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Exam 1 Study Guide

by: Julia Liljeberg

Exam 1 Study Guide Psych 2000

Julia Liljeberg

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Chapter 1 and 2. Parts of the brain and early types of Psychology
Katherine Moen
Intro to Psychology
75 ?





Popular in Psychology (PSYC)

This 10 page Bundle was uploaded by Julia Liljeberg on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psych 2000 at Louisiana State University taught by Katherine Moen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO PSYCHOLOGY in Psychology (PSYC) at Louisiana State University.


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Date Created: 08/11/16
Psychology 1 Chapter 1 Study Guide: ● What defines psychology as a field of study? o the scientific study of behavior and mental processes o What are psychology’s four primary goals? i. description: what is happening? ii. explanation: why is it happening? iii. prediction: will it happen again? iv. control: how can it be changed? ● How did structuralism and functionalism differ? o structuralism: objective introspection (explanation of one’s own conscious reactions i. Wilhelm Wundt’s ii. Edward Titchener: brought structuralism to America iii. Margaret Washburn: Titchner’s Student 1. 1st woman to earn a Ph.D in psychology iv. structuralism died out in the early 1900s o functionalism: how the mind allows people to adapt, live, work, and play i. William James: Father of Modern Psychology 1. he is the person that said humans only reached up to 10% of their potential ii. Influenced the modern fields of 1. Educational Psychology 2. Evolutionary Psychology 3. Industrial/ Organizational Psychology iii. Mary Whiton Calkins: Harvard denied Ph.D because she was a woman 1. First woman president of psych association iv. Francis Sumner: Ph.D in 1920 (first African American to get Ph.D) v. Kenneth and Mamie Clark 1. Brown vs. Board of Education (1954) o did a lot with separation does not mean equal o Who founded the first psychology laboratory? i. Wilhelm Wundt (Germany 1879) ● What were the basic ideas and who were the important people behind the early approaches to Psychology? o Gestalt: the whole is more than the sum of the parts i. Founder: Wertheimer (studied sensation and perception) ii. Now part of Cognitive Psychology 1. focuses on perception, learning, memory, thought processes, and problem solving o Psychoanalysis: focus on unconscious (unaware) mind i. Sigmund Freud’s patients suffered from nervous disorders with not apparent physcial cause ii. we repress threatening inappropriate sexual urges and desires Psychology 2 iii. represses urges are trying to resurface (create nervous disorders) iv. due to early childhood (traumatic) experiences o Behaviorism: focuses on observable behavior only (must be directly seen and measured) i. originally proposed by John B. Watson 1. based on the work of Ivan Pavlov 2. Little Albert o Humanistic Psychology: you control your destiny o Cognitive Psychology: memory, intelligence, perception, problem solving, and learning (probably the broadest field) ● Your book also discusses some additional perspectives of Psychology. How does an evolutionary perspective differ from a biopsychological perspective? o Evolutionary Perspective: focuses on the biological bases of characteristics that all humans share i. behavior seen as having an adaptive or survival value (why you choose to date the people you date) o Biopsychological Perspective: behavior is due to biological events occurring in the body i. genetic influences ii. hormones iii. activity of the nervous systems ● How does a psychologist differ from a psychiatrist? A clinical and a counseling psychologist? o Psychologist: professional with an academic degree i. specialized training in one or more areas of psychology ii. can do counseling, teaching, and research 1. cognition, clinical, developmental, social, neuroscience, industrial organizational (NOT A MEDICAL DEGREE) o Psychiatrist: specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of psychological disporders i. MEDICAL DOCTOR ● Why is psychology considered a science? ● Know the difference between a DV and IV. Can you give an example of a design that would contain each of these? o independent variable (IV): what is being manipulated (changing) o dependent variable (DV): what you are measuring i. the data ● How are naturalistic and laboratory settings used to describe behavior, and what are some of the advantages and disadvantages associated with these settings? o naturalistic observation: watching animals or humans behave in their normal environment i. sit back and watch (people watch) ii. advantage: realistic results iii. disadvantage: 1. lack of control 2. observer affect: people know they are being watch so they act differently Psychology 3 3. observer bias: the researcher has an opinion or miss counts (because they want their results to be what they want) o ● Know the basics of the experimental designs we discussed o Surveys: a series of questions i. Advantages: 1. Lots of Data 2. Covert Behaviors – behaviors that you cant see on the outside o Political beliefs, how they are feeling 3. Answer 20 questions to find out one thing o Depression, anxiety ii. Disadvantages 1. Is the sample representative – might end up sending it to everybody but only some people want/can answer 2. People are not always truthful – they will tell you what you want to hear (if someone is watching you o Case Study: they know that they are being observed i. study of one individual in great detail (following them around) ii. advantage: tremendous amount of detail (about a specific person) iii. disadvantage: cannot apply to others o Correlational study o Quasi-experiment o True experiment ● What is the difference between a “sample” and a “population”? ● What is the correlational technique, and what does it tell researchers about relationships? o Be able to give an example of a positive and a negative correlation ● How are operational definitions, independent and dependent variables, experimental and control groups, and random assignment used in designing an experiment? ● What are the basic principles of critical thinking, and how can critical thinking be useful in everyday life? o Four basic criteria: i. There are very few “truths” that do not need to be tested ii. All evidence is not equal in quality 1. Something that you read on Wikipedia should not be trusted as much as something in an academic article iii. People are no correct 100% of the time just because they are an “expert” iv. Critical thinking requires an open mind ● Chapter 2 1 ● What is a neuron? o neuron: basic cell that sends and receives messages throughout the body o glia: the support structure to the neuron (they make sure that the neurons stay where they need to stay) ▪ the “backup dancers” of the main performers (the neurons) ▪ deliver nutrients to “feed” the neurons ▪ produce myelin: protects the signals ▪ makes up to 90% of nerves o What are the basic processes involved in the firing of a neuron? ▪ Resting Potential (-70 mv) - When there is no signal going through the neuron ▪ Action Potential (40 mv) Chapter 2 2 - When the signal is going through the neuron ● Discuss the role of dopamine in Parkinson’s disease. o Neurotransmitter: chemicals in the body that travel nerve to nerve starting the action potentials o Reuptake: where extra neuron transmitters get absorbed back to where they came from o Parkinson’s: ▪ Parkinson’s patients treated with L-Dopa can develop symptoms of Schizophrenia. ▪ Helps reduce symptoms of Parkinson's = trouble moving ▪ If too much they can develop characteristics of Schizophrenia (hallucinations) o Schizophrenia: ▪ Dopamine is also linked to the delusions and hallucinations of Schizophrenia ▪ If given drugs that inhibit the action of dopamine, these symptoms can be reduced or eliminated. ▪ If given too much they can have trouble moving ● What is the Central Nervous System (CNS)? ▪ Central Nervous System (CNS) ● Brain and Spinal Cord ● Reflex Arc o Touch Fire ▪ Sensory neurons (afferent neurons) carries info to CNS ▪ Reason that you pull your hand away really fast o Quickly remove hand o Interneurons gets message from sensory neurons and sends it to Motor neurons (efferent neurons) so you move your hand o Message doesn’t go all the way to your brain Chapter 2 3 ▪ Peripheral Nervous System ● Somatic Nervous System o Allows you to move your body ● Autonomic Nervous System o Sympathetic ▪ Fight or Flight ● Parasympathetic o Rest and digest o Most active when you have just ate and are sitting on the couch o How does it differ from the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)? ▪ The central nervous system can react without going all the way up to the brain ▪ the peripheral nervous system goes to your brain is ● Know the difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. ● Identify the various structural parts of the brain o Cerebral cortex: controls complex thought processes o Corpus callosum: what connects the hemispheres o sulcus: groves of the brain o A gyrus o A ventricle o The four lobes of the cortex ▪ What are the (broad) functions associated with each of the lobes? ● Frontal Lobe: reasoning, decision making, fluent speech, personality (Motor Cortex) ● Parietal Lobe: touch, taste, temperature (Somatosensory Cortex) ● Temporal: Hearing, meaningful speech ● Occipital: Vision ● Summarize the findings of split-brain research o Compare and contrast the abilities of the left and right hemispheres of the brain. o Language Centers: ▪ Mainly Left Hemisphere ● right handed people have language on the left (90% of people) ● left handed people are more likely to have language on both sides of their brains Chapter 2 4 ● Identify and describe the functions of the various subcortical structures of the brain o this is part of the Limbic System (between the “older” parts of the brain and the cerebral hemisphere - under the cortex) o Thalamus: part of the forebrain that relays information from the sensory organs to the cerebral cortex ▪ Relay station between lower part of the brain and the cortex ▪ Helps the hind brain communicate with the rest of the cerebral cortex o Hypothalamus: regulates body temperature, thirst, hunger, sleeping, and waking, sexual activity, and emotions (also controls the pituitary = it regulates the hormones) ▪ Motivation Behaviors ● Sleep, Hunger, Thirst, Sex o Hippocampus: forms the long term memories that are stored elsewhere in the brain ▪ common to be called a seahorse ▪ Responsible for memory o Amygdala: fear responses and the memory of fear ▪ Responsible for emotion regulation (happiness, anger, fear etc.) o Cerebellum: the part of the lower brain that controls all involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement ▪ Balance, coordination, movement Chapter 2 5 ▪ people can sit up right because the cerebellum controls all the little muscles needed to keep them from falling out of their chair o Brain stem: ● What are lesion studies? o What can researchers learn about the brain’s function by studying behavior following brain damage? ▪ Aphasias: any difficulty related to language/speech ● Language Disorders ▪ Broca’s Aphasia ● Speaking (production) Impairment ● Difficulty getting words out (speech production problem) o Aware they are having difficulty (they might stumble across words or can’t get a specific word out or can only get one word out) ● Can happen due to a stroke ● More evidence that people can write it out ▪ Wernicke’s Aphasia ● Understanding Impairment ● Sentences don’t make sense (but there language is good) ● Not aware they don’t make sense – they can understand what you are saying but the problem is to produce meaningful language (they hear themselves but it is what they think they are saying) ● Some people can write and some cannot write ● imaging the brain o Electroencephalogram (EEG) ▪ Brain waves are studied by placing electrodes on the scalp. ▪ When neurons fire, they produce electrical fields, and researchers can record electrical activity in response to certain stimuli. o Positron Emission Tomography (PEY) ▪ Small amounts of radiation are injection into the blood and tracked. ▪ The area of the brain that is active uses more blood. ▪ The radiation shows up on brain images. ▪ Brain activity Chapter 2 6 ▪ o Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) ▪ Brain structures (NOT BRAIN ACTIVITY) ▪ Uses a giant magnet to align atoms in your brain ▪ Can be used for more than just brain ▪ Cannot have metal in your body o Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) ▪ Brain Activity ● Measures the amount of oxygen in the blood in your brain which is an association of brain activity ● Not a direct measure of brain activity ▪ Measures Blood Oxygenation ● More oxygen in blood = more activity (valid assumption?) ▪ ● What does your book discuss as some potential causes of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder? o ADHD most likely has multiple causes and may be linked to ___________ Chapter 2 7 brain areas o


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