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Chem 6AL lab write-up

by: Liz Notetaker

Chem 6AL lab write-up Chem 109A

Liz Notetaker

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lab write up
Organic Chemistry
Morgan Gainer
75 ?




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This 2 page Bundle was uploaded by Liz Notetaker on Wednesday August 10, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Chem 109A at University of California Santa Barbara taught by Morgan Gainer in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Organic Chemistry in Chemistry at University of California Santa Barbara.


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Date Created: 08/10/16
Elizabeth Leahy  Chem 6AL  Friday 8­11:50 Experiment 1A – Solubility and Melting Point This experiment was used as an introduction to the basic principles and lab techniques of  an organic chemistry lab by predicting the solubility of organic compounds in different solutions  as well as determining the melting point of different organic compounds. In part 1 of this experiment, three different organic compounds’ solubility were predicted  and observed in solvents of water, methanol, and hexane. With benzophenone, it was insoluble in water and partially soluble in hexane, as predicted; however, it was only partially soluble in  hexane. Benzophenone’s two benzene rings make the compound very nonpolar and the  predictions were based on the “like dissolves like” principle, so its reaction in hexane was  surprising. The next organic compound tested, malonic acid is a polar compound with hydrogen  bonding and dipole­dipole interactions making it insoluble in hexane and soluble in water and  methanol, as expected. Lastly, biphenyl was insoluble in water and methanol, and soluble in  hexane due to its two benzene rings, making our predictions correct.   In part 2, the solubility of different alcohols was tested in water and hexane. With 1­ octanol and 1­butanol, they were insoluble in water and soluble in hexane due to their long  alkane chain. Methanol was soluble in water and insoluble in hexane, since it didn’t have as long an alkane chain, making it more polar than the other compounds. Results of this part matched our predictions. In part 3, miscibility was tested with different pairs of solvents. Water and ethanol, both  being polar compounds and hexane and methylene chloride, both being nonpolar compounds,  were both miscible, forming only one layer when mixed. Water and diethyl ether, water and  methylene chloride, and water and hexane were immiscible mixtures due to different levels of  polarity between each compound. Our predictions matched the results.  In part 4, solubility of an organic acid and an organic base were tested in solvents of  water, 1.0 M of NaOH, and 1.0 M HCl. Benzoic acid was the organic acid used and it was  insoluble in water, due to its benzene ring, soluble in NaOH, because the NaOH can remove a  hydrogen from the acid resulting in a more polar and soluble compound, and insoluble in HCl  because the acid does not drive the reaction to completion since it doesn’t fully dissociate. 6.0 M  HCl was added to the 1.0 M NaOH solution and the benzoic acid became insoluble, precipitating out of solution. It became insoluble again because the HCl gave the acid back its hydrogen.  Ethyl­4­aminobenzoate was the organic base used and it was insoluble in water, because of its  benzene ring as well, insoluble in NaOH, and partially soluble in HCl, because the HCl  protonates the amino group in the compound making it more polar. 6.0 M NaOH was added to  the 1.0 M HCl and the solution became insoluble from the NaOH taking a hydrogen from the  amine group away. Predictions were correct for the solubility of the organic acid and base. In part 5, the melting point of cinnamic acid, urea, and two different mixtures of cinnamic acid and urea were determined. The melting point of cinnamic acid was found to have a range of  132°C­138°C and the melting point of the mixture of 75% cinnamic acid and 25% urea had a  range of 94°C­112°C. The melting point of urea had a range of 131°C­135°C and the melting  point of the second mixture of 25% cinnamic acid and 75% urea had a range of 89°C­123°C.  The 75% cinnamic acid and 25% urea mixture had a lower melting point and broader range than  pure cinnamic acid. The 25% cinnamic acid and 75% urea mixture also had a lower melting  point and broader range that pure urea. The mixture represents the impurities that change a pure  compounds’ original melting point. The impurities in the bonds cause the intermolecular forces  to be broken more easily at a lower temperature.  Overall, this experiment was successful in practicing basic principles and techniques in  an organic chemistry lab. It showed the importance of understanding intermolecular forces and  structures of compounds in finding solubility and determining melting point. Possible errors in  the solubility tests could be that some of the partially soluble compounds in certain solvents had  to mixed well for a longer amount of time to completely dissolve or the test tubes weren’t  cleaned well enough at the bottom so the test tube would have some water mixed in with the  solvent. Possible errors in determining melting point include not allowing the melting point  apparatus to cool down long enough, making the melting point reading inaccurate and melting  the compound too fast or simply heating the compound too fast. 


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