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PSY 110: Intro to Psych: Final Study Guide + Notes

by: Reema Saribala

PSY 110: Intro to Psych: Final Study Guide + Notes PSY 110

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Reema Saribala

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Notes for all 15 chapters in this psychology course: created using study guides posted by the professor supported by notes from in-class lectures and relevant information from the textbook. Studied...
PSY 110 - Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Rod Gillis
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Date Created: 08/10/16
Lecture # 1 I. Definition of Psychology- the scientific study of the behavior of humans and other animals. Five main reasons that psychology includes the study of animal behavior as well as human behavior: 1. The need to find a simpler model 2. Such research can provide greater control 3. Ethical considerations 4. Animals are readily available for experimentation, often at minimal cost 5. Simply to learn more about animal behavior. Scientific method: Careful observation of events in the world, the formation of predictions based on these observations, and the testing of these predictions by manipulation of variables and systematic observation. II. Six Approaches to Psychology III. Fields of Specialization IV. History of Psychology V. Ethical Issues VI. Overview of Scientific Method II. Six Approaches A. Psychoanalytic (Freud) -Named after the procedure employed in interviewing patients with neurotic symptoms. -Catharsis: ‘talking cure’, one’s painful experiences were talked about and then symptoms would disappear - Particular belief that sexual urges were powerful energizers of human behavior - Emphases on the unconscious mind; the vast reservoir of the mind that holds countless memories and feelings that are repressed or submerged because they are anxiety-producing - Criticized because its assertions cannot be tested in the lab and because it was a blow to human pride to be told that we are often not the masters of our own lives B. Behavioral (Watson, Skinner) -Behaviorism: Scientific approach to the study of behavior that emphasizes the relationship between environmental events and an organism’s behavior. The goal is to identify the processes by which stimuli and responses become connected or associated- in other words, how we learn. Characterized by its insistence upon empirical data; objective science of behavior that has no need for theories of mind or personal freedom. -Though trained as a functionalist, Watson came to believe that it was impossible to study the mind objectively; proclaimed a new psychology, free of introspection, whose task was to simply observe the relationship between environmental events (stimuli) and an organism’s response to them. -Skinner’s major contributions included his important work in operant conditioning in which he systematically investigated the effects of reinforcement on behavior. C. Gestalt (Kohler, Wertheimer) -Disagreed with the principles and methods of both structuralism and behaviorism. Argued that it was a mistake to try to break psychological processes into basic components such as elementary sensations or simple associations. -Gestalt psychology: Approach to psychology that argues that the whole of an experience is different from (more than) the sum of its parts. D. Humanistic (Maslow, Rogers) -Approach to psychology that emphasizes the role of free choice and our ability to make conscious rational decisions about how we live our lives. De-emphasizes the influence of both environmental events and unconscious processes in determining human behavior. -Emphasizes the role of free will and our ability to make conscious, rational choices about how we live our lives. Also believe that people have a natural inclination to fulfill their human potential: a process called self-actualization. E. Cognitive (thinking, memory, language, problem solving, creativity) F. Biological/Medical/Physiological - focuses on the relationship between behavior and physiological events within the brain and the rest of the nervous system III.Fields of Specialization Human Services Clinical Involved in the diagnosis and treatment of behavioral problems. More likely to work in mental health clinics, mental hospitals, juvenile and adult courts, medical schools and prisons. Counseling Involved in the diagnosis and treatment of problems of adjustment. Tend to focus on less serious problems than clinical psychologists; often work in settings such as schools. Community School Concerned with evaluating student’s interests and abilities and resolving learning and emotional problems in school settings Applied Educational Concerned with the study and application of learning and teaching methods, focusing on areas such as improving educational curricula and training teachers. Forensic Works with the legal, court and correctional systems to develop personality profiles of criminals, make decisions about disposition of convicted offenders and help law enforces understand behavioral problems Sports Industrial /Organizational Concerned with using psychological concepts to make a workplace a more satisfying environment for employees and management Health Concerned with the interaction between behavioral factors and physical health Engineering Concerned with creating optimal relationships among people, the machines they operate, and the environments they work in Experimental- primary activity is conducting research Social Concerned with factors that influence development and shape behavior throughout the life cycle from conception through old age Personality Focuses on exploring the uniqueness of the individual, describing the elements that make up human personality, and investigating how personality develops and how it influences people’s activities Cognitive focuses on the ways in which organisms process information, investigating processes such as thinking, memory language, problem solving and creativity Developmental Concerned with factors that influence development and shape behavior throughout the life cycle from conception through old age Physiological/Medical/Biological IV. History of Psychology A. Charles Darwin 1859 Characteristics of a species change or evolve over time as environmental conditions change. Those characteristics that aid in the survival and reproduction of the species are maintained while others are eliminated. B. Wilhelm Wundt 1879/Titchener 1893/ Structuralism -German scientist trained in physiology -The establishment of Wundt’s small lab at the University of Leipzig in 1879 marked the formal beginning of psychology as a scientific discipline. -Defined the task of psychology as the systematic study of the structure of the conscious adult mind. -Introspection: A research technique that involves a careful observation of one’s own reactions to a stimulus. The researcher was trained to look within. -Many of the pioneers of American psychology received their training in Wundt’s lab; including Edward Titchener who brought his mentor’s particular brand of psychology to America, when he established a psych lab in Cornell University. Like Wundt, Titchener thought thought the proper goal of psychology was to describe mental structures. This approach was called structuralism (founded by Titchener; approach to psychology that attempted to break down experience into its basic elements or structures, using a technique called introspection, in which subjects provided scientific reports of perceptual experiences). -Though eventually rejected, structuralism played an important role: brought psychology into the lab by demonstrating that mental processes were a legitimate focus for scientific research. C. Sir Francis Galton 1884 “Hereditary Genius” Anthropometric lab to study individual differences between people which ran in families The less related two people are, the less similar they are Famous for eugenics (killing off of inferior races) D. William James 1890 Principles of Psychology ( 2 volume book: detailed his view of the nature of psychology) -Agreed with structuralists that psychology should study mental processes. However, he felt that science would be better served by attempting to understand the fluid, functional, continually changing, personal nature of conscious experience (your mind naturally wanders like a stream). He was particularly interested in trying to understand mental processes that helped humans and other animals adapt to their environments. Emphasis on the functional, practical nature of mind: functionalism (influenced by Darwin’s theory of natural selection, functionalists attempted to learn how mental processes- such as learning, thinking and perceiving helped people adapt). Still utilized introspection in their research but also collected data from observing human and animal behavior. -Functionalism played an important role: broadened psychology to include the study of nonhuman animals and expanded the data of psychology to include observations of behavior. E. Sigmund Freud 1900- Psychoanalysis- explained above F. Ivan Pavlov 1920’s- association and learning, classical conditioning of dogs G. John Watson (1913) 1920’s (Behaviorism)- explained above V. Ethical Issues Institutional Review Boards (IRB) reviews and authorizes proposed research that includes human participation The following are 6 Federal guidelines for a study: Minimize risk Informed Consent Right to Privacy Debriefing Record Keeping Animal Research Modify If NO Testable Observation Theory Test it Hypothesis If YES Support TrueExperiment CorrelationalMethod 1) Randomly Divide Subjects 1) Measure Two Variables 2) Manipulate the Independent 2) Calculate the Relationship Variable 3) Measure the Dependent Variable Example: Mean Coffee gp = 75 bpm Example: Pearson’s correlation = +. Mean no Coffee gp = 90 65 bpm May infer that coffee CAUSED an Support for hypothesis but cannot increase in Heart Rate infer Causality Remember: Correlation does not imply causation! Correlational studies often have Directionality Problems and/or Third variable problems Statistics I. The field of Statistics can be divided into 2 branches (Descriptive and Inferential) A. The goal of Descriptive Statistics is to present data in an easy to understand way. (Mathematical and graphical methods for reducing data to a form that can be readily understood)This includes: 1. Measures of Central Tendency- a value that reflects the middle point or central point of a distribution of scores a. Mean (X ); easily influenced by outliers b. Median c. Mode (exactly normal: all three measures of central tendency are equal, “skewed data”: mean has been distorted by outliers and is not representative of the data) 2. Measures of Variability- indicates whether distribution scores are clustered closely around their average or widely spread out. a. Range b. Standard Deviation (S)- indicates the average extent to which all the scores in a distribution vary from the mean; how far apart the markers will be on the x-axis c. Variance X−X Z = 3. z- score ▯ S (A measure that indicates how far a score deviates from the average in standard unites) 4. The Normal Curve and z-scores (see attached graph.) 5. Correlation coefficient (Pearson’s r) Ranges from -1.0 to +1.0 A correlation has 2 qualities (direction and magnitude) -Statistic used to describe the degree of relationship between two or more variables in which positive correlations indicate that the variables vary together in the same direction and negative correlations indicate the opposite. 6. Graphs (There are many kinds) a. Bar Graphs b. Histograms c. Line Graphs 7. Data tables B. Inferential Statistics is the branch that uses some descriptive statistics (like the Mean and Standard Deviation; draws conclusions about the meaning of research data) along with probability theory to make judgments or inferences about reality. Allow you to determine if results are significant or reliable. A few inferential tests are: 1. z-test 2. t-test 3. F-test or ANOVA 4. Regression 5. Chi Square or Χ 2 Such tests, when used properly, allow us to determine if obtained results are significant or reliable. 2 limitations of correlational studies: 1. Third variable problem: A correlation between two variables may be caused by a third unknown variable. 2. Directionality problem: If A and B are correlated, we don’t know if changes in A cause changes in B or if changes in B cause changes in A. -Results of the correlation method provide support for hypothesis but CANNOT infer causality. ▯ Theory: Tentative explanation for an observation that leads to one or more testable hypothesis. Never proven; only supported Hypothesis: falsifiable, clear prediction of what will happen True experiment procedure: Randomly divide subjects into 2+ groups, manipulate the independent variable, measure the dependent variable (test of significance is required). Results infers causation. Sample size determines if data from an experiment is statistically significant. Not always possible for ethical reasons. IQ test mean and S: Mean=100, S=15 The Biological Basis of Behavior I. Overview of The Nervous System -Peripheral Nervous System -Autonomic (self-regulating) -Sympathetic (arousing) -Parasympathetic (calming) -Somatic (voluntary) -Central Nervous System (Brain and spinal cord) II. The Neuron III. The Brain II. The Neuron - type of cell that is the basic unit of the nervous system. A neuron typically consists of a cell body, dendrites and an axon. Neurons transmit messages to other neurons and to glands and muscles throughout the body. (Sensory or afferent and motor or efferent) A. The Synapse - includes the synaptic gap and a portion of the presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes that are involved in transmitting a signal between neurons B. Neurotransmitters - chemical messenger that transmits an impulse across the synaptic gap from one neuron to another 1. Acetylcholine 2. Norepinephrine 3. Dopamine 4. Serotonin 5. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) C. Neuromodulators- produced in glands and distributed through the blood system ex. Natural Opioids (Endorphins) (Endorphin rush from intense exercise; “runner’s high”) III. The Brain A. Imaging techniques 1. CAT or CT - computer axial tomography; a procedure used to locate brain abnormalities that involves rotating an X-ray scanner around the skull to produce an accurate image of a living brain; produces a color image based on tissue density and detects tumors 2. PET - Positron emission topography; technique for studying the brain that involves injecting a subject with a glucose-like sugar tagged with a radioactive isotope that accumulates in brain cells in direct proportion to their activity level; detects brain activity 3. MRI and FMRI -Magnetic resonance imaging: procedure for studying the brain that uses radio waves to excite hydrogen protons in the brain tissue, creating magnetic field change; detects internal brain structure -Functional magnetic resonance imaging: measures energy released by brain cells that are active during a specific task; detects brain activity 4. Lesions, stimulation and recording -Lesion production: Technique for studying the brain that involves surgical damage to a precise region of the brain -Brain stimulation: Technique for studying the brain that involves stimulating precise regions with a weak electric current -Electrical recording: Technique for studying the brain in which tiny wires implanted in the brain are used to record neural electrical activity B. Overview of Brain 1. Cerebral Cortex, Cerebrum, Neocortex, Left & Right hemispheres 2. Corpus Callosum- broad band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the cerebral cortex 3. Contralateral Connection - nerve fibers that descent from the motor cortex on one side of the brain activate muscles on the opposite side of the brain. Everything in our eyes is upside down and backwards. 4. Cerebellum - reflexive part of the brain that controls movement, coordination, breathing and other necessary functions C. The Cerebral Cortex outer layer of the brain’s cerebrum (sometimes called the gray matter) that is responsible for movement, perception, thinking and memory. Last part of the brain to develop during evolution, hence the name neocortex. Without this, we would cease to exist as unique, functioning individuals. -Frontal lobe is the largest, foremost lobe in the cerebral cortex; an important region for movement, emotion and memory. -Parietal lobe is a region of the cerebral cortex. Contains the somatosensory cortex (recieves sensory information about touch, pressure, pain, temp and body position) as well as association areas that process sensory information from the somatosensory cortex. -Occipital lobe: region at the rear of the cerebral cortex that consists primarily of the visual cortex. -Temporal lobe: contains the auditory cortex 1. Four Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex -Frontal Lobe (located in the front of the brain; movement (motor cortex); L: Broca’s area; face gets >50% of the motor cortex) -Temporal Lobe (located behind the ears; hearing; L: Wernicke’s area) -Occipital Lobe (located at the back of the head; vision; inner: PVC; outer: VAC) -Parietal Lobe (located at the top of the head, body sensations; sensory cortex) a. Broca’s area - region of the left frontal lobe that is the primary brain center for controlling speech. Injury/damage causes difficulty in speaking (motor or expressive aphasia) but can understand speech b. Wernike’s area - area of the left temporal lobe that is the brain’s primary area for understanding speech. Injury causes trouble understanding the speech of others (sensory or receptive aphasia) but able to speak. c. Primary Visual Cortex (PVC) - center of occipital lobe, retains geography of visual field; damage causes blindspots; blindspot will be in opposite visual field to that of the damage) d. Visual Association Cortex (VAC)- outer occipital lobe, recognizes/interprets what is seen in the PVC. damage causes inability to recognize visuals; objects can still be recognized by other senses but not by sight e. Central Fissure (Motor and Sensory regions) f. Brain plasticity-if you have damage that blacks out a part of your brain, adjacent areas can take over that function and you can relearn body function. 2. Split Brain and Lateralization a. Left Hemisphere= Analysis, Verbal activity (talking, understanding, speech, reading, writing) b. Right=synthesis, putting elements together, perceive whole, maps, 3D sketch Lateralization: LH and RH see the world in different ways. LH= thinking if there was ample time; methodical. RH= thinking if there is not much time; decisions in a hurry. Our best sense is visual perception. Visual Perception (and Attention) I. Visual perception of form II. Depth perception III. Perceptual constancy IV. Other issues in perception V.Attention. I. Visual perception of form A. Figure Ground Figure: In perception, the part of an imagine on which we focus our attention Ground: In perception, the background against which the figure that we focus on stands The pattern of sensory receptors activated in our retinas remains constant while our perceptions shift between 2 figure-ground patterns. The manner in which our brains organize these constant sensory stimuli allows us to perceive either the faces or the vase (for example), but not both at the same time. If you can’t distinguish the subject from the background, you cannot see (ex. camouflage) B. Illusory contours - a boundary, line or contour that does not really exist; your mind’s eye connects those missing pieces. C. Grouping of elements (Gestalt laws of grouping) 1. Law of Proximity - perceptual grouping principle whereby, all else being equal, we tend to organize perceptions by grouping elements that are nearest to each other. 2. Law of similarity - In perception, the principle that we tend to group elements that are similar to each other. 2. Law of good continuity - perceptual grouping principle that we are more likely to perceive stimuli as a whole or single group if they flow smoothly into one another than if they are discontinuous. 4. Law of closure - perceptual organizing principle that we tend to perceive incomplete figures as complete. 5. Law of Common Fate - objects that share a common fate (i.e objects that move together) are perceived as belonging together (ex. camouflage only works if you stay still, stars seem to move across the sky together) II. Depth perception A. Binocular cues (2 eyes) - visual cues for depth or distance, such as binocular disparity and convergence, that depend on both eyes working together. 1. Binocular disparity - the difference in the retinal image of an object as seen from each eye, due to the difference in viewing angles, that provides an important binocular cue for depth. also known as retinal disparity. leads to stereopsis in the brain - ability to see in 3 dimensions with depth. based on the idea that we have two eyes, learn to see things at a distance. interpretation of our binocular disparity. 2. Convergence - binocular distance cue based on the fact that the two eyes must converge or rotate toward the inside to perceive objects closer than about 25 feet. The closer the object, the more rotation is necessary and the more muscle tension created. Monocular cues (1 eye) - distant cues such as linear perspective B. and height on a plane that can be used with just one eye. 1. Motion Parallax - objects nearby seem to move a much greater distance than objects farther away 2. Elevation above horizon - objects that are highest on one’s plane of view appear to be farthest away 3. Interposition - objects close to us tend to block out parts of objects that are farther away. objects in the foreground block our view of objects in the background, making the former appear closer. 4. Linear Perspective - parallel lines converge when stretched into the distance 5. Aerial Perspective - distant objects tend to appear more fuzzy and less clear than those close to the viewer due to dust and haze (less clarity in the distance) 6. Relative brightness- objects in the foreground appear brighter 7. Texture Gradient - textured surfaces appear to be smoother, denser and less textured when they are far from the viewer than when they are close 8. Shading- brighter spots = closer, dark spot = farther. III. Perceptual Constancy - the fact that objects are normally perceived to be constant in size, color or brightness, and shape, despite the fact that their retinal images change according to different conditions. A. Size constancy - Although the retinal image of an objects becomes smaller as the object recess into the distance, the viewer adjusts for this change and perceives the object to be constant in size. B. Shape constancy - we perceive objects as maintaining the same shape even though their retinal images change when we view them from different angles C. Brightness constancy - We perceive objects that we see at night or in poor lighting to be the same brightness as they appear during the day. IV. Other issues in Perception 1. Top-Down processing: seeing the whole first and only then noticing the details if necessary (one can still read misspelled words in a sentence) 2. Bottom-up processing: seeing the details first and then constructing the whole V. Attention (general discussion) what is attention? - psychological selection mechanism that determines which stimuli an organism responded to or perceives. ability to focus your visual/auditory/etc. field without actually directly looking at it, listening to it, etc. cocktail party effect: other input is ignored except for your name or swear words. you’re not actively paying attention to what is being said but you do still hear it consciousness: awareness of being awake. we are aware and know that we are aware, you are aware that people can see you and what is behind you. What happens when you pay attention to anything? Dichotic listening studies of 1950’s where participants “shadowed” one ear while ignoring input to the other ear. Sleep and Altered States I. What is consciousness ? -awareness of being awake, we are aware and know that we are aware, you are aware that people can see you and what is behind you The Mark (Rouge & Mirror) Test: test of self awareness. If you put a very young kid in front of a mirror with a red spot on his nose, he will laugh because he doesn’t think that the kid is him in the mirror. as the kid gets older, he will realize it is himself and feel embarrassed and wipe the red from his nose. elephants and dolphins will also pass this test. Humans, great apes, elephants and dolphins are all self aware animals. II. What is Altered Consciousness? III. Sleep, the best studied altered state (sleep: natural, periodically occurring state of rest characterized by reduced activity, lessened responsiveness to stimuli and distinctive patterns of brain activity) A. Brain activity varies during sleep B. Circadian Rhythms - natural variations in biological functions, hormonal activity, temperature and sleep that typically cycle every 24 to 25 hours. We normally begin to feel less active several hours after the onset of the dark part of our day-night cycle and most alert several hours after light onset. (we are in sync w sunlight) melatonin: induces tiredness to regulate sleep, naturally produced when the sun goes down, cycle is disrupted by use of artificial light C. Why do we sleep ? 1. Repair Theory - Sleep restores resources that we deplete in our daily activities. 2. Adaptive Nonresponding - Sleeping enhances survival by prohibiting animals from interacting with their environment during times when are they not physiologically suited to function adaptively. Sleeping is an adaptation to our ancestral environments. For example, prehistoric man adapted to sleeping at night because night vision was poor relative to his predators, such as the saber-toothed tiger. Beta waves are produced when people are wide awake. Alpha waves are produced when people are awake but relaxed. There are 3 (ideally 4) stages in a typical sleep cycle, often every 90 minutes. D. Sleep Disorders - classes of disorders that interfere with sleep, including insomnia, sleep apnea, sleep terrors, nightmares and sleepwalking. -Insomnia: consistent inability to get to sleep, frequent awakenings during sleep -Sleep apnea: irregular breathing during sleep -Narcolepsy: falling asleep suddenly and uncontrollably - E. Why do we dream ? 1. Repression Hypothesis: Dreams are an expression of the unconscious mind (Sigmund Freud). Symbolic processes that represent wishes or desires that become fulfilled by the dream code the content of a dream. Dreams are disguised expressions of wishes that have been repressed. Freud believed that if people expressed their true desires directly in dreams, the result would be such startling, upsetting dreams that they would awaken immediately. Thus our unconscious mind expresses our deep-seated wishes symbolically to ensure a good night’s sleep. During dreaming, the wishes of the id are left unrestrained and may be expressed symbolically. (manifest content: train and tunnel, latent content: penis and vagina; sex) 2. Activation-Synthesis Hypothesis Dreams are just random neural events in the cortex that are observed by some other part of the brain. That other part of the brain tries to make sense out of these random feelings and memories by synthesizing a story from them. Humans are uncomfortable with random events and have a strong inclination to impose meaning on randomness. 3. Problem Solving Hypothesis Dreaming evolved as a mechanism for people to cope with the difficulties, problems and stresses in their daily lives. During sleep we review the major events of the day and we seek solutions to problems. If we sleep on our problems, they will seem less severe or even be solved by morning. 4. Memory Consolidation Sleep may promote the storage of newly learned information. F. Miscellaneous D. Sleep Disorders - Insomnia - Narcolepsy - Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) - Sleep Apnea - Sleep walking (Somnambulism) - Sleep talking - Bed wetting (Enuresis) - Nocturnal Myoclonus- people start thrashing about when in a deep state of sleep, uncontrolled leg movements REM Sleep: State of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements and often associated with dreaming. Occurs around stage 1. Get longer in duration throughout the night. Narrative dream: During REM sleep, a movie played at high rate of speed, and your eyes track the motion NREM Sleep: Stages of sleep during which rapid eye movements typically do not occur. (stage 1,2,3 and 4) hypnogogic stage: you review things that have happened during the day, particularly what has caused anxiety or other emotional reaction, beginning to relax but you’re not technically asleep and about to go to sleep but you wake up. many people feel like they’re falling. I. What is intelligence ? -the ability to learn from and adapt to the environment -According to Wechsler, intelligence is the global capacity of a person to act purposefully, to think rationally and to deal effectively with his or her environment 1. practical intelligence: knowing how to do and fix things, skills and street smarts 2. analytical intelligence- the ability to write clearly, do mathematics and read critically 3. creative intelligence- the ability to formulate and solve problems II. History of Intelligence III. Measurement of intelligence (or any psychological variable) A. Reliability B. Validity C. Standardization -The Intelligence Quotient; intelligence measurement derived by dividing an individual’s mental age by the chronological age, then multiplying by 100. IV. Theories of Intelligence V. Controversies in Intelligence testing II. History of Intelligence (not in text) A. Darwin’s Origin of the Species 1859 B. Sir Francis Galton’s Anthropometric Lab in London 1884 -Sir Francis Galton (British biologist, cousin of Charles Darwin) was very influenced by the theory of natural selection and he saw the process of survival of the fittest at work in British society. He declared that month humans, the “most fit” were those with high intelligence, which he assumed to be those individuals in the upper stratum of society. The very fact that they had risen to the top was evidence that they had adapted most successfully to their environment. Galton also believed that men were intellectually more superior to women and that Caucasians were superior to other races. He designed a number of procedures to measure attributes that he thought were the basis of human intelligence. C. Alfred Binet in Paris developed Binet-Simon Scale 1905- was given one on one to children aged 3-11; consisted of 30 questions that ranged from easy to hard -Alfred Binet reasoned that virtually all children follow essentially the same course of intellectual development, but that some progress more rapidly than others. Mental age, in IQ testing, is the chronological age of children who on the average receive a test score similar to that of the subject. For example, a 6 year old whose composite score is = to that of a 9 year old has a mental age of 9. D. Terman Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale.1916 IQ test developed by Lewis Terman who revised Binet’s scale and adapted questions to American students. Has been widely used for a longer period of time than any other test of intelligence and is still highly regarded by most specialists. It possesses impressive predictive ability, providing reasonably good estimates of a child’s ability to do well in school. Criticisms: 1. Places too much emphasis on verbal abilities and hence discriminates against people for whom English is a second language, etc. 2. originally designed for children and still remains far more applicable to children than adults E. Army Alpha and Beta 1917 -first to develop a test and gave it to a large group of soldiers -shocked that the avg male is a moron (low IQ) -inadequate space (done outside in the field, not motivated to do well, ill treated, and many of the men couldn’t read) -non verbal test called alpha and beta; how many can u do in 2 mins F. David Wechsler published Wechsler scale. -Intelligence test developed by David Wechsler in the 1930s with sub-tests grouped by aptitude rather than age level. Four major categories: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory and cognitive processing speed. -contains many subtests that measure a range of specific skills or aptitudes, a composite of which presumably reflects overall intelligence 1939 WPPSI (age4-6) (pre school and primary) WISC-III (age 6-16), WAIS-R (age16 and up) III. Measurement of intelligence A. Reliability (Consistency) In psychological testing, reliability is the dependable consistency of a test over time, or the consistent in responses among similar items on the same assessment. Can be measured in 3 ways: 1. Test-retest reliability; giving a subject the same test more than once 2. Alternate-forms reliability; subjects take two different forms of a test that are very similar in content and level of difficulty 3. split-half reliability; a subject’s performance on a single administration of a test is assessed by comparing performance on half of the test items with performance on the other half of the test items B. Validity (Accuracy; if it accurately measures what it is supposed to measure) 1. Content (Face, Item analysis) 2. Criterion ( Predictive; determining the accuracy with which tests predict performance in some future situation, Concurrent; involves comparing test performance to other criteria that are currently available)- involves comparing peoples’ test scores with their scores on other measures already known to be good indicators of the skill or trait being assessed 3. Construct C. Standardization (exact testing conditions)- Uniform and consistent procedures for administering and scoring tests, such as IQ or personality tests 1. same directions 2. same time limits 3. same testing conditions Aptitude test: Test designed to predict an individual’s ability to learn new information or skills Achievement test: Test designed to measure an individual’s learning, as opposed to the ability to learn new information IV. Theories of Intelligence A. Charles Spearman’s 2 Factor Theory (s and g) -factor analysis: a statistical procedure that enables researches to identify groupings of test items that seem to tap a common ability or factor -developed his model of intelligence by applying factor analysis to the scores of a large number of subjects on diverse tests that assessed many different intellectual skills and abilities (factor analysis allowed him to access which of these skills were related to each other) -g-factor: one of the two factors in Spearman’s conceptualization of intelligence; consists of general intelligence which is largely genetically determined -s factor: specific abilities or skills that are more useful on some tasks than on others B. Thurstone’s 7 Primary Mental Abilities (one of Spearman’s strongest critics; did not believe that a person’s intelligence could be expressed as a single score) -Thurstone used factor analysis on the scores of a large number of subjects on over 50 different ability tests but he found no evidence for general intelligence ability as Spearman had proposed -He declared that human intelligence is a composite of 7 primary mental abilities (the separate and measurable attributes, ex. numerical ability, that make up intelligence) 1.Verbal Comprehension- the ability to understand meaning of words, concepts and ideas 2.Word Fluency- the ability to use words quickly and fluently in performing such tasks as rhyming, solving anagrams and doing crossword puzzles 3.Number Ability- the ability to use numbers quickly to compute answers to problems 4. Spatial Ability- the ability to visualize and manipulate patterns and forms in space 5. Associative Memory- the ability to recall information such as lists of words, mathematical formulas, definitions, etc. 6. Perceptual Speed- the ability to grasp perceptual details quickly and accurately and to determine similarities and differences between stimuli 7. General Reasoning Ability- the ability to derive general rules and principles from presented information C. J.P. Guilford’s Three Factor Structure of the Intellect -proposed that intelligence consists of 180 separate abilities with no overall general intelligence factor -he believes that any intellectual task can be analyzed in terms of 3 major intellectual functions: 1. the mental operations that are used (how we think) 2. the content upon which those operations are performed (what we think about) 3. the products of applying a particular operation to a particular content (5 Contents x 6 Products x 6 Operations = 180 abilities) D. Howard Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences ( Linguistic; includes the kind of verbal ability or skill w/ words that writers or oraters display, Musical; the type of intelligence manifested by musicians, composers, or other individuals who can think and express themselves musically, Logical-Mathematical; typical of scientists, logicians and mathematicians, Spatial; the ability to think accurately about the spatial aspects of the surrounding environment, Bodily Kinesthetic; involves using one’s body or parts of the body to make something or solve a problem ex. accomplished dancers, athletes and craft persons, Interpersonal; the capacity to perceive and understand the needs, motives and behaviors of other people, Intrapersonal; people who can accurately assess and understand their own needs and abilities and who use this knowledge to function effectively, Naturalistic (ex. being able to cook, encyclopedic memory of the natural world around them such as plants and their herbal uses, etc; ability to carefully observe the natural world) -dissatisfied w/ the idea that intelligence is a single trait that can be measured w/ an IQ test and his belief that the factorial approach to describing the structure of human intellect fails to capture the complexity, diversity, and practicality of human intelligence; was philosophically aligned w/ Sternberg -proposed that humans have 8 kinds of intelligence that are independent of each other 
 V. Controversies A. Nature/Nurture - is not about which causes intelligence, but to what degree each contributes 1. Arthur Jensen (80% nature, 20% nurture)- was very controversial because he went on to say “why should we waste money on special education for kids that aren’t doing well in school, they are genetically inferior” 2. The Bell Curve, 1994 (60% nature, 40% nurture) B. Test Bias 1. Culture free or Culture fair tests 2. Bias = differential predictive validity C. Current term for low IQ 1. old terms: idiot, imbecile, moron 2. recent terms: retarded, developmentally impaired, challenged, special 3. newest term: intellectual disability note about abraham maslow: peak experiences (sort of like reaching nirvana; a moment of incredible focus; a moment to one-ness where they feel connected with the universe) Chapter 6, Learning I. Six Different kinds of Learning II. More on Classical Conditioning - Pavlov III. More on Operant Conditioning - E. L. Thorndike - B. F. Skinner IV. More on Observational Learning -Albert Bandura I. Different kinds of Learning -learning: a relatively permanent change in potential behavior that results from experience 1. Habituation/Sensitization -distinction between the two is a biological distinction -habituation: when there’s a new stimulus and you stop responding to it because you become accustomed to it ex. putting a cold coin on the surface of your hand, a dog habituates to a novel stimulus and stops barking if the stimulus is repetitive/recurring -sensitization: when there’s a novel stimulus, it could be threatening and there’s a tendency to pay attention to it; if nothing bad happens, the reaction will diminish (habituation) but if something bad happens, it will elicit a stronger reaction (sensitization) -a phobia is a sensitization to a stimulus 2. Classical Conditioning = Pavlovian Conditioning =Associative Learning -an association forms between two stimuli (the conditioned, the bell, and unconditioned stimulus, the meat, in this case) -are completely in control, it is not conditional, the experimenter controls the stimulus -involves learning an association between two stimuli and results in a change in behavior -learning that takes place when a neutral stimulus (CS) is paired with a stimulus (UCS) that already produces a response (UCR).After conditioning, the organism responds to the CS in some way. The response to the CS is called a conditioned response (CR). -Acquisition: the process of learning to associate a CS with an UCS (depends on a predictive relation between the CS and the UCS called stimulus contingency) -Extinction: the process by which CR is eliminated through repeated presentation of the CS without the UCS -Reinstatement: the reappearance of a conditioned response after extinction has taken place -Spontaneous recovery: the spontaneous reappearance of a CR after extinction has taken place -when certain associations are acquired very quickly, they are called selective associations. Conditioned taste aversions are examples. -when a response has been conditioned to a particular stimulus, other stimuli may also produce the same response. this is called generalization. -Early in the conditioning process, a learner may respond to a variety of similar stimuli (Generalization). However with time, he or she learns that only one of these stimuli, the CS, is consistently associated with the UCS. this process of learning to make distinctions between the CS and similar but not identical stimuli is called discrimination. unconditioned stimulus (UCS): a stimulus that elicits an unlearned response or reflex unconditioned response (UCR): an unlearned response or reflex caused by an unconditioned stimulus (usually more intense than a response that has been conditioned) conditioned stimulus (CS): a stimulus that elicits a response only after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus conditioned response (CR): a learned response to a conditioned stimulus 3. Operant Conditioning= Instrumental Conditioning = Skinnerian Conditioning -rewards and punishments -often associated with B.F. Skinner (he coined the term operant conditioning) -conditional, ex. IF the dog does this, THEN this will happen, what the learner does determines whether they will get the reward or not, the behavior is instrumental as opposed to just pairing two stimuli, operant because the animal must do something/must engage in some training (an operation that the animal has to perform) -people or other animals learn to associate their own behavior with its consequences (reinforcements or punishments), which results in a change in behavior -the individual learns to operate on their environment in a manner that results in satisfaction; the behavior was instrumental in achieving a positive outcome -Acquisition: the process of learning to associate responses with a reinforcer or punisher Extinction: the process of eliminating a response by discontinuing reinforcement for it -In escape conditioning, an organism learns to produce a response that will allow termination or escape from an aversive stimulus. In avoidance conditioning, the individual learns to emit an appropriate avoidance response, thereby averting any exposure to the aversive stimulus. -methods used to encourage the occurrence of an initial desired operant response include physical guidance, shaping, modeling, verbal instruction and increasing motivation. 4. Observational Learning = Social Learning = Imitative Learning = Modeling -learning by imitation, often involves two or more individuals -people observe the behavior of others and then store cognitive representations of these acts in memory, where they remain until the right influence triggers the individual to enact the behavior -4 key steps: 1. having our attention drawn to a modeled behavior 2. storing a mental representation of the behavior in our memories 3. a specific type of situation triggers us to convert the remembered observation into actions 4. if our actions are reinforced, we add the behavior to our repertoire of responses 5. Insight Learning (Kohler’s apes) -learning by thinking -nobody is reinforcing it, there’s no pairing of two stimuli -a new and original solution, you didn’t observe anyone else - there would be no advances in art/culture/science/etc without this type of learning -beginning of creativity 6. Taste (Flavor)Aversion -it is often called one trial learning -if you eat something that makes you sick, there is a possibility that you will never want to eat it again -a very powerful evolutionary response that helps save animals (for example, from eating poisonous berries) -not a brain thing, a stomach thing II. More on Classical Conditioning A. Ivan Pavlov -when he was doing his research initially in Russia, he was studying digestion in dogs (salivation, stomach acids, etc) and not learning -UCS (presence of food) leads to UCR (salivation to meat)/ CS (bell) leads to CR (salivation to the bell) -after repeatedly pairing the two stimuli, the bell will now elicit the same response as the unconditioned stimulus Learning Curve -Acquisition training the longer the time duration between the UCS and CS, the slower the learning (the steeper the curve on the learning curve graph, the faster the learning, hence the shorter the time duration between the UCS and CS) -Extinction training- -stop pairing the two stimuli and after multiple trials, the behavior ceases -the individual is not ‘unlearning’; it has just learned that there is no longer an association between the two stimuli -Spontaneous Recovery -Generalization/Discrimination -Generalization: applying previous learning to a new, similar situation (for example, if the dog were to hear the sound from a different tuning fork, it would still salivate though the sound is slightly different) - Discrimination: the lack of generalization because the situation is different enough; must make a decision on whether or not to apply previous learning; a good thing to discriminate because it proves you have the ability to distinguish between different situations B.Therapy Phobias, Watson, Counterconditioning -phobia: an irrational, overreaction to a stimulus -Watson conditioned a phobia of white rats into a little boy,Albert; tried to prove how easy it would be to develop a phobia and then counter condition the phobia Systematic Desensitization (Wolpe) -Wolpe, a therapist, claimed he could cure 90% of phobias -an individual must list their phobia in levels from what they’re least scared of to what they’re most scared of (ex. hearing the word snake to actually holding a snake) -through a serious of relaxation techniques, the individual becomes systematically desensitized to each level of the phobia until it is not as serious Aversive conditioning (aimed at bad habits, unlike systematic desensitization which is aimed at phobias) Drug addiction -in the old days, therapy did not focus on all the things that are classically conditioned to be associated with that drug and hence it was not as effective III. More on Operant Conditioning A. Thorndike and his Puzzle Box -put a hungry cat in the puzzle box and food outside the box that the cat can see and smell, the cat will engage in some kind of random trail and error behavior until eventually it succeeds and is able to open the box and can access the food Law of Effect any behavior followed by a reward will be more likely to occur in the future, any behavior followed by a punishment will be less likely to occur in the future (in Pavlovian classical conditioning, there were no rewards or punishments) Behavior followed by reinforcement will be strengthened while behavior followed by punishment will be weakened. Reward = Reinforcement anything that makes the behavior of interest more likely to occur in the future (Thorndike thought that reinforcement strengthened bonds or associations between behavior and the reinforcer) Punishment anything that makes the behavior of interest less likely to occur in the future; a procedure in which the presentation of a stimulus following a response leads to a decrease in the strength or frequency of the response (an unpleasant or aversive stimulus but could also involve the withdrawal of positive reinforcers) -The effectiveness of a punisher in producing a desired change in behavior depends upon its intensity, consistency, and the delay between response and punishment. Limitations of punishment: 1)Extinction of punished responses- suppresses the unwanted behavior for a short time but does not eliminate it; when punishment is discontinued, the response emerges (called extinction of punishment) 2)Emotional side effects of punishment- may produce undesirable emotional side effects such as fear and aggression 3)Physical punishment and modeling Positive Reinforcement any stimulus presented after a response that increases the probability of the response Negative Reinforcement still going to make the behavior of interest more likely to occur in the future, taking away the punishment any stimulus that increases the probability of a response through its removal Primary and Secondary Reinforcement primary reinforcer: something that is naturally reinforcing ex. food, water, shelter, sex (money is NOT a primary reinforcer); a stimulus that satisfies a biologically based drive or need secondary reinforcers: gain value through learning, allow you to get primary reinforcers or other secondary reinforces; stimuli that acquire reinforcing properties through association w/ primary reinforcers B. Skinner’s Operant Conditioning Chamber The Skinner Box - empty except for a bar protruding from one wall with a small food dish directly beneath it.After a short time in the box, the rat begins to examine its surroundings until it eventually approaches the bar. when the rat is near the bar, a food pellet is released into the dish. the next bar approach followed immediately by food delivery occurs after some additional exploration. soon the rat spends most of its time around the bar. next the rat must contact and exert some force on the bar before food is delivered. as with approaching the bar, this activity soon comes to predominate. the operant response of bar pressing is ‘selected’by the food it produces and the rate of pressing steadily increases. Manipulandum (lever) Schedules of Reinforcement: 1. Continuous Reinforcement -ratio of 1:1, every trial is reinforced -the presentation of a reinforcer for each occurrence of a specific behavior -almost always produce the highest rate of acquisition of a new behavior 2. Partial Reinforcement - a schedule that reinforces behavior only part of the time, for example, a ratio or interval schedule -slower to be established but more persistent when no reinforcement is provided as compared to continuous reinforcement (called the partial reinforcement effect) ratio schedule: a certain percentage of responses receive reinforcement a.) Fixed Ratio (based on rewards): reinforcement occurs after a fixed number of responses, tends to produce rather high rates of responding b.) Variable Ratio (based on rewards): reinforcement is provided after an average of a specific number of responses occur (resistant to extinction and it is response, not time-dependent) On average, both individuals will be reinforced by the same amount but one individual will be more scheduled (fixed) and the other will be more variable (variable ratio). The fixed may be more effective because the individual is likely to be more confused with the variable ratio. _____________ -interval schedule: time-based; subjects are reinforced for their first response after a certain amount of time has passed, regardless of how many responses might occur during that period c.) Fixed Interval (based on time) - reinforcement is provided for the first response after a specific period of time has elapsed; tends to produce regular, recurring episodes of inactivity followed by short bursts of responding d.) Variable Interval (based on time)- opportunities for reinforcement occur at variable time intervals; tends to produce more steady rates of responding than fixed interval schedules - Resistance to extinction - Shaping = SuccessiveApproximation -in operant conditioning, a technique in which responses that are increasingly similar to the desired behavior are reinforced, step by step, until the desired behavior occurs -especially effective for establishing novel behaviors - Chaining - Superstitious behavior as reinforcement approaches random -Acquisition/Extinction/ Discrimination and Generalization apply also C.Applications to behavior problems - Behavior Modification - Token economy - Biofeedback IV. Observational Learning = Social Learning = Imitative Learning = Modeling (Albert Bandura) - BoBo Doll studies (1965) -the kids would watch a video/movie in which a woman would be beating up Bobo (the clown), she would do a series of specific behaviors, each time she did something physical aggressive, she said something verbally aggressive, the child would then wait in a room in which there were all the same toys that were in the movie, the child then imitated the woman in the video - No-trial learning -first time that instead of rewarding or punishing the learner, they rewarded and punished the model but the behavior of the learner was still affected (the kids were split into two groups, in one video the woman was scolded after her actions, in the other video the woman was rewarded) -it is still possible to learn without actually doing anything (the kids were not punished or rewarded, the woman in the video was but it still affected the children's’behavior) -you learn about consequences and other peoples’behavior; you learn what to do and what not to do by learning from other peoples’mistakes/actions - Vicarious reward and punishment - Distinction between learning and behavior -both pavlovian and operant conditioning involve learning relationships or associations between two events -difference #1: in pavlovian conditioning experiments the research typically presents two stimuli. after several paired presentations of these stimuli, the researcher can test fRor a CR by presenting the CS alone. if learning occurred, the CS will now elicit a CR. in operant conditioning, the researcher shapes a particular response by closely following approximations to that response w/ reinforcement. learning has occurred when the new response is demonstrated. -difference #2: pavlovian conditioned responses are typically reflexive responses or changes in emotional or motivational states, not voluntary behavior. operant responses on the other hand are typically voluntary responses. -two factor learning theory: a theory of avoidance learning that involves both classical and operant conditioning; many human phobias are a result of two-factor learning. First, an individual acquires a fear of a neutral stimulus (pavlovian conditioning) and then the individual acts to reduce or eliminate this fear by learning to avoid the frightening stimulus (operant avoidance conditioning). Chapter 9 Overview Personality Lectures I. Define personality II. Psychoanalytic model of Personality III. Behavioral Model of Personality IV. Humanistic Models of Personality V. Biological Approach to personality VI. The Measurement of Personality I. Define personality- the scientific study of stable characteristics that differentiate people; distinctive patterns of behavior, emotions, and thoughts that characterize an individual’s adaptations to his or her life A. Trait/State distinction (ex. the trait of anger is different from being ia stat


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