Bio243 Lecture Notes
Bio243 Lecture Notes BIOL 243
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Date Created: 08/10/16
82015 Chapter 1: The Human Body: An Orientation Physiology function of body parts Anatomy structure & relationships of body parts Gross “naked eye” structures Microscopic facilitated by microscope Histology study of tissues Cytology study of cells Systemic various body or organ systems Levels of Organization: 1. Chemical Atoms Molecules atoms bonded together Proteins molecules that catalyze chemical reactions (enzymes) Nucleic Acids DNA (genetic material) & RNA (decoding DNA) Carbohydrates (sugars) Lipids (plasma membrane) 2. Cell basic unit of organization in living things a virus is NONLIVING (not a cell) 3. Tissues groups of cells of a similar type 4 Types of Tissues: Epithelial cover body surface & line tubes Muscular allow bones to move, heart to beat, stomach to churn, etc. Nervous found in braid & spinal cord, connect different parts of the body and send out signals Connective connects one thing to another/fill body spaces bone, cartilage, blood, and fat. 4. Organ two or more tissues that from a structure to perform a specific functions 5. Organ Systems various organs that work together to accomplish a specific function Maintenance of Life: 1. Maintenance of Boundaries separation/boundaries (membranes) 2. Movement 3. Responsiveness Nervous System fast acting control system Endocrine System slower control system 4. Digestion breaking down of foodstuff 5. Metabolism all chemical reactions in the body Catabolic break down of various molecules Anabolic synthesis/formation of molecules 1. Excretion 2. Reproduction Homeostasis maintenance of stable internal conditions Negative Feedback (maintain homeostasis) Glucose Increasestimulate release of Insulin Increase glucose uptake by cells Glucose Decrease release of glycogen Release of sugar by liver Positive Feedback (amplifying) Pressure applied to cervix stimulates release of oxytocin, which stimulates the contraction of the uterus, adding more pressure to the cervix allowing for more contractions 82515 Anatomical Position (default) facing forward Prone face down Supine lying on your back Body Planes: Sagittal divides body into right and left parts MidSagittal divides body into equal parts Frontal divides body into anterior (front) and posterior (back) Transverse divides body into superior (top) and inferior (bottom) parts Body Cavities: spaces that contain organs Dorsal (towards back) cranial (brain) & vertebral (spinal cord) Ventral (towards front) thoracic (heart (pericardial) and lungs (pleural) major blood vessels (superior mediastinum)) & abdominalpelvic cavity (stomach, liver, and intestines) Chapter 2: Chemistry Comes Alive Matter solid, liquid, gas; has mass and takes up space Energy no mass; the capacity to do work Potential energy has substance has because of position or internal structure Ex. Rock at the edge of a cliff Kinetic associated with the movement of matter; expressed as heat Forms of Energy: Chemical stored in chemical bonds (glucose, fats, etc.) Electrical movement of charged particles Mechanical involved in the movement of matter Radiant/Electromagnetic Energy light Energy conversions are NOT 100% efficient, HEAT is given off! Elements pure chemical substances, contain a single type of an atom, cannot be broken down by “normal” means O(Oxygen), N(Nitrogen), H(Hydrogen), & C(Carbon) make of 96% of body weight Atoms smallest form of an element that still maintains chemical properties Nucleus center of atom; contains protons and neutrons Protons positively charged Neutrons neutrally charged Electrons negatively charged Number of Protons= Number of Electrons Atoms have a NEUTRAL charge Isotopes contain the same number of protons, but differ in the number of neutrons Radioisotopes unstable Reactive likely to from bonds with other elements; valence shell (outer energy level) is NOT completely filled Chemically Inert not reactive; do not form bonds with other elements; valence shell (outer energy level) is completely filled with electrons Types of Bonds: Ionic complete TRANSFER of electrons from one atom to another; generates charged particles Covalent electrons are SHARED between atoms Nonpolar share electrons equally (NaCl) Polar share electrons unequally (H20) Hydrogen very weak; electrostatic interactions; between hydrogen in a polar covalent bond (DNA) Inorganic Molecules: Water makes up 60%80% of living things High Heat Capacity (Specific Heat) amount of energy needed to increase/decrease temperature; stable; hydrogen bonds High Heat of Vaporization amount of energy needed to convert from a liquid to a gas; essential to cooling; hydrogen bonds Polarity/Solvent “universal solvent” for (+) and () charged molecules; polarity of H20 Reactivity participant in MANY chemical reactions Cushioning protection (mainly found in brain) 82715 Organic Molecules: (contain Carbon) Forms covalent bonds Forms bonds with up to FOUR different atoms Carbohydrates contain C, H, & O (1:2:1 ratio), energy source & are structural (form other molecules) Monosaccharides (3, 7 carbons); liner or ring structure Ex. Glucose, Fructose, Galactose, Deoxyribose, & Ribose Disaccharides contain two monosaccharides; joined by condensation reaction Ex. Sucrose (Glucose & Fructose) Dehydration Synthesis removal of water molecule Hydrolysis addition of water molecule Polysaccharides long polymers of monosaccharides joined together Ex. Glycogen (many monomers of glucose; found in humans) & Starch (many monomers of glucose, found in plants) Glycogen>Glucose+O2>H20+CO2+Energy Lipids (nonpolar) insoluble in water, high energy source (2x Carbs), insulation, & protection Triglycerides made of glycerol & three fatty acid tails (nonpolar vary in length, C & H) Saturated single bonds, insoluble at room temperature Ex. Animal Fats Unsaturated one or more double bonds, liquid at room temperature, modified are eliminate some double bonds (hydrogenated) Ex. Plant Oils Phospholipids made of glycerol, two fatty acid tails (nonpolar) and a phosphate head (polar) Phospholipid Bilayer made up of phospholipids with heads facing outward, and tails in the middle; back bone of cellular membranes Steroids Ex. Cholesterol (basis for steroids), rings (C, H, & OH), essential to membranes & Sex Hormones (Testosterone & Estrogen) Proteins polymer of amino acids (linked together by peptide bonds, made up of C, acid group, amine group, & “R” (20)) Ex. Glycine, Lysine, & Cysteine Polypeptide a continuous chain of amino acid (varies in length and sequence) 9115 Primary Structure sequence or order of amino acids in a polypeptide, contains information for higher order structure Secondary Structure structure of a region (part) of a polypeptide Ex. Alpha (spiral) helix & Beta pleated sheet (zigzags); both are held together by hydrogen bonds Unstructured Regions connect different secondary structures together Tertiary Structure overall 3D shape of one polypeptide Quaternary Structure proteins composed of two or more polypeptides; 3D arrangement (structure) Ex. Hemoglobin Denatured Proteins loss of 3D structure which then affects functions; common causes are heat and pH Ex. Sickle Cell Anemia Types of Proteins: Fibrous structural proteins, insoluble; Ex. Collagen, Keratin, etc. Functional globular (blob); Ex. Hormones Antibodies, Enzymes (biological catalysts), etc. ONE enzyme per REACTION Enzymes catalyze chemical reactions by decreasing the energy of deactivation Ex. Boulder & a cliff Chemical Reaction: 1. Substrate bonds to active site 2. Internal Rearrangement (catalysis) 3. Product Dissociates enzyme is recycled Reactants substrate; binds to the active site of enzyme Products “output”, what is created Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA) structural units (nucleotides) Nucleotides (Nitrogenous Bases Adenine, Thymine, Uracil, Guanine, &, Cytosine) (Sugar Ribose (RNA) & Deoxyribose (DNA)) (Phosphate) linked together by phosphodiester bonds DNA is a double helix (double strand); genetic material A=T, C=G (base pairs) & contain deoxyribose RNA (single stranded); decoding/information transfer A=U, C=G (base pairs) & contain OH & ribose ATP 3 phosphates; energy currency of cell Ex. Transport, Mechanical, & Chemical work ADP 2 phosphates AMP 1 phosphate 9315 Chapter 3: Cells: The Living Units Cells basic unit structure of living things Plasma Membrane barrier separating the inside of the cell from the outside (single layer) Nucleus contains DNA and chromatin, DNA replications and RNA synthesis and processing Nuclear Envelope (double layer membrane) separates nucleus from cytoplasm, contains pores (difficult for items to pass through) Nucleoli/Nucleolus cite of ribosome biogenesis Nucleoplasm jelly like substance found inside nucleus Nucleosome consists of histones intertwined with DNA (organizations) Cytoplasm jelly like substance found throughout the rest of the cell Organelles are the “compartments” of the cell: Mitochondria made up of both an outer and inner membrane; “powerhouse” of the cell; conversions of energy; involved in programmed cell death (apoptosis); contain their own DNA & ribosomes Ribosomesnot bound be a membrane; consist of RNA and a protein; made up of a small and large subunit; synthesize proteins from a mRNA template Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) continuous with nuclear envelope; made up of a membrane network Lumen inside of ER Smooth ER phospholipid synthesis & detoxification Rough ER contains ribosomes attached to outside; ribosomes synthesis proteins to be secreted, found in membrane, Golgi, & lysosome Golgi Apparatus consists of parallel stacks of membranes; proteins synthesized in the Rough ER are modified; sorting Vesicles transport items between cell organelles Lysosomes membrane bound; contain hydrolytic enzymes (acidic); digestive organelle Cytoskeleton consist of filaments found in cell (structure and movement) Polymerize/Depolymerize longer and shorter Microfilaments “weblike” contain actin Intermediate Filaments/ropelike (keratin and structure); resist mechanical stress found inside the cell Microtubules made up of tubulin; “hollowsphere”, involved in movement Motor Proteins move microtubules up and down Other involved in the sliding of filament (microfilaments (actin) and microtubules (tubulin)) Cilia/Flagella hairlike/taillike projects from certain cells, consist of microtubules in (9+2) arrangements, connected by motor proteins Ex. Respiratory Track/Sinuses (cilia) & Sperm Cells (flagella) 9815 Hydrophobicwater fearing; nonpolar Hydrophilic water loving; poplar Structure of the Plasma Membrane: Phospholipids backbone, charged head & fatty acid tails, forms a bilayer Hydrophobic core “barrier” Cholesterol ring structured, “steroid”; nonpolar/hydrophobic, stabilizes membranes Carbohydrate Groups ring structures found on the surface of the membrane Proteins transport, receptors for cell signal transduction, attachment to extra cellular matrix, enzyme activity, and cell to cell interactions (joining and recognition) Integral part of molecule inserted into membrane Transmembrane Proteins go from one side of the membrane to the other Peripheral attached to surface of the membrane Specializations of Plasma Membrane Microvilli various curves found in small intestines, increases surface area Tight Junctions membranes fuse and prevent passage of molecules between cells Desmosomes “spot wells” very strongly connection between cells, found in epithelial tissues Plaque & keratin filaments Gap Junctions found in smooth muscles, interconnected “gaps” between cells Transport of Substances Across Plasma Membrane Semipermeable allows substances to pass, others do not Passive Transport does not require direct energy, occurs spontaneously; for movement down a concentrated gradient Simple Diffusion kinetic energy, molecules in movement (random), high concentration to low concentration Facilitated Diffusion polar ions, no energy, down a concentration gradient Carrier Proteins “carry” substances across the membrane, specific, saturable, can be regulated and modified Channel Proteins provide a “channel” for substances to pass through, specific saturable, can be regulated and modified [Rate of Transport is governed by # of Proteins] Osmosis diffusion of solvent (water) through a semipermeable membrane Aquaporin channel for water The SMALLER and HOTTER the molecule, the FASTER it will move Active Transport requires the direct input of energy by the cell; for movement up a concentrated gradient, required for amino acids, some sugars, and ions Ex. Solute Pump (NaK Pump): Na is higher outside the cell the inside, K is higher inside the cell the outside (maintenance) Vesicular or Bulk Transport Exocytosis cell to outside Endocytosis outside to cell Ex(s). Phagocytosis large particles (receptors), many cases to lysosomes/ Pinocytosiscell “gulps” (liquids/no receptors)/ Receptor Mediated specific molecules Tonicity Isotonic concentration of solutes inside/outside cell is the same; does not change shape Hypertonic concentration of solutes outside of cell is higher than inside; cell shrinks Hypotonic concentration of solutes outside of cell is lower: cell swells and may burst 91015 DNA Replication DNA polymerase (enzyme), makes VERY FEW errors, if errors are made, it is detected and rstaired 1 strands will separate 2 a new strand is made (synthesized) using the previous strand as a template Apoptosis programmed cell death Cell Cycle Restriction (start) energy (ATP), contact with other cells, growth factors, DNA damage, and completion of S phase are monitored S Phase DNA Synthesis G2 Phase growth M Phase Mitosis (nuclear division) Cytokinesis division of cytoplasm G1 Phase growth G0 NO DIVISION Diploid 22 chromosomes (pairs), 1 pair per parent XX female XY male =Total of 46 Chromosomes Protein Synthesis DNA sequence contains information for proteins Nucleotides > Amino Acids (Codonsthree based code) Gene a segment of DNA that codes for one polypeptide 91515 DNA Transcription RNA copy of DNA, occurs in nucleus 1. Initiation RNA polymerase recognizes Promoter (DNA sequence) & DNA unwinds 2. ElongationRNA polymerase copy’s one strand of DNA into RNA 3. Termination signal is reached, RNA polymerase falls off DNA Translation RNA is synthesized into protein, occurs in cytoplasm mRNA (three based code) AUG/UUU/AGU/UAA There are 64(61) possible Codons, but only 20 Amino Acids which signify that DNA degenerates. Codons UAA, UAG, & UGA are terminators (signify transcription to STOP) (do not specify amino acids) tRNA clover leaf shaped molecule, “adaptor”, amino acid is attached at one end peptide bonds are formed between amino acids), anticodon is attached to the other end 1. tRNA with attached peptide bond to ribosome at “Psite” 2. tRNA for next amino acid bins to “Asite” 3. Peptide bond is formed 4. Ribosome moves down the messenger RNA Each Codon has its OWN tRNA Ribosome mRNA+proteins (house DNA transcription and translation) Chapter 4: Tissue: The Living Fabric Epithelial Tissue forms boundaries between different environments, protects, secrets, absorbs, filters Found on free surfaces, & glands Has a basement membrane (extracellular), separates epithelial cells from deep cells, and consists of collagen and proteins/glycoproteins Little intercellular space (jammed together) Avascular NO blood vessels running throughout; nutrients are supplied by capillaries Classification by the number of cell layers: Simple (single layers) Stratified (multiple layers) Pseudostratified (all cells contact basement membrane, but not surface) Classification by shape: Squamous (flat) Cuboidal (“cubelike” Columnar (“columnlike”) Classification by function/location: Endothelium Ex. blood vessels Cutaneous Ex. Skin Serous Membranes “serous fluid” Mucous Membranes “moist,” contain goblet cells which secrete mucous Ex. Nose, Mouth, Lungs, etc. Glandular Epithelium: Endocrine Glands not directly connected to a free surface, absorbed into the blood Exocrine Glands secret substances onto free surfaces (sweat glands, salivary glands, and pancreas) Secretion Merocrine “exocytosis”, cell is not damaged Holocrine cell death (sebaceous oil glands) Apocrine part of cell buds off (mammary gland) Duct Structure simple or compound Secretory Parts tubular or alveolar General Class: Simple Squamous (very thin) suited for diffusion and filtration, found in lungs (alveoli and capillaries) Stratified Squamous (many layers thick) protection, found in skin, mouth, and vagina Simple Columnar (lots of cytoplasm) suited for secretion and absorption, found in digestive tract Simple Cuboidal (lots of cytoplasm) suited for secretion and absorption, found in sweat glands, salivary gland, and kidney tubules. Pseudostratified Columnar (ciliated) found in respiratory track Transitional cells can change shape, found in bladder 92215 Connective Tissue attaches skin to the rest of the body, found in fat, tendons, and ligaments. Protection, support and binding this together VERY abundant Cells are NOT close together Good blood supply “blast”dividing “cyte”mature General Characteristics Cells: Fibroblasts (connective tissue proper) Chondroblast (cartilage) Extracellular Matrix: Ground Substances Fibers Collagenous long and strong Elastic “rubber band like” Reticular “branched” Connective Tissue Proper: made up of fibroblast cell and fibrocyte cell Loose Connective Tissue relatively few fibers Areolar mostly collagenous fibers, widely spaced, water/loose ground substances, fills body spaces (abundant) Adipose “fat filled,” poor heat conduction, GREAT insulators Reticular highly concentrated network of reticular fibers, forms skeleton of organs Dense Connective Tissue pack filled with fibers Regular contain collagenous fibers, arranged in a parallel array, found in tendons and ligaments, strong, but not supplied with blood vessels Irregular contain collagenous fibers, intertwined arrangements, found in fibrous capsule, and dermis Elastic contain elastic fibers, found in very large arteries (close to the heart) and vocal cords Cartilage: made up of chondroblast and chondrocyte cells, extracellular matrix has a ground substance of chondrin, contain lacunae (little holes where cells are found), has a perichondrium membrane that is supplied with blood vessels Hyaline firm but pliable, gives a glassy appearance, relatively large amounts of collagenous fibers, found on costal cartilage embryonic skeleton, articular cartilage, and in trachea Elastic fibers not so closely packet, highly concentrated with elastic fibers, found in external ear, epiglottis Fibrocartilage fibers are found in bundles, contain some elastic fibers, compressible, intervertebral discs Chapter 5: The Integumentary System Overview: Consists of the hair, skin, nails, and glands Protection (bacteria, water, UV radiation) Regulates body temperature Excretion (sweat) Sensation Vitamin D production 92415 Skin Epidermis most superficial, made up of stratified squamous epithelial tissue, keratinocytes Layers: Stratum Corneum intercellular space, contains lipids, cells are filled with keratin filament Stratum Lucidum found ONLY in thick skin, Stratum Granulosum beginning to fill up with lipid granules, most superficial are dead Stratum Spinosum beginning to fill with keratin filaments Stratum Basale contains dividing cells Melanocytes produce melanin (dark pigment), protects against UV radiation Merkel’s sensory cells, involved in light touch Langerhans phagocytic Dermis deep to the epidermis, made up of dense irregular connective and areolar connective tissue Papillary (papillae, contains blood vessels) upper portion, made up of areolar connective tissue Reticular lower portion, made up of dense regular connective tissue Hypodermis deep to dermis, made up of areolar and adipose connective tissue Sweat Glands Eccrine merocrine mode of secretion, substances are released onto the surface of the skin, contains water, salts, phosphate, urea, etc. Apocrine merocrine mode of secretion, secrete “fatty substances,” fairly large, empty into hair follicles Ceruminous produce ear wax Sebaceous holocrine mode of secretion, empty into hair follicles, contains sebum (oil), keeps skin from drying out and is toxic to bacteria Skin Cancers Basal Cell Carcinoma originates from the stratum basale, curable Squamous Cell Carcinoma originates from the stratum spinosum, curable Malignant Melanoma originates from melanocytes, difficult to cure and deadly Hair functions as warmth, protection, and alertness Hair Follicle below the surface of the skin Hair Shaft above the surface of the skin Medulla center, hollow Cortex middle, contains pigments Cuticle harden outside Arrector Pili Muscle responsible for goose bumps Hair Bulb where the hair originates Hair Matrix contains dividing cell Chapter 6: Bones and Skeletal Tissues Overview: 206 bones Axial Skeleton (80), Appendicular (Appendages) (126) Endoskeleton found inside of the body Support Storage Protection Determines Movement Mineral Reservoir (Calcium) Hemoptysis red blood cell formation, occurs in bone marrow 92915 Made up of Connective Tissue Cells: Osteoblasts/Osteocytes make up bone Osteoclasts break down bone Extracellular Matrix: Collagenous Fibers (resists bending/tensile strength) Inorganic Salts, Calcium, and Phosphate (give bone compressional strength) Classification of Bone by Shape: Short Bones found in hands and feet Ex. Carpals, and tarsals Flat Bones found in skull, sternum and ribs Long Bones found arms, forearms, legs, and thighs Ex. Humors, Radius, Ulna, Fibula, and Tibia Consists of: Articular Cartilage (hyaline) on top and bottom surfaces Periosteum double layer membrane coating bone Endosteum membrane coating Medullary Cavity Perforating Fibers attach periosteum to the bone Proximal/Distal Epiphysis (two heads) Diaphysis (body) Medullary Cavity filled with yellow bone marrow (fat) Growth (Length): increase in length is due to cell division at epiphyseal plate (epiphyseal line no more cartilage, strictly bone), deficiency in growth hormone produces a pituitary dwarf (short long bones), continuing secretion in growth hormone produces a pituitary giant (long long bones) Before Birth (diaphysis ossified) shaft becomes bone Shortly After Birth (epiphysis ossified) pit becomes bone Irregular Bones don’t fit into other categories Ex. Vertebra Bone Structure: Compact Bone found on the surface of all bones, very strong (Haversian System): Osteons structure of compact bone, canal contains nerves, veins, and arteries Lacunae openings found in compact bone, osteoblasts/osteocytes are found here Canaliculi “cracks in the bone” nutrients and waste diffuse through Lamelle layers of bone, organizes lacuna Volkmann’s Canal run perpendicular to compact bone, bring in nerves and blood vessels Spongey Bone found in the inside of all bones, excluding the diaphysis of long bones Trabecule Red Bone Marrowinvolved in hemopoietin (red blood cell formation) Yellow Marrow Cavity found in the diaphysis, fat Bone Development: Endochondral nearly all bones conversion of hyaline cartilage to bone, bony collar is layed down and it works from the outside in Intramembranous flat bones of skull, some facial bones. starts with matrix of collagenous fibers Bone Remodeling: Occurs by remodel packets which contain osteoblasts/osteoclasts Cells produce acids which erode (breaks down) the bone Bone deposition osteoblasts lay down the Control: Feedback hormonal mechanisms Calcium Decrease: parathyroid hormone secretes substance that stimulates osteoclasts to release Calcium to the bones Calcium Increase: cykcutoin released by thyroid inhibits the production of osteoclasts which release Calcium to the bones Response to stress and gravitational pull Disorders: Rickets Vitamin D deficiency, poor uptake of Calcium, soft bones, bowed legs Osteoporosis loss of bones mass, brittle bones, common in women Cure Calcium, Estrogen, and Exercise Fractures: Simple broken bone into two pieces, ends do not protrude into the skin Compound broken into two pieces, ends protrude into skin Comminuted splintering Depressed bones pushed inward Heal easy because of abundance in blood supply Healing: Blood clot forms (hematoma) Fibrocartilaginous Callus forms Osteoblasts invade and form a Bony Callus (spongey bone forms) Bone remodeling occurs (compact bone forms) 10115 Types of Bstns: 1 Degree Burns harms ONLY the epidermis, causes redness 2 Degree Burns destroys epidermis and some of dermis, blisters form 3 Degree Burns destroys both the dermis and epidermis, regenerates from the edges Chapter 8: Joints contain articular cartilage (hyaline), Articular (Joint) Capsule > Fibrous Capsule > Synovial Membrane & Fluid, some have fibrocartilage Bursae “cushion”, fluid filled sacs between skin and bone, tendon and bone or ligament and bone Bursitis inflammation of the bursae Tendon Sheaths “cushion for tendons,” reduces friction, tendon going over bone Tendonitis inflammation of tendon sheath Types of Joints Nonaxial movement can occur in any direction, limited by ligaments Plane movement can occur in any direction, limited by ligaments found between carpals, metacarpals, and tarsals Uniaxial movement in one plane flexion and extension Hinge found in knees, elbows, and between phalanges Pivot rotation around an axis, found in proximal joint between radius and ulna Biaxial movement in two planes, flexion and extension, adduction, and abduction, and circumduction Condyloid found between radius and carpals, and metacarpals and phalanges Saddle found between carpal and metacarpals (on thumb) Multiaxial allows all movement BallandSocket shoulders and hips Classification of Joints (Movement) Synarthroses no movement Amphiarthroses slight movement Diarthroses a lot of movement Classification of Joints (Structure) Fibrous ligaments (dense regular connective tissue) Sutures found only in skull Fontanel soft spots (found only in infants) Synostosis bone fuse in early adulthood (no movement) Syndesmosis ligaments holding bone together, found in the Radius, Ulna, (Amphiarthroses) Tibia, and Fibula (synarthroses) Cartilaginous cartilage Synchondroses made of hyaline cartilage, found between epiphysis and diaphysis and costal cartilages Symphyses made of fibrocartilage, found in vertebral discs and pubic synthesis Synovial joint cavity and synovial fluid, Flexion decreases the angle between two parts Dorsiflexion moving towards shin Extension increases the angle between two parts Planter Flexion “pointing your toes” Hyperextension exceeding the extension angle Abduction away from midline Adduction towards midline Circumduction generating a cone Rotation movements around an axis Elevation raise Depression lower Supination outward rotation (wrists) Pronation inward rotation (wrists) 101215 Diseases of Joints: Arthritis inflammation of the joints Osteoarthritis most common, “wear and tear” arthritis, articular cartilage degenerates Rheumatoid effects small joints due to inflammation of the synovial membrane, very painful, autoimmune Gouty (The Gout) uric acid crystals deposited in the joint, frequently starts in the big toe, genetic Chapter 9: Muscles & Muscle Tissue Overview: Functions Motion (Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac) Posture Heat conversion of ATP into kinetic energy Vascular (good blood supply) Functional Characteristics Excitability Contractility from long to short Types of Muscle Type Skeletal Cardiac Smooth (Visceral) Location attached to bone found in the heart found in the walls of hallow tubes (digestive tract, blood vessels, etc.) Nervous Stimulation Voluntary movement Involuntary movement Involuntary Movement Structure Long, multinucleated, Monodinucleated, Mononucleated, not striated striated, cylindershort, striated, SMOOTH intercalated discs Voluntary Movement controlled by the somatic nervous system Involuntary Movement controlled by the autonomic nervous system Striations dark regions (A band), light regions (I band), highly organized structures of myofilaments Skeletal Muscle: Gross Anatomy whole muscle, fascicle (group of muscle cells), muscle fiber Epimysium membrane covering the muscle, forms tendons Perimysium membrane covering the fascicle Endomysium membrane covering the muscle fiber Sarcolemma plasma membrane of a muscle fiber Sarcoplasm cytoplasm of a muscle fiber Sarcoplasmic Reticulum smooth ER of a muscle fiber, contains the terminal cisterna which stores Calcium Transverse Tubules “caves” continuous of the Sarcolemma, directly connected to the plasma membrane, burrows into the center of the muscle fiber Triad terminal cisterna sandwiching one transverse tubule Myofibrils 10100 per cell, striated, made up of myofilaments, Z discs and M lines (thin filaments), contains actin, subunits twisted into a helix containing two types of regulatory proteins: tropomyosin (blocks interactions of thick and thin filaments in resting muscle) and troponin (composed of TNI (binds to actin), TNT (binds to tropomyosin), and TNC (binds to Calcium) (thick filaments), contains myosin (rodlike tail and head/cross bridge), cross bridge binds to thin filaments, and can be mutant (ATP > ADP + P = ENEGY), supporting muscle contraction, arranged so that tails are facing each other and heads are facing outward, bart zone is the space in between Sarcomere basic unit of structure in Skeletal Muscle, from one Z disc to another Z disc 101515 Muscle Contraction of Skeletal Muscle (regulated by CALCIUM) Distance between Zdiscs becomes shorter due to Sliding Filaments (Myosin heads come in contact with the Thin Filaments and tugs then inward); Thin and Thick Filaments DO NOT shorten Contraction Cycle: 1. Cross Bridgehead Attachment/Formation a. ADP+Pi 2. Power Stroke (Working) a. “shortening” cross bridge (myosin head) changes structure b. ADP + Pi dissociate from cross bridge 3. Cross bridge detachment a. upon ATP binding to cross bridge 4. Cocking of myosin head a. returns myosin head back to original structure Rigor Mortis peaks after 1012 hours of death “stiffness” after death due to lack of ATP, Calcium is present in sarcoplasm Calcium Regulation stimulated by a motor neuron (axon terminals), doesn’t touch muscle directly, but by the synaptic cleft/neuromuscular junction/synapse (space in between nerve and muscle) synaptic vesicles location in synaptic cleft, contains the neurotransmitter (Acetylcholine) 1. Signal (action potential on the membrane) travels down the nerve 2. Neurotransmitter (Acetylcholine) is released into the synaptic cleft 3. Acetylcholine diffuses across the cleft binding to the receptors in skeletal muscle 4. Initiates action potential all over the sarcolemma membrane 5. Travels down the transverse tubules, triggering the release of Calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum In the absence of Calcium in the sarcoplasm (tropomyosin blocking myosin binding to actin), In the presence of Calcium in the sarcoplasm the Sarcoplasmic Reticulum is stimulated to release Calcium by TNC (removing tropomyosin block on myosin binding actin) Muscle Relaxation of Skeletal Muscle Acetylcholinesterase found in the synaptic cleft, destroys Acetylcholine Pumps in the sarcoplasm Calcium back into the sarcoplasmic reticulum (calsequestrin) Myogram graph the plots the tension (force generated by a contraction) and time (milliseconds); tension occurs during “power stroke” Latent Period muscle is stimulated, no tension is developed Period of Contraction tension is developed Period of Relaxation tension decreases DIFFERENT muscles have DIFFERENT periods of relaxation and contraction (number of myosin and mechanisms that generate ATP) Ex. Extraocular muscles (lateral rectus), Gastrocnemius, and Soleus 102715 Generation of Smooth Contractions: 1. Wave Summation increase in frequency of the stimulus Complete Tetanus (Smooth Contraction) 2. Multiple Motor Unit Summation motor unit (motor neuron) + fibers that the neuron supplies, fibers are NOT clustered together but spread throughout the muscle, 10200 per muscle Both motor units are equal in tension (smooth) Isotonic Contractions tension developed by the muscle is greater than the load Isometric Contractions the load is greater than the tension developed by the muscle Factors Effecting Force (Tensions) of Contractions: 1. Warm Up (Treppe) 2. Size of Muscles 3. Number of Fibers Contracting/Motor Units Activated 4. Frequency of Stimulation 5. Muscle Stretch stretched or shortened muscle develops less tension Energy (ATP) Soluble ATP (present in Sarcoplasm), short intensive exercise lasts about 5 secs CreatineP (stored in bond) + ADP > Creatine + ATP, short intensive exercise lasts about 1020 sec Aerobic Respiration (requires oxygen), long extensive exercise lasts for hours glucose + O2 > CO2 + H2O which generates ATP 1. Glycolysis (occurs in cytoplasm), converts glucose into two molecules of pyruvic acid (converts ADP to ATP, some/little energy) 2. Oxidative Phosphorylation(occurs in mitochondria) oxygen is inputted to release CO2 and H2O (converts ADP to ATP, 20x more energy) Anaerobic Respiration (does NOT require oxygen), medium intensive exercise lasts for 4060 secs pyruvic acid converts to lactic acid Oxygen Debt more ATP is being used than is being generated by the complete aerobic pathway Muscle Fatigue caused by low ATP levels which can cause cramps, acidification and buildup of lactic acid, and a loss of K, and Na Fiber Types of Skeletal Muscle: SlowOxidative (red) fatigue resistant, slow twitch, myosin (slow), contains myoglobin that binds oxygen and stores oxygen in fibers, relatively small, made up of many mitochondria, specialized for aerobic respiration Fast Oxidative (pink) fatigue resistant, high myoglobin, myosin (fast), contains many mitochondria Fast Glycolytic (white) fatigable, fast twitch, myosin (fast), contains little or no myoglobin and high levels of glycolytic enzymes, broad fiber, few mitochondria, high glycogen Muscles are a MIXTURE of DIFFERENT fiber types 103015 Smooth Muscle: Single Unit cells are arranged in sheet, contracts/responds in unison, one neuron for MANY cells MultiUnit no structure, (arrector pili, internal eye muscles) one neuron per cell Thin/thick filament ration (1:13), more thick filaments No Troponin, No TTubules No Sarcomere, No myofibrils Dense bodies intermediate filaments Thin filaments attach to dense bodies Caveolae high concentration of Calcium LACKS elaborate coverings (arranged into sheets) Longitudinal parallel to the long axis Circular wraps “around”, perpendicular to long axis LACKS highly structured neuromuscular junctions wide synaptic cleft (diffuse junctions) Varicosities release neurotransmitters into diffuse junctions Muscle Contraction of Smooth Muscle: Slow synchronized contractions Sheet responds because all cells are joined by “gap junctions” (connects membranes of cells) Muscle Contraction Regulated by CALCIUM Calcium is released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and flows in from the outside of the cell (Caveolae) 1. Nervous Stimulations (motor neurons of the automatic nervous system) Acetylcholine stimulates inhibits Norepinephrinestimulates/inhibits 2. NOT Nervous Stimulations Pacemaker Cells Hormones, pH ATPase 10x as active as skeletal ATPase, latent period of 2050x’s longer (long to get going), remains contracted 20100x’s longer (stays contracted), uses 1% of energy used by skeletal muscle (less energy) Disorders of Smooth Muscle: Fraccid less than normal muscle tone Atrophy wasting of muscles due to disuse Hypertrophy muscle enlargement Muscular Dystrophies “genetic” muscle wasting disease, effects connection of muscle fiber to endomysium Duchenne’s progressive muscle degeneration, X linked XX (female) carriers XX (female) expresses disease XY (male) expresses disease Development of Regeneration of Muscles Skeletal injury causes satellite cells to divide and fuses creating more muscle fibers however there is a LIMITED CAPACITY Cardiac injury causes the generation of connective tissues IRREPLACEABLE Smooth injury allows cells to regenerate throughout life 11315 Chapter 11: Fundamentals of the Nervous System and Nervous Tissue Fast response system Stimulus > Sensory Nerve Cells > Integration (signal travels to spinal cord and brain) > Motor Neuron > Muscles/Glands Central Nervous System (CNS) brain and spinal cord, control center (motor output) Supporting Cells (Central Nervous System) “Glial Cells” Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons Astrocytes contact neuron and capillaries, structural Microglial Cells “phagocytic,” protect the brain, can transform into other cells Ependymal Cells line ventricles (fluid filled cavities) found in the brain Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) nerves that connect parts of the body to the brain and spinal cord Sensory (afferent) Division somatic (fast response), visceral (slow response) Motor (efferent) Division somatic (voluntary), autonomic (involuntary) The Autonomic Nervous System can by Sympathetic or Parasympathetic Supporting Cells (Peripheral Nervous System) Schwann Cells increases speed of action potential Myelin Sheath “whitish” myelinated cells, caused by Schwann Cells (wraps around axons repeatedly), lipid membrane Neurilemma outside layer of Schwann Cell which contains cytoplasm Node of Ranvier gap between Schwann cells Satellite Cells structural support and protection Neurons functional units of the nervous system, nerve cells extreme longevity, amitotic (do not divide), high metabolic rate (use lots of ATP) Cell Body biosynthetic center of the cell Dendrites carry signals towards the cell body Axons carry signals away from the cell body Substances move up and down the axon by Axonal Transport (very fast, cytoskeleton, carries information in both directions) Axoplasmic Flow (much slower, carries information away from cell body) Nerve Fiber axon and covering Nerve bundles of nerve fibers in PNS Tract bundles of nerve fibers in CNS “BloodBrain Barrier” capillaries in the brain don’t let certain substance to diffuse, only Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Water, Glucose, etc. Classification by Number of Processes Connected By Cell Body Bipolar rare, found in some sensory organs, mostly chemically gated Unipolar found mainly in PNS, found only in spinal cord or cranial nerves, mostly voltage gated Multipolar very common, most abundant in the body, mostly voltage gated Classification by Function Sensory (afferent) carrying information towards CNS Motor (efferent) carries information away from CNS and supplies muscles Intern uncial (Association) connects one part of CNS to another Neurophysiology: separated (+) and () charges have potential energy, measured in volts Current flow of charge from one point to another (ions) The cell membrane of a neuron has a separated of charge and is said to be “polarized” (negative inside, positive outside), 70 mV, caused by ion channels membrane proteins that allow ions to pass through (specific, and selective) Passive or Leakage always open Gated or Active open and close in response to signals (regulated) Chemically Gated (neurotransmitter) Voltage Gated (changes in voltage across cell membrane of neuron) Outside of Cell 150 mm Sodium (Na), 15 mm Potassium (K) Inside of Cell 150 mm Potassium (K), 15 mm Sodium (Na) 11515 Chemical Gradient (concentration gradient) Na into the cell positive, favorable K out of the cell positive, favorable Cl into the cell positive, favorable Electrical Gradient opposite charges attraction, same charges repel, positive Na into the cell positive, favorable K out of the cell negative, unfavorable Cl into the cell negative, unfavorable Both together are called the “Electrochemical Gradient” Resting Membrane Potential not stimulation, at rest 70 mV, K leakage channels allow more flow than Na leakage channels Depolarization change toward “0”(less negative, more positive) Membrane is initially depolarized to 50 to 55 mV (Threshold), voltage gated Na ion channels open, causing further depolarization and opening of other voltage gated Na ion channels, until membrane potential is +30 mV and voltage gated Na ion channels close Absolute Refractory Period period when a new action potential cannot be generated (Stimulus Depolarization) Repolarization Voltage gated K ion channels open and K flows out of the cell repolarizing the membrane Hyperpolarization away from “0” (more negative, less positive) Relative Refractory Period needs a strong signal (RepolarizationAfter Hyperpolarization) Graded Potential short lived, local changes in potential, act over short distances Action Potential act over a long distance, found only on muscle and nerve cells, require voltage gated channel, caused by permeability changes in the plasma membrane Resting State > Depolarization > Repolarization > Hyperpolarization (travels down axons) Propagation due to lateral (sideways) diffusion of Na which is depolarizes adjacent patch to threshold Intensity decoded by frequency of action potential generated Conduction Velocity: Larger Diameter (faster) Myelin Sheath (faster) “salutatory conduction” hopping Types of Axons A: fast, large diameter, myelinated, supply skeletal muscle B: intermediate, intermediate diameter, lightly myelinated, supply smooth muscle C: slow, unmyelinated, supply smooth muscles 111015 Synapse nerve communicates with a muscle fiber or another nerve (relatively SLOW process) Electrical NO cleft, channels connect the two neurons (smooth muscle & in brain) Chemical 1. Action potential travels to axon terminal 2. Voltage gates Ca channels open, Ca moves into the cell 3. Ca promotes fusion of synaptic vesicles with cell membrane causing the release of neurotransmitter 4. Neurotransmitter diffuses across the cleft and binds to a receptor 5. Ion channels open or close 6. “Resetting” Ca is pumped out of the cell and neurotransmitter is destroyed, diffuses away, or is taken up by presynaptic neuron Presynaptic Neuron sending Axodendritic synapsing with dendrite Axosomatic synapsing with cell body Axoaxonic synapsing with axon Postsynaptic Neuron receiving EPSP excitatory postsynaptic potential, takes place when membrane is depolarized, neurotransmitter opens chemically gated ion channels to let both K and Na to flow through, brings neuron closer to AP threshold ONE EPSP is usually NOT ENOUGH to stimulate AP IPSP inhibitory postsynaptic potential, takes place when membrane is hyperpolarized, neurotransmitter opens chemically gated ion channels letting both K and Cl to flow through, neuron away from AP threshold Axon Hillock where voltage gated ion channels are first found Temporal Summation Spatial Summation 2 simultaneous stimuli at different locations cause EPSPs that add together Adaptation uncoupling of the relationship between stimulus strength and generation of action potential Synaptic Potentiation repeated stimulation increases action potential, caused by release of more Ca, neurotransmitters, receptors, or partially depolarized membranes Neurotransmitters stimulates/inhibits generation of action potential, approximately 50 Chemical Structure 1. Acetylcholine 2. Biogenic Amines (produce d from an amino acid) a. Norepinephrine &Epinephrine 3. Amino Acids a. Glycine b. Gamma Amino Butyric Acid (GABA) 4. Peptide a. Endorphins & Encephalin Function Excitatory causes depolarization of the membrane Acetylcholine Inhibitory causes hyperpolarization of the membrane Acetylcholine, Glycine, & GABA Receptors ChannelLinked Receptors ion channel, direct action (FAST) GProteinLinked Receptors activates a “G protein”, initiating a signal transduction pathway producing second messenger causes effects on translation, transcription, and enzyme activity (SLOW) Neuronal Pools functional groups of neurons that process information Diverging information from one sensory neuron “diverges” and is carried onto multiple neuron, amplifying effect, very common in both motor and sensory pathways Converging concentrating effect, very common in both motor and sensory pathways Reverberating/Oscillating “cyclic,” continues output, involved in arm swinging, short term memory and respiratory cycle Parallel After Discharge multiple pathways, involved in higher mental functions (math) 111215 Chapter 12: The Central Nervous System Parts of the Brain Cerebrum largest part of the brain divided into two hemispheres White Matter myelinated axon Projection Tracts carries information from cerebral cortex to other parts of the brain Association Tracts connects parts of the brain within one hemisphere Commissural Tracts connects right and left hemispheres Corpus Callosum allows transfer of learning from one side to the other Grey Matter unmyelinated axons and nerve cell bodies Cerebral Cortex “
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