Membrane bound 5. Where the gene directs the manufacture of cellular product 6. Set of proteins expressed by a cell 7. Reduces o Insulin: glucose is released, pancreas releases insulin, until the stimulus is gone 8. Increases o Blood clotting: when a blood Bessel is damaged, platelets aggregate and release signals to attract more platelets 9. 1. Heritable traits, 2. Offspring that can survive to reproduce (competition), 3. Adapted 10.Search for information and explanations of natural phenomena 11.Derive generalization from specific observations 12.From general to specific “If-then” statements 13.Manipulated 14.Atomic mass unit (amu) 15.Nucleus decays spontaneously o Particles and energy 16.Endorphins 17.6CO +26 H O 2 C H 6 1266 2 18.The heat a liquid needs to absorb to convert 1g from liquid to gas 19.Cohesion/adhesion, high specific heat, low density as ice, solvent 20.Wohler 21.Sea water, lightning, condenser 22.They affect the shape, and therefore affect the function 23.– SH o Increase solubility of organic compounds 24. 25. 26. 27.– SH 28. 29. 30.Include! 31.Monosaccharides 32.Structural isomers 33.Altose or ketose o Carbonyl, hydroxyl o 3-7 o Special arrangement around asymmetrical carbon o Covalent bond between monosaccharide (glyosidic linkage) 34.Evolution beyond DNA 35.Brain 36.Genes witin and between species 37.Use computer tools to process data 38.Starch (α) 39.Cellulose (β) starch cellulose 40.In exoskeleton of insects and cell walls of fungi 41.Glycerol and fatty acid 42.3 carbons and alcohol (OH) 43.16-18 Carbons and Carboxyl group 44.Even # of carbons 45.Only two fatty acids attached to glycerol in phospholipid 46.Lipids made by carbon skeleton with 4 infused rays 47.Cholesterol 48.R chains 49.Polynucleotides 50.Nucleoside 51.Pyrimidine: 6 carbon and nitrogen atoms (bases C, T, U) Purines: (bigger) 6 ring C and 5 C ring (A & G) 52.Rough ER 53.Protein and carbohydrate 54.Object size to real size 55.Difference in brightness between light and dark areas on object 56.Inversely 57.Topography (3D0 58.Density 59.3D phase contrast 60.Molecules, structures 61.Eliminates out of focus light o A single plane 62.Stacks blurry images from different planes 63.Light up individual molecules and records position 64.Heavy metals o Electrons are scattered in denser regions 65.Introduces artifacts 66.Find function of organelles 67.Two membranes 68.RNA, protein, macromolecules 69.DNA and RNA that make chromosomes 70.Proteins are assembled into rRNA 71.DNA location (prok have nucleoid) Organelles (euk have membrane bound organelles) Size (prok is 1/10 size of euk) 72.Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and protein 73.It’s not so bad because the enzymes in the lysosome are more active in an acidic environment 74.Cisternae (network of tubules) and ER lumen (separate internal cavity) 75.Calcium ions 76.Rough ER 77.Lipids; drugs 78.Cisternae go from cis to trans face, carrying cargo 79.Receives; releases 80.Lysosomes o Macrophages 81.Surround with another layer of membrane, and then fusing with a lysosome 82.Has different composition than cytosol 83.1. Two membranes 2. Circular DNA 3. Has its own ribosomes 4. Autonomous in cell 84.chlorophyll 85.1. Stroma (DNA, ribosomes, enzymes in aqueous fluid) 2. granum (stack of thylakoids) 3. thylakoid 86.Stores starch 87.Pigments to fruits and flowers 88.Fatty acids o Taking the H 89.Girders 90.Dimer (2 subunits) o Can accumulate/release dimers at changing rates 91.Centrioles in centrosome 92.9+2 pattern, 2 in the center 93.2 dimers in the center 94.Dyneins 95.Pseudopodia, cytoplasmic streaming 96.Network inside plasma membrane that supports cell shape 97.Microvilli 98.Actin and myosin 99.Permanent; consistent; nuclear lamina 100. Cell wall 101. Glycoprotein and other carbohydrates 102. Cell surface receptor proteins 103. Change in microfilament position 104. Proteins that attach to integral membrane proteins. They do not penetrate the phospholipid bilayer 105. Skin; stops leakage 106. Strong sheets o Intermediate filaments 107. Cytoplasmic channels made of membrane protein around a pore 108. 330 109. Distance, surface area, gradients, heat (depends on surface area), and calories per gram of weight 110. Centrosomes 111. Actin filaments grow to form bulges in plasma membrane 112. Cell communication 113. Gap junctions 114. Middle lamella 1. Reductionism 2. Emergent properties are due to… 3. Systems biology analyzes 4. Eukaryotic cells have ____ ____ organelles 5. Gene expression 6. Proteome 7. Negative feedback: response that __ initial stimulus o Example? 8. Positive feedback: response that __ initial stimulus o Example? 9. 4 factors of Evolution o 1. Vary in ___ ____ o 2. Produce more… o 3. Species are ____ to environment 10.Inquiry 11.Inductive reasoning 12.Deductive reasoning 13.Dependent variable is manipulated or not manipulated data? 14.1 Dalton = 1 ? 15.Radioactive isotope o Gives off… 16.Opiates take receptor of ___ 17.Glucose reaction written out 18.Heat of vaporization 19.What are the 4 properties of water? 20.Who made urea from inorganic compounds? 21.In the Miller Urey experiment, ___ was heated up, sparks added to mimic ___, ___cooled the mixture (like rain) 22.Why are chemical groups important? 23.What group is not hydrophilic? o What is its function 24.Carbonyl group 25.Carboxyl group 26.Amino group 27.Sulfhydryl group 28.Phosphate group 29.Methyl group 30.When counting carbons in a chain, include or not include the carbon in the chemical group? 31.Monomers of carbohydrates 32.Chained vs branched molecules are examples of ___ ____. 33.Sugar is either an __ or a ___. o Has ___ group and ___ groups o Carbon skeleton ranges from __-__ carbons long o How is there diversity? 34.Epigenetics = process of … 35.Emergent property example 36.Genomics 37.What does bioinformatics use? 38. Alpha structure of glucose 39.Beta structure of glucose 40.Where is chitin? 41.Fat is made from 42.Glycerol makeup 43.Fatty acid makeup 44.Beta oxidation of fatty acids only come in ___ number of carbons 45.Phospholipid versus fat 46.Steroid makeup 47.Steroid example 48.Tertiary structure is determined by 49.Nucleic acids that exist as polymers 50.Nucleotide without phosphate groups 51.How do nitrogenous bases differ? 52.Who secretes glycoproteins? 53.What makes up glycoproteins? 54.Magnification= ratio of __ to __ 55.Contrast 56.How is resolution related to wavelength? 57.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies 58.Phase contrast uses ___ to se cell characteristics 59.Differential inference contrast 60.Florescence targets ___ to see 61.Confocal has a laser that… o Makes what kind of image? 62.Deconvolution 63.Super resolution technique 64.Transmission electron microscope (TEM) uses __ __ o How is the image made? 65.What is the trouble with TEM? 66.Cell fractionation function 67.Nuclear envelope is made of 68.Nuclear pores regulate __, __, & __. 69.Chromatin is 70.What happens in the nucleolous 71.3 differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes 72.Ribosome makeup 73.What if a lysosome leaked in a cell? 74.ER (endoplasmic reticulum) is made up of two things: 75.Smooth ER stores 76.Who makes the cell membrane? 77.Smooth ER makes __ and detoxifies ___. 78.Cisternal maturation model 79.Cis end ___, trans end ___ 80.What do ameobas use to break down food? o Humans? 81.Autophagy process with old/bad organelles 82.Vacuoles can transport solutes because… 83.Endosymbiont theory’s 4 reasons 84.Chloroplasts have the green pigment ___. 1 85. 2 3 what are the names to the black text boxes? 86.Amyloplast 87.Chromoplast 88.Peroxisomes (single membrane) uses oxygen to break down ___ ___ o How does it break down OH? 89.Microtubule has ___ that resist compression 90.Microtubule’s protein is a ___. o Why is that beneficial? 91.Who builds microtubules? 92.Microtubules have a ring shape with a __ + __ pattern, __ in the center 93.What do non motile bacteria not have in their microtubules? 94.What bends cilia? 95.Microfilaments make organisms motile by… 96.What are cortical microfilaments? 97.What are microvilli made of? 98.Microfilaments are made of __ and __. 99.Intermediate filaments are __, and are __ in size. It makes up the ___. 100. Extracellular matrix is like __ __ in animal cells 101. What is it made of? 102. What are integrins? 103. What triggers chemical signaling pathways? 104. What are peripheral proteins? 105. Where are tight junctions found? What does it stop? 106. Desmosomes fasten cells into “__ __”. o What anchors desmosomes? 107. What are gap junctions and what are they made of? 108. Cell is ___ mOSM (miliosmolar) 109. What are the 5 factors affecting diffusion? 110. Plant cells don’t have ___ 111. What is cell crawling? 112. What is the function of integrin? 113. Who do ions go from cell to cell? 114. How do plant cells stick together? 1. 686 2. Hydrogen with 2 high energy electrons 3. Oxygen captures low energy electrons and two diffused protons (H 2) 4. Cytosol o Mitochondria o Mitochondria 5. Redox reactions (electron transport chain/ETC) 6. ATP o Glycolysis 7. Dehydrogenase 8. Autotrophs making organic molecules form inorganic matter 9. Cells of mesophylls o 10-20 10.Cuticle 11.Guard cells contract 12.Into glucose 13.ADPATP 14.Stroma 15.Fix CO2 into molecules that aren’t a gas (*glucose in photosynthesis) 16.21% 17.3 for net 1 G3P 18.Cyclic electron flow uses only photosystem I, doesn’t use O2 but produces ATP 19.Catalyzed by rubisco 20.Rubisco adds oxygen instead of carbon dioxide in the Calvin cycle 21.3 carbon compound (3-phospho-glycerate) 22.Consumes O2 and organic fuel and releases CO2 without making CO2 or sugar 23.Mitosis makes two identical daughter cells, and meiosis makes four gametes that are not identical through reduction division 24.How many chromosomes o Diploid: 46; haploid: 23 25.Independent assortment of chromosomes crossing over selection of mate 26.#s of A and T are equal, and # of C and G are equal 27.Unwinds DNA 28.Single strand binding protein 29.Topoisomerase 30.T 31.3’ 32.Short RNA primer 33.Sugar phosphate backbone 34.DNA polymerase I 35.Ligase 36.Polymerase III 37.“X shaped” area where crossover occurred in meiosis 38.At centromere, in mitosis 39.Gametes; telomerase 40.Echromatin 41.Heterochromatin 42.Cohesions 43.90 44.G 0r G 1 45.Other microtubule partially dissemble 46.Organize microtubules 47.Made dyes, and looked at the movement of chromosomes. Found that the microtubules are degraded in anaphase. 48.DNA is synthesized 49.Moto protein degrading 50.Cells stop dividing and die 51.Cyclin and CDK; G 2allows cell to enter M phase) o DNK o Cyclin o Maturation promoting factor 52.Anaphase 53.Late S phase (needed for G2 to get the green light) 54.CDK 55.CDK, cyclin accumulates 56.Multicellular haploid organism 57.When chiasmata line up 58.Partially degrade sugar without oxygen present 59.Split glucose into 2 pyruvate 60.3 61.NADH and FADH2 62.30 or 32 63.Krebs cycle, TCA cycle 64.It stops the ETC 65.Phosphofructokinase 66.Water leaving the body 67.Alcohol dehydrogenase 68.Actin microfilaments acting with myosin 69.Vesicles 70.Binary fission: circular DNA with origin, then pinches off o No microtubules o Located at each end of the cell 71.Within the nucleus 72.Genes specific location along a chromosome 73.Homologous chromosomes 74.Sex chromosomes and autosomes 75.Both diploid and haploid stages are multicellular 76.Multicellular diploid 77.Divides by meiosis immediately, making it haploid, then undergoes mitosis 78.Display of condensed chromosomes in pairs (homologs) 79.Plants and some algae 80.True breeding; hybridization 81.Alleles 82.Two alleles segregate when forming gametes 83.Test cross by crossing with a homozygous recessive 84.Heterozygous for one character 85.Cross between F1 dihybrids. Dihybrid is the breed parents differ in two characteristics; 9:3:3:1 86.Dihybrid o Independently 87.Genes must be on different, non-homologous chromosomes or far apart on same chromosome 88.Product of individual probabilities 89.TA 90.DNA polymerase I 91.Origin of replication and replication fork 92.Primase 93.What DNA polymerase I replaces with the primer 94.Single strand binding protein 95.Topoisomerase 96.Helicase 97.Metaphase I 98.Chromosomes loosen 99.Multiple phenotypic effects 100. Alters phenotypic expression of gene at other locus 101. Additive effect of 2+ genes on phenotype 102. Environment 103. Acidity of soil 104. Genetic and environmental 105. Decrease in CO2, increase in O2, so photorespiration takes place 106. 3 carbon compound, 3-phosphoglicerate 107. Stops excessive light damage 108. 4 carbon compound o Mesophyll; PEP; oxaloacetate 109. Mesophyll; bundle sheath 110. assimilate into organic material by rubisco and calvin cycle (keep away from RuBP) 111. Pyruvate o Mesophyll cells 112. Heterozygous for gene on X chromosome 113. 1% recombination frequency 114. 21 115. CO2; C3 116. Fertilize gametes of nondisjunction 117. XXY 118. XO 119. Cri de chat 120. In stomata 121. Ethanol (1st release CO2) 122. Pyruvate; NADH 123. Beta oxidation; acetyl CoA 124. Inhibited by ATP 1. Activation energy for respiration (to ignite glucose) is ___ Kcal 2. NAD+ takes… 3. What makes water? 4. Where does glycolysis take place? o Pyruvate conversion to aceytyl coA? o Citric acid cycle? 5. What is oxidative phosphorylation powered by? 6. What does substrate level phosphorylation form? o What step of respiration is this? 7. What removes hydrogen from substrates? 8. Definition of photosynthesis 9. Where are chloroplasts? o How many per plant cell? 10.What is the top of a leaf called? 11.How do stomata open? 12.Where do the hydrogens from water go? 13.What does photophosphorylation yield? 14.Where does the calvin cycle take place? 15.What is carbon fixation? 16.What percentage of the air is oxygen? 17.How many times around the calvin cycle is required to make a 3C sugar? 18.What is the cyclic electron pathway? 19.In carbon fixation, what is glucose catylized by? 20.What is photorespiration? 21.C3 plant: initial fixation of CO2 forms… 22.Formal definition of photorespiration 23.What is the big difference with meiosis and mitosis 24.What does ploidy mean? o in humans, diploid number is __ and haploid number is ___. 25.What contributes to genetic variation (3 things) 26.Chargaffs rule 27.Helecase 28.Who stabilizes DNA 29.What stops unwinding in front? 30.RNA U replaces _ 31.Lagging DNA attaches to __ end 32.Initial neucleotide strand 33.ATP will attach to the growing complimentary strand, and leave a phosphate where? 34.Who changes RNA for DNA? 35.Who seals new DNA from RNA? 36.Who adds new nucleotides 5’ to 3’ ? 37.What is chaismata? 38.What is the kinetochore? 39.Telomeres lengthen in ___ by the enzyme ___ 40.Loose DNA is called ___ 41.Condensed DNA is called ___ 42.What are chromatids attached by? 43.What percent of cells are in interphase? 44.Where do nondividing cells stay? 45.As mitotic spindle develops… 46.Centrosome function 47.Who is Flemming? 48.What happens in the S phase? 49.How do microtubules shorten in anaphase? 50.What is scenecence? 51.MPF is made from __ and __. It allows the “green light” for __ phase o Who is recycled? o Who is degraded? o What does MPF stand for? 52.When does MPF degrade? 53.When does cyclin accumulate? 54.G1- __ accumulates 55.G2- __ is present and __ accumulates 56.What is a gametophyte 57.When does synapsis occur? 58.Fermentation 59. Glycolysis purpose 60.How many carbons is pyruvate? 61.__ and __ bring electrons to ETC for oxidative phosphorylation 62.How many ATPs made overall in respiration? 63.Citric acid cycle is the same name as __ and __ 64.Why is cyanide a poison? 65.What is the root determining step of glycolysis? 66.Metabolic rate 67.What metabolizes OH? 68.Cleavage furrows contractile ring is made of 69.What forms a cell plate? 70.How do bacteria replicate? o Do they have microtubules? o Origin locations? 71.Where do diatoms and some yeasts form microtubules? 72.Locus 73.“Homlog” meaning 74.What are the two types of chromosomes? 75.Alternation of generation 76.What is a sporophyte? 77.In most fungi and some protists, they make a zygote, but… 78.Karyotype 79.Who spends ½ time as gametophyte, and ½ time as sporophyte? 80.Mendel used __ __ and then used __ to mix 81.Alternative genes are __. 82.Law of segregation 83.How to tell if individual is a heterozygous or homozygous dominant? 84.Monohybrid 85.Dihybrid cross definition and ratio 86.Law of independent assortment is with a __ cross o each pair of alleles segregates dependently or independently of each other during gamete formation? 87.Condition for the law of independent assortment to work? 88.Multiplication rule= probability that 2+ events will occur together 89.Which of the nucleotide pairs forms two bonds between each other? 90.What enzyme takes out the primer? 91.First two steps of replication 92.What makes the primer? 93.What does ligase seal? 94.What stabilizes new single strand? 95.What stabilizes DNA from supercoiling 96.What unzips DNA? 97.When does independent assortment occur? 98.What happens to chromosomes in Anaphase I? 99.Pleiotropy 100. Epistasis = gene at one locus… 101. Polygenetic inheritance 102. Norm of reaction= phenotype range of genome influenced by… 103. Hydrana can be pink/blue based on… 104. Multifactorial = __ and __ collectively influence phenotype 105. On dry days, stomata close, and… 106. C3 first organic product of carbon fixation is… 107. What is the benefit of photorespiration? 108. C4 plant: __ as first product o PEP carboxylase in __ cells add CO2 to ___ to make 4 carbon ___. 109. After C4 fixes C from CO2, __ cells export 4C products to __ cells 110. 4C compounds release CO2 from bundle sheath cells and… 111. What do organic material generate? o Where does it go? 112. When is there a mosaic for a character? 113. 1 centimorgan = 114. Down syndrome = 3 copies of chromosome __ 115. RuBP fixes __. It is unstable and breaks into 3C PGA in __ plants 116. Aneuploidy 117. Kinefelter syndrome 118. Monosomy or turner syndrome 119. Deletion in chromosome 5 120. Reactions synthesizing glucose happens in… 121. Alcohol fermentation, pyruvate is converted to __. 122. Lactic acid fermentation has __ reduced to __ forming lactate as end product 123. Fatty acids are broken down by __ oxidation and yield __ 124. Regulatory enzyme phosphofructokinase is … when glycolysis is active 125. How many ATPs are used to react 3- phosphoglycerate? 1. Operator; promotor; repressor 2. Lac; presence of allactose 3. Feedback inhibition 4. Transcription unit; 1 promotor; coordinate control 5. Clustered genes, promotor, and operator 6. Binds to operator blocking RNA polymerase attachment 7. Activity of a repressor 8. Tryptophan; off when there is enough trp in environment a. When there is no more trp in environment and it has to make its own again 9. Small molecules bind to regulatory protein 10.Product activates repressor and turns off synthesis. Beneficial because it stops overproduction 11.Glucose; cAMP 12.CAP (catabolite activator protein) 13.cAMP will bind to CAP and it’ll change shape to be active 14.Attaches above promotor, stimulates transcription 15.Catabolic pathways 16.Anabolic pathways 17.Differential gene expression 18.Heterochromatin 19.Acetyl; histone acetylation 20.Methyl 21.Interrupts binding to neighboring nucleosomes so transcription proteins can bind easily 22.Phosphorylating an amino acid next to a methylated amino acid 23.Histone code hypothesis 24.Bases; cytosine a. Histone deacetylation 25.Maternal or paternal allele of certain genes are silenced 26.Don’t have a change in DNA sequences 27.Decreased 28.Remove introns, add 5’ cap and poly-A tail to end 29.Noncoding sequences to which transcription factors bind to regulate transcription 30.Initiate transcription of all protein coding genes 31.Control elements 32.Close to the promotor 33.Upstream or downstream of gene or intron 34.Operons 35.No, they’re scattered on the chromosome; require activators 36.Operator 37.Strata 38.Catastrophism; Cuvier 39.Reproductive success 40.Individual 41.Change in allele frequency of population from generation to generation 42.“either-or” a. 1 gene locus 43.Specific activator protein; to activate transcription 44.Graduated variation in a character 45.DNA directed synthesis of protein 46.1 gene 1 protein hypothesis a. 1 gene 1 polypeptide 47.DNA mRNA 48.mRNA protein 49.ribosome 50.yes- prokaryotes. In eukaryotes, mRNA has to leave the nucleus 51.64 20 actual AAs 52.5’ to 3’ 53.AUG (like aug is the start of school) 54.UAA UAG UGA (You Are Awesome, You Are Great, You Go Away) 55.No, no codon will code for more than one amino acid 56.RNA polymerase II; terminator 57.DNA sequence that’s transcribed into 1 RNA 58.Upstream of start 59.Transcription factors a. Transcription initiation complex 60.Polyadenylation signal sequence AAUAAA; adenine; 3’ 61.Facilitate transport of mRNA, from nucleus, aid transport, and protect ends of mRNA from enzymes 62.No 63.Sets of a few nucleotides at either end of each intron 64.Small nuclear ribonucleoprotien (composed of proteins) 65.Small nuclear RNA, components of spliceosome a. Splice by site recognition and spliceosome assembly 66.Hydrogen bond with other nucleic acids a. Exon shuffling, different alleles or different genes 67.Exon shuffling, different alleles or different genes 68.Anticodon 69.In nucleus 70.It is single stranded and shaped like a clover; 3’ end 71.Attaches amino acid to correct tRNA 72.Wobble effect 73.Polypetidyl-tRNA site a. The growing chain 74.Aminoacyl-tRNA site 75.Interior at the interface between subunits and A & P sites a. rRNA performs a ribosomes “catalytic” function 76.GTP 77.Initiation factors (protein), GTP, translation initiation complex 78.Aminoacyl-tRNA; 2 79.Large subunit of tRNA 80.Stop factor binds to stop codon and hydrolyzes polypeptide bond in P site 81.Host cell 82.DNA and capsid protein; transcribe viral genome into mRNA 83.Virulent phage 84.Bind to surface protein on E.coli cell that act as receptors a. Sheath of tail contracts and injects phage DNA. The bacterial DNA is degraded 85.Provirus 86.Reverse transcriptase 87.Circular RNA a. Plant growth 88.DNA hybridization probes detect specific DNA sequences 89.Gene expression detects RNA sequence (find mRNA) 90.Immunoblot detects the presence of a protein 91.1859 92.Catastrophism 93.Rewrote Huttons book 94.Too few individuals are separated 95.Number of genes that make it to the next generation 96.Transcription initiation complex 97.No 98.Mads box 99.Element moving within a genome by DNA or RNA 100. Shows difference between samples of homologous DNA 101. History of taxonomic groups 102. DNA from environment that has been collected and sequenced 103. 1-6 million base pairs a. Archaea b. Eukaryotes; 100; decrease 104. Mobile genetic elements after observing color of corn 105. 1.5% 106. Old genes accumulate mutation over time but don’t have a function protein made 107. Recombination process a. Completely detach and DNA will bend 108. DNA; copy and paste a. Transposase 109. RNA; retrotransposon DNA 110. Create genetic profiles 111. Multigene families (2+ identical or similar genes) a. 16 b. 11 c. Expressed different times during development 1. Segment of DNA = ___. Area is called __. Operon is turned off by __. 2. __ operon = want to turn gene on. How is it turned on? 3. How do bacteria respond to short term environmental fluctuations? 4. Genes for enzymes of a single metabolic pathway may be grouped together into one ___ ___, so have _ promotor(s). This is called “___” 5. Operon consists of… 6. Repressor 7. Corepressor can determine… 8. Corepressor for trp: ____. Turns it ___. a. How does it turn it back on/off? 9. Inducible operon is stimulated when… 10.Repressible enzymes definition 11.Ecoli likes ___ but if levels fall, uses ___ 12.Activator for glucose synthesis 13.What accumulates when glucose is low? Function? 14.CAP action 15.Where are inducible operons? 16.Where are repressible 17.Cells can differentiate by 18.Genes in highly packed ___ are not usually expressed 19.Attach __ groups to lysine in histone tails, called __ ___ 20.Add __ groups leads to condensation of chromatin 21.What does histone acetylation do? 22.What undoes methylated chromatin 23.What says that specific patterns of modification influence transcription 24.DNA methylation – CH3 added to DNA __, usually __. a. Can also interact with __ ___ enzymes that will reinforce the methylation 25.Genomic imprinting 26.Epigenetic inheritance = traits passed that… 27.Histone tail deacetylation would increase or decrease transcription? 28.RNA processing of premRNA includes… 29.Control elements 30.“General transcription factors” bind to RNA polymerase to… 31.Binding of “specific transcription factors” to __” increase transcription rates of certain genes 32.Where are proximal control elements located? 33.Enhancers = distal control elements located… 34.Prokaryotic genes are organized onto __ and are transcribed together 35.Most eukaryotic genes coding for enzymes in the same metabolic pathway are located together? What may it require? 36.Eukaryotic genes don’t have promotor or operator? 37.Superimposing layers of rocks that are fossils are called __ 38.Difference of fossils because events is called __ (scientist’s theory named __) 39.Natural selection main purpose 40.Smallest unit that can evolve 41.Microevolution 42.Discrete character = __ __ phenotypes a. What is it determined by? 43.Enhancers have many control elements to assure __ __ __. Must be present to… 44.Cline 45.Gene expression 46.Beetle and Tatum a. What is it now? 47.Transcription 48.Translation 49.Site of translation 50.Can transcription and translation occur simultaneously 51.Number of amino acid possibilities from nucleus? 52.Codon direction is read from __ to __ 53.Start codon 54.Stop codons 55.Is the amino acid codon code ambiguous? 56.Transcription: promoter is where __ attaches. __ stops transcription 57.Transcription unit 58.TATA box 59.What has to first recognize and bind to promotor before RNA polymerase II? a. Its all called the __ __ __ 60.In eukaryotes, polymerase continues past __ and is a string of __ molecules, added to __ end of mRNA 61.How do the 5’ cap and poly A tail help to facilitate translation? 62.Do introns code for anything? 63.What are the signals for mRNA splicing? 64.snRNPs 65.snRNA a. function? 66.Intron RNA can catalyze its own removal by __. a. What allows it to precisely locate splicing regions? 67.Alternate DNA splicing 68.tRNAs carry codon or anticodon? 69.where is tRNA synthesis 70.tRNA structure and site for attachment for amino acid 71.aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase 72.what enables the 3 nucleotide of some tRNA anticodon pair with more than one base codon? 73.P site formal name a. What does it hold? 74.A site formal name 75.rRNA location a. this shows that… 76.initiation and elongation require 77.initiation requires __ and __ and forms ___ 78.what base pairs with mRNA codon in A binding site? How many GTP does it need? 79.What catalyzes formation of peptide bond? 80.What happens at stop codon? 81.Viral envelope is from 82.General virus cycle: what does it release as it goes in? what happens while viral DNA replicates? 83.Phage that is only in lytic cycle 84.Tail fibers on phage purpose? a. What happens when it attaches? 85.When lysogenic cycle takes place, new viral DNA is called ___ 86.Retrovirus has ___ 87.Viroids are __ __ molecules a. What do they infect? 88.Southern blot 89.Northern blot 90.Western blot 91.Year of evolution of species 92.Cuviet 93.Lyell 94.Founder effect 95.Absolute fitness 96.TATA box is part of… 97.Is there a relation between genome size and phenotype? 98.Homeobox genes for plants is called the __ __. 99.Transposon 100. RFLP function 101. Phylogeny 102. Metagenomics 103. Bacteria genome size a. Same with __ b. __ are larger by at least __ Mb, so gene density increase or decrease? 104. McClintock 105. Percent of coding genes (exons) 106. Pseudogenes 107. How does DNA move in genome? a. Brings DNA closely together, but doesn’t …. 108. Transposons move in genome by DNA intermediate, or __ and __ mechanism a. What enzyme does this? 109. Retrotransposons move by __ intermediate that is a transcript of __ __ 110. STR use today 111. Hemoglobin alpha and beta are a. Chromosome number for alpha b. Chromosome number for beta c. When are they expressed?
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