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Bio243 Vocabulary List

by: Shir'Mel C. McCullough

Bio243 Vocabulary List BIOL 243

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Biology > BIOL 243 > Bio243 Vocabulary List
Shir'Mel C. McCullough
GPA 3.7

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This vocabulary list covers terms used throughout the ENTIRE year and is organized by chapter.
Human Anatomy and Physiology I
Lewis Bowman
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Shir'Mel C. McCullough on Wednesday August 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 243 at University of South Carolina taught by Lewis Bowman in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I in Biology at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 08/10/16
Shir’Mel McCullough Bio 243: Anatomy & Physiology Running Vocabulary List Term Page Definition Chapter One: The Human Body: An Orientation Anatomy 1 How the body is built; The study of body  structure Physiology 1 How the body works; The study of body  functions Gross (Microscopic) Anatomy 2 The study of large body structures visible to the “naked eye” Regional Anatomy 2 All structures in a particular “region” of  the body Systemic Anatomy 2 The study of body structures by system Surface Anatomy 2 The study of internal structures  Anatomy 1 How the body is built; The study of body  structure. Physiology 1 How the body works; The study of body  functions Gross (Microscopic) Anatomy 2 The study of large body structures visible to the “naked eye” Regional Anatomy 2 All structures in a particular “region” of  the body Surface Anatomy 2 The study of internal structures as they  relate to the overlying skin surface Microscopic Anatomy 2 Structures too small to be seen with the  naked eye Cytology 2 The study of cells Histology 2 The study of tissues Embryology 2 The study of developmental changes that  occur before birth Principle of Complementarity of Structure 2 Function reflecting structure; What a  & Function structure can do depends on its form Epithelium Tissues 4 Covers the body surface and lines its  cavities Muscle Tissue 4 Provides movement Connective Tissue 4 Supports and protects body organs Nervous Tissue 4 Provides a means of rapid internal  communication by transmitting electrical  impulses Maintaining Boundaries 5 Internal and external environments  remain distinct Movement 5 Activities promoted by the muscular  1 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition system Responsiveness/Excitability 5 The ability to sense changes (stimuli) in  the environment and then respond Digestion 5 The breaking down of ingested foodstuffs to simple molecules that can be absorbed  into the blood Metabolism 5 All chemical reactions occurring in body  cells Excretion 5 Removal if wastes or excreta from the  body Reproduction 5 Cells dividing to produce two identical  daughter cells (cellular); making of a  whole new organism (organismal) Growth  5 An increase in size of a body part or the  organism as a whole Homeostasis 8 To maintain relatively internal conditions Negative Feedback  9 Prevent severe changes within the body,  maintain stability Positive Feedback 10 Enhances the original stimulus,  accelerating/amplifying response Axial 12 Head, neck, and trunk Appendicular 16 “appendages” or “limbs”; attachments to  the body axis Superior 13 Toward the head end or upper part  Inferior 13 Away from head end or lower part Anterior 13 In front of Posterior 13 Behind Medial 13 On the inner side; in between Lateral 13 On the outer side Intermediate 13 Between a medial or lateral structure Proximal 13 Closer to the origin of a body part Distal 13 Away from the origin of a body part Superficial (external) 13 Toward or at the body surface Deep (internal) 13 Away from body surface Sagittal Plane 16 (vertical) Divides the body left to right Frontal Plane 16 (vertical) Divides the body into anterior  and posterior Transverse Plane 16 (horizontal) divides the body into  superior and inferior Dorsal Body Cavity 17 Protects the nervous system organs;  includes the cranial (brain) and spinal  (spine) cavity 2 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition Ventral Body Cavity 18 Includes thoracic and abdominopelvic  cavity Thoracic Cavity 18 Divided into the pleural (lungs) and  mediastinum cavity. The mediastinum  cavity contains the pericardial (heart)  cavity Abdominopelvic Cavity 18 Contains the abdominal (stomach,  intestines, spleen, liver, etc.) and pelvic  (urinary bladder, reproductive organs,  and rectum) cavities. Serosa (Membrane) 18 Lines the walls of the ventral body cavity (parietal) and the outer surface of organs  (visceral) Serous Fluid 18 Fluid separating the serous membranes Oral Cavity 18 Contains mouth, teeth, and tongue Nasal Cavity 18 Posterior to the nose Orbital Cavities 18 Houses the eyes “eye sockets” Middle Ear Cavities 18 Medial to eardrums; contain tiny bones  that transmit sound vibrations to the  hearing receptors to the inner ears Synovial Cavities 28 Joint cavities Chapter Two: Chemistry Comes Alive Matter 24 Anything that occupies space and has  mass Energy 24 The capacity to do work; has no mass  and takes up no space Kinetic Energy 24 Energy in action Potential  Energy 24 Stored energy; inactive energy that has  the “potential” to do work, but is not  presently doing so Chemical Energy 24 Stored in the bonds of chemical  substances Electrical Energy 24 Results from the movement of charged  particles Mechanical Energy 24 Directly involved in moving matter Radiant Energy (EMR) 24 Energy that travel in waves Elements 25 Unique substances that cannot be broken  down into smaller substances Periodic Table 25 Organizes elements and explains  properties Atoms 25 “building blocks” or make up of elements Atomic symbol 25 Designates elements by a one­or­two  3 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition letter chemical shorthand Nucleus 25 Contains protons, and neutrons, accounts  for the mass of an atom Protons 25 Positively charged; found in nucleus of  atom Neutrons 25 Neutrally charged; found in nucleus of  atom Electrons 25 Negatively charged; found in electron  cloud Planetary Model 26 Simplified model of atom; depicts  electrons in fixed circular orbits Orbitals 26 Regions around the nucleus where  electrons are likely to be found Orbital Model 26 Modern model of atom; depicts probable  regions of greatest electron density with  shading Atomic Number 27 Equal to the number of protons and  electrons Mass Number 27 The sum of protons and neutrons Isotopes 27 Structural variations of elements; same  number of protons, different number of  neutrons Atomic Weight 28 Approximately equal to the mass number of the most abundant isotope of an atom Radioisotopes 28 Unstable isotopes of elements;  decompose spontaneously into more  stable forms Half­life 28 The time required for s radioisotope to  lose one­half of its activity  Molecule 28 A combination of two or more atoms  held together by chemical bonds Compound 28 Two or more different kinds of atoms  bounded together Mixtures 29 Substances composed of two or more  components physically intermixed Solutions 29 Homogenous mixtures of components  that may be gases, liquids, or solids Solvent 29 The substance present in the greatest  amount ; dissolves the medium Solute 29 Substances present in smaller amounts;  dissolved in the solvent Molarity (M) 29 Expresses concentration; moles per liter 4 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition Mole 29 Equal to the element or compounds  atomic weight or molecular weight Avogadro’s Number 30 6.02 x 1023 molecules of a substance Colloids (emulsions) 30 Heterogeneous mixtures, often  translucent or milk, and have the ability  to sol­gel transform Suspensions 30 Heterogeneous mixtures with large often  visible particles Chemical Bonds 31 An energy relationship between the  electrons of the reacting atoms Electron Shells/Energy Level 31 Houses electrons; collectively surrounds  the nucleus Chemically Inert 31 Unreactive Valence Shell 31 An atom’s outermost energy level Ions 32 Charged particles Ionic Bond 32 A chemical bond between atoms formed  by the transfer of one or more electrons  from one atom to another Anion 32 An ion with a negative charge Cation 32 An ion with a positive charge Crystals 32 Large arrays of cations and anions held  together by ionic bonds Covalent Bond 32 Shared electrons occupy a single orbital  common to both atoms Nonpolar Molecules 34 Electrons are shared equally between  atoms; electrically balanced Polar Molecules 34 Unequal sharing of electrons; electrically  unbalanced Dipole 34 Molecules with two poles of charge Surface Tension 34 Clinging of water molecules to form  films Intramolecular Bonds 35 Bonds within molecules Chemical Reaction 35 The forming, rearranging, and breaking  of chemical bonds Reactants 35 The number and kinds of interacting  substances Products 35 The chemical composition of the result of the reactions Relative Proportions 35 Found in balanced equations Synthesis (Combination) Reaction 36 The combing of atoms or molecules to  form a larger more complex molecule Anabolic 36 Constructive 5 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition Decomposition Reaction 36 The breaking down of atoms or  molecules into smaller parts Catabolic 36 Degradative Displacement (Exchange) Reaction 36 The combination and breakdown of  atoms and molecules Redox (Oxidation­Reduction) Reactions 36 The basis of all reactions in which food  fuels are broken down for energy Oxidized 36 The reactant losing electrons; “electron  donor” Reduced 36 The reactant taking up the transferred  electrons; “electron acceptor” Exergonic Reactions 37 Reactions that release energy Endergonic Reactions 37 Reactions that absorb energy Chemical Equilibrium 37 For each molecule of product, one  product  molecule breaks down releasing  the reactants A and B Catalysts 38 Substances that increase the rate of  chemical reactions without themselves  becoming chemically changed or part of  the product Biochemistry 38  The study of chemical composition and  reactions of living matter Organic Compounds 38 Containing carbon Inorganic Compounds 38 Not containing carbon Hydration Layers 38 Layers of water molecules Salt 38 An ionic com+ound containing cations­ other than H  an anions other than OH Electrolytes 39 Substances that conduct an electrical  current in solution Polyatomic Ions 39 Groups of atoms that bear an overall  charge  Acids 39 A substance that releases H  in detectable amounts; proton donors ­ Bases 39 A substance that releases OH in  detectable amounts; proton acceptors pH Units 40 The measurement of hydrogen ions in a  substance + ­ Neutralization Reaction 40 The joining of H  and OH ions Buffers 41 Regulate homoeostasis of acid­base  balance Strong Acid/Base 41 Acids that dissociate completely and  irreversibly in water 6 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition Weak Acid/Base 41 Acids that do not dissociate completely  in water Electroneutral 42 To neither loose or gain electrons Polymers 42 Chainlike molecules made of monomers Dehydration Synthesis 42 Removal of a water molecule to join  monomers Hydrolysis 42 Addition of a water molecule to split  monomers Carbohydrates 42 Incudes sugars and starches; provide a  ready, easily used source of cellar fuel to  the body Monosaccharides 43 “simple sugars”; single­chain/ring  structures Isomers 43 Same molecular formula with differently  arranged atoms causing different  chemical properties Disaccharides 43 “double sugars” formed when two  monosaccharides are joined Polysaccharides 44 Polymers of simple sugars; ideal storage  products Starch 44 The storage carbohydrate of plants Glycogen 44 The storage carbohydrate of animal  tissues; stored primarily in skeletal  muscles and liver cells Lipids 44 Insulate body organs, build cell  membranes, and provide stored energy;  insoluble in water Triglycerides 45 Composed of fatty acids and glycerol;  “neutral fats” the body’s most efficient  and compact  form of stored energy Saturated Fats 47 Single covalently bonded carbon atoms Unsaturated fats 47 Fatty acids contained one or more double bonds between carbon atoms Phospholipids 47 Composed of a hydrophilic head and  hydrophobic head Steroids 47 Four interlocking hydrocarbon rings; fat  soluble Cholesterol 47 Found in cell membranes; raw material  for synthesis of vitamin D, steroid  hormones, and bile salts; vital to  homoeostasis Eicosanoids 47 Derived from 20­carbon fatty acid; play  vital roles in blood clotting, regulation of  7 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition blood pressure, inflammation, and labor  contractions Proteins 47 Basic structural material of the body,  play vital roles in cell function;  Amino Acids 47 Building blocks of proteins; composed of an amine group and an organic acid  group; differ in “R­groups”; 20 common  types Peptide bonds 48 Bond amino acids Macromolecule 48 Large, complex molecules contained  from 100 to over 10,000 amino acids Primary Structure 48 Linear sequence of amino acids;  backbone of the protein molecule Secondary Structure 48 Twisting or bending of amino acids Alpha Helix 48 “coiled spring”; stabilized by hydrogen  bonds Beta Pleated Sheets 48 “pleated, ribbon­like”; stabilized by  hydrogen bonds Tertiary Structure 48 “globular” formation of amino acids Fibrous (Structural) Proteins 49 Extended and “strand­like”; insoluble in  water, very stable Globular (Functional) Proteins 49 Compact and “spherical”; water soluble,  chemically active, play vital roles in all  biological processes Denatured 50 Protein loses shape due to change in pH  or temperature Irreversibly Denatured 50 Damage of a protein beyond repair Enzymes 51 Globular proteins that act as biological  catalysts; “chemical traffic cops”, named  for the type of reaction they catalyze, “­ ase.” Active Site 51 The part of the enzyme where catalytic  activity occurs Substrate 51 The substance on which an enzyme acts Activation Energy 51 The amount of energy needed in a  chemical reaction Nucleic Acids 52 Largest molecules of the body Nucleotides 52 Building blocks of nucleic acids;  composed of a nitrogen­containing base,  a pentose sugar, and a phosphate group Purine 53 Two ring bases  Pyrimidines 53 Single ring bases 8 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition DNA 54 Found in the nucleus of a cell, double  stranded, contain deoxyribose, (ATCG),  contains genetic material and provides  basic instruction for building every  protein in the body RNA 54 Found outside of nucleus, single  stranded, contains ribose, (AUCG),  “molecular­slave” of DNA ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) 54 Primary energy­ transforming molecule  in cells Chapter Three: “Cells: The Living Units” Cell Theory 61 Cells are the basic unit of structure of all  living things and cells can only arise  from other cells Principle of Complementary of Structure  61 The activities of cells are dictated by  and Function their shapes or forms, and by the relative  number of the sub­cellular structures they contain Hydrophillic  65 “polar” water loving Hydrophobic 65 “non polar” water fearing Glycolipids 65 Lipids with sugar groups attached Integral Proteins 65 Firmly inserted into the lipid bilayer Transmembrane Proteins 65 Span the entire membrane Channels 66 Pores involved in transport  Carriers 66 Bind to substances to aid in transport Signal Transduction 66 Rely messages to the cell interior Peripheral Proteins 66 Not embedded in membrane, attached to  integral proteins Tight Junction 67 An impermeable junction that encircles  the cell Desmosomes 67 “binding bodies” Gap Junctions 68 Cells are connected by hollow cylinders  called connexons Passive Processes 68 Substances cross the membrane without  any energy input from the cell Active Processes 68 The cell provides the metabolic energy  needed to move substance across the  membrane Diffusion 68 Moving from areas of high concentration  to areas of low concentration Facilitated Diffusion 69 Substances are transport across the  membrane with aid of a protein 9 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition Osmosis 70 The diffusion of a solvent through a  selectively permeable membrane Aquaporins (AQP’s) 70 Water specific channels constructed by  transmembrane proteins Osmolarity 70 The total concentration of all solute  particles in a solution Hydrostatic Pressure 71 The back pressure exerted by water  against the membrane Osmotic Pressure 71 The tendency of water to move into the  cell by osmosis Tonicity 72 The ability of a solution to change shape  or tone of cells by altering the cells’  internal water volume Isotonic Solutions 72 Solutions have the same concentrations  of non penetrating solutes as those found  in cells, cells retain their normal shape Hypertonic Solutions 72 Solutions have higher concentration of  non penetrating solutes than seen in the  cell, cells shrink or crenate Hypotonic Solutions 72 Solutions contain a lower concentration  of non penetrating solutes than seen in  cell, cells plump rapid and may burst or  lyse  Symport System 75 Two transported substances move in the  same direction Antiport System 75 The transported substances cross the  membrane in opposite directions Vesicular Transport 76 “bubble­like” membranous sacs called  vesicles move substances in and out of  the cells Phagocytosis 77 “cell eating” Phagosomes 77 “eaten body” Pinocytosis 77 “cell drinking” Receptor­Mediated Endocytosis 77 Allows cells to concentrate material that  is present only in small amounts in the  extra cellular fluid Exocytosis 78 Ejects substances from the cell interior  into the extracellular fluid Membrane Potential 79 “voltage” electrical potential energy  resulting from the separation of  oppositely charged particles Resting Membrane Potential 79 ­50 to ­100 mV “polaized” Cytoplasm 83 The cellular material between the plasma  10 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition membrane and the nucleus Cytosol 83 Viscous, semitransparent fluid in which  the other cytoplasmic elements are  suspended Inclusions 83 Chemical substances that may or may not be present in cytosol Organelles 83 Metabolic machinery of the cell Mitochondria 83 Power plants of the cell, provide most of  its ATP supply Cristae 83 “shelflike folds” inner membrane of the  mitochondria Aerobic Respiration 84 Requires oxygen Anaerobic Respiration  84 Lack of oxygen Ribosomes 84 Small, dark stained granules composed of proteins and a variety RNA’s Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) 84 An extensive system of interconnected  tubes and parallel membraned enclosing  cisterns Cisterns 84 Fluid filled cavities Rough ER 85 Studded with ribosomes that manufacture all proteins secreted from the cell Smooth ER 85 Continuous with Rough ER, lacks  ribosomes, plays no role in protein  synthesis Golgi Apparatus 85 Consists of stacked, flattened  membranous sacs that modify,  concentrate, and package proteins Cis Face 86 Receiving side of Golgi Apparatus Trans Face 86 Shipping side of Golgi Apparatus Peroxisomes 86 Spherical membranous sacs containing a  variety of powerful enzymes that  detoxify harmful substances Autolysis 87 Cell digestion Endomembrane System 87 System of organelles that work together  mainly to produce, degrade, store, and  export biological molecules Cytoskeleton 88 “cell skeleton” support cell structures and provide machinery to generate various  cell movements Microtubules 88 Cylindrical structures made of tubulin  proteins Intermediate Filaments 88 Protein fibers 11 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition Microfilaments 88 Fine filaments composed of protein actin Cilia 90 Whip­like, mobile cellular extensions  that move substances in one direction Flagella 90 Tail that propels the cell itself Nucleus 91 The control center of the cell that  contains the instructions needed to build  nearly all body proteins Multinucleate 91 Have many nuclei Anucleate 9 No nuclei, cannot reproduce Nuclear Envelope 92 A double membrane barrier protecting  the nucleus, studded with ribosomes and  nuclear pores Nucleoli 93 Dark staining spherical bodies where  ribosomal subunits are assembled Chromatin 93 Organized chromosomes which contain  DNA and histone proteins DNA 93 Genetic material Histone proteins 93 Package and regulate DNA Nucleosomes 93 Flattened disc­shaped cores or clusters of right histone proteins connected by DNA Interphase 96 The period from cell formation to cell  division Mitosis 98 The division of the nucleus Prophase 100 Chromosomes condense, nuclear  membrane disappears Metaphase 101 Chromosomes align at midline Anaphase 101 Chromosomes pull towards poles Telophase 101 Cleavage forms, nuclear membrane  reappears Cytokinesis 101 Division of the cytoplasm Transcription 102 Transfers information from a DNA base  sequence to a complementary base  sequence of a mRNA molecule Promoter 102 A special DNA sequence that contains  the “start point” for transcription Codon 103 Three base sequence on mRNA Anticodon 103 Three base sequence which binds to the  mRNA codon Autophagy 109 “cell eating” Apoptosis 109 Programmed cell death Chapter Four: Tissues: “The Living Fabric” Tissues 115 Groups of cells that are similar in  12 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition structure and perform a common or  related function Histology 116 The study of tissues Epithelial Tissue 117 A sheet of cells that covers a body  surface or lines a body cavity Microvilli 117 Fingerlike extensions of the plasma  membrane Simple Epithelia 118 Single cell layer Stratified Epithelia 118 Two or more cell layers Squamous Cells 118 Flattened scale­like Cuboidal Cells 118 “box­like” as tall as they are wide Columnar Cells 118 Tall and column shaped Endothelium 120 Epithelium found vessels and hollow  organs Mesothelium 120 Epithelium found in serous membranes Gland 123 One or more cells that make and secrete a product Secretion 123 An aqueous fluid containing proteins Endocrine Gland 123 “internally secreting”, produce hormones Exocrine Gland 123 “externally secreting”, secrete onto body  surfaces Merocrine Gland 124 Secrete products by exocytosis Holocrine Gland 124 Accumulate their products until they  rupture Connective Tissue 127 Binds and supports, protects, insulates,  stores, and transport substances, widely  abundant Collagen Fibers 128 Constructed from the fibrous protein  collagen Elastic Fibers 128 Long, thin fibers containing “rubberlike  protein” elastin allowing for stretch and  recoiling Reticular Fibers 128 Short, fine collagenous fibers forming  branch networks that surround blood  vessels and support soft tissues of organs ­blast 128 Immature ­cyte 128 Mature Macrophage 128 Large, irregular shaped cells that devour  foreign materials Mesenchyme 129 Embryonic tissue from which mature  connective tissue arise Adipocytes 130 Fat cells 13 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition Tendons 131 Attach muscles to bones Aponeuroses 131 Attach muscles to muscles or bones Ligaments 131 Bind bones together at joints Cartilage 133 Stands up to both tension and  compression, avascular, 80% water Bone 135 Supports and protects body structures Muscle 137 Responsible for body movements Mucous Membranes 143 Line all body cavities that open to the  outside of the body Serous Membranes 143 Moist membranes found in closed ventral body cavities Inflammatory Response 143 Nonspecific reaction that develops  quickly wherever tissues are injured Immune Response 143 Extremely specific, take longer to swing  into action Chapter Five: “The Integumentary System” Integumentary System 150 Consists of the skin and its derivatives,  sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails Integument 151 “covering” Epidermis 151 Composed of epithelial cells, the  outermost protective shield of the body Keratinocytes 152 Produce keratin, the fibrous protein that  helps give the epidermis its protective  properties Melanocytes 153 The spider­shaped epithelial cells that  synthesize the pigment melanin Dendritic Cells (Langerhan) 153 Ingest foreign substances and are key  activators of our immune system; arise  from bone marrow and migrate to the  epidermis Tactile Cells (Merkel) 153 Functions as a sensory receptor to touch Stratum Basale 153 “wavy borderline”, deepest epidermal  layer, major site for keratinocyte division Stratum Spinosum 153 “pricky layer,” web­like system of  intermediate filaments Stratum Granulosm 153 “granular layer,” keratinization begins Stratum Lucidum 154 “clear layer,” a thin translucent band just  above the strum granulosum Stratum Corneum 154 “horny layer,” outermost, waterproof  layer  Dermis 154 Made up of strong, flexible connective  tissue, consists of the papillary and  14 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition reticular layers Papillary Layer 154 Thin, and superficial, made up of areolar  connective tissue wish allow for  phagocytes to wander freely through Dermal Papillae 155 Peg­like projections from the surface of  the dermis Friction Ridges 155 “skin ridges,” enhance the gripping  ability of fingers and feet, and contribute  to our sense of touch Reticular Layer 155 Makes up 80% of dermis, consists of  course, dense irregular connective tissue Cleavage (Tension) Lines 155 Externally invisible lines that run  longitudinally in the skin of  the head and limbs, and in circular patterns around the  neck and truck Melanin 156 Produced in melanocytes, color ranges  from reddish yellow to brownish black,  contribute to skin color Carotene 156 Color ranges from yellow to orange,  converted to Vitamin A in the body  which Is essential for normal vision and  epidermal health Hemoglobin 157 Oxygenated pigment found in red blood  cells circulating through the dermal  capillary Skin Appendages 157 Hair, hair follicles, nails, sweat glands,  and sebaceous (oil) glands Hair 158 Flexible strands produced by hair  follicles and consist largely of dead,  keratinized cells Hair Shaft 158 Exposed region, keratinization is  complete Hair Root 158 Remainder of the hair deep within the  follicle, keratinization is ongoing Medulla 159 Central core of hair, only part of hair that contains soft keratin Cortex 159 A bulky layer surrounding the medulla Cuticle 159 Hard outermost layer, provides strength  and helps keep inner layers compact Hair Matrix 159 Actively dividing area of hair bulb that  produces hair Arrector Pili 159 Bundle of smooth muscles responsible  15 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition for “goose bumps” Hirsutism 159 Excessive hairiness Alopecia 160 “baldness” Male Pattern Baldness 160 Genetically determined, sex influenced Nail 160 Clear protective covering on dorsal  surface of distal part of finger or toe Sweat (Sudoriferous) Glands 161 Distributed over the entire skin surface  excluding nipples and genitalia Eccrine Sweat Glands 161 Simple, coiled, tubular merocrine glands Apocrine Sweat Glands 162 Being functioning at puberty and empty  into hair follicles Ceruminous gland 162 Secrete cerumen, “earwax” Mammary Glands 162 Specialized sweat glands that secrete  milk Sebaceous Glands 162 “oil gland” secret sebum to prevent skin  and hair from becoming brittle Cutaneous Sensory Receptors 164 Respond to stimuli outside of the body Basal Cell Carcinoma 165 Stratum Basale cells proliferate invading  the dermis and hypodermis Squamous Cell Carcinoma 165 Arise from keratinocytes of the Stratum  Spinosim Melanoma 165 Caner of melanocytes Burn 165 Tissue damage inflicted by intense heat,  electricity, radiation, or certain chemicals First Degree Burns 166 Damage the epidermis Second­Degree Burns 166 Damage the epidermis and upper portion  of dermis Third­Degree Burn 166 “full thickness burns” damage the entire  thickness of skin Eschar 167 Burned skin Dermatitis 167 Skin inflammation Chapter Six: “Bones and Skeletal Tissues” Hyaline Cartilage 174 “frosted glass”, provides support with  flexibility and resistance, most abundant  Elastic Cartilage 175 Contains more stretchy elastic fibers,  better able to withstand repeated bending Fibrocartilage 175 Highly compressible with great tensile  strength, found in site subjected to  pressure and stretch Axial Skeleton 175 Forms the long axis of bones (skull,  vertebral column, and rib cage) Appendicular Skeleton 176 Limbs attached to the axial skeleton 16 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition Long Bones 176 Considerable longer than they are wide Short Bones 177 Roughly cubed shaped Sesamoid Bones 177 Special type of short bones that form  tendons Flat Bones 177 Thin, flattened, usually curved Irregular Bones 177 Complicated shapes, don’t fit into others Compact Bone 177 Dense outer layer of bone, smooth and  solid appearance Spongey Bone 177 “honeycomb” internal layer consisting of  trabeculae Diaphysis 178 Shaft, forms axis of long bone Medullary Cavity 178 “marrow cavity” contains yellow bone  marrow in adults Epiphyses 178 “bone ends” covered in articular  (hyaline) cartilage Periosteum 178 Glistening white membrane covering  outer bone surface Endosteum 179 Membrane covering internal bone  surfaces Red Bone Marrow 179 Site of hematopoiesis Osteon (Haversian System) 180 Structural unit of compact bone Endochondral Ossification 183 Conversion of hyaline cartilage to bone Intramembranous Ossification 184 Conversion of matrix of collagenous  fibers to bone Serotonin 188 Neurotransmitter that regulates mood and sleep Simple Fracture 190 Bone ends do not penetrate skin Compound Fracture 190 Bone ends penetrate skin Depressed Fraction 190 Broken bone pressed inward Osteomalacia 192 Bones are poorly mineralized Rickets 192 Occurs in children, causes bowed legs Osteoporosis 192 Bone resorption outpaces bone deposit Paget’s Disease 193 Excessive and haphazard bone deposit  and resorption Chapter Eight: “Joints” Synarthroses 251 Immovable joints Amphiarthroses 251 Slightly movable joints Diarthroses 251 Freely movable joints Fibrous Joints 252 Bones joined by collagen fibers and  connective tissue Sutures 252 Seams occurring between bones of the  skull 17 Shir’Mel McCullough Term Page Definition Cartilaginous Joints 253 Articulating bones united by cartilage Synovial Joints 254 Articulating bones are separated by a  fluid containing joint cavity Bursae 255 Flattened fibrous sacs containing  synovial fluid that reduce fricion Tendon Sheath 255 An elongated bursa that wraps around  tendons to reduce friction Nonaxial Movement 258 Slipping movements only Uniaxial Movement 258 Movement in one plane Biaxial Movement 258 Movement in two planes Multiaxial Movement 258 Movement in or around all three planes  of space and axes Gliding 258 “back­and­forth”, “side­to­side” Flexion 258 Bending movemen


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