HIS101 Test 2
HIS101 Test 2 HIS101
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This 20 page Bundle was uploaded by Sloan Garner on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIS101 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Andrew Wiest in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see World Civ I in History at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Latin people were all over Europe, Italy, nomadic tribe They get conquered by Etruscans, who have lived with Greece for a while and have adapted to Greek culture, and they share this culture with the Latin people The government is given to them—Empire Limited monarchy—Etruscan king aided by Senate (representative body elected) Patricians (rich people) have lots of rights and don’t pay a lot of taxes, consuls run Senate, who rep the Patricians Plebians are the nonrich people, pay lots of taxes, have no rights 509BCE: Latins have grown a lot in size, power, and brains, so they expel Etruscans and the term Rome first comes into play Found a forum (meeting place) in Rome Romans are a tiny group of people who kind of sort of get along some of the time Rome will become a democracy, becomes a much bigger version of Athens over 200 years Poor people ask for what the rich people have. Senate and consuls in charge, oligarchy Rome reforms with the rich giving the poor what they want after long time of civil wars Law of 12 Tables developed Poor people get an elected body to rep themselves called the tribal assembly to rule alongside the Senate, and its two leaders are tribunes Bicameral legislature invented (2 houses repping 2 different groups who rule together) A tribune can stop any law from happening by saying “veto”, Latin word for “I forbid.” Rome is a big version of Athens, not Sparta Roman Army fights for liberty, rights, and land (Mom and linguine) Rome wins wars because it is an idea and a powerful one, takes over entire Italian boot People like to be conquered by Rome because it has democracy, you get to vote Carthage is Rome’s bully, Empire in which there are no rights, a giant Sparta, where Rome was a giant Athens Little bitty Greek war of two city states (Athens and Sparta) becomes war of Rome and Carthage, two empires The poor quit voting after getting what they wanted, but rich kept voting, so Rome falls into an oligarchy. Punich wars between Rome and Carthage 3 Punich Wars First: Mid 200s BCE fought to tie after about 7 years, 400,000 killed Second: Hamilcar Barka (Thunderbolt) has two sons whose sole job in life is to destroy Rome Hannibal and Hasdrubal are two sons, both Carthage nobility, generals Alps and water in the way 218, Hannibal invades Rome using the Northern route—he has to cross into Spain and then cross Pyrenees mountains, then fight his way through France with 50,000 men and tanks, and cross Alps (biggest mountains in Europe) in the wintertime with no roads Hannibal walked 50 elephants through the Alps in the wintertime There until 202 BCE winning wars Hannibal’s biggest military victory, Battle of Cannae, envelopment battle (surround Romans in a “bag”) Hannibal can’t win over Rome without his brother Hasdrubal, who shows up in 207 BCE “The Biggest Battle You’ve Never Heard Of”, crosses the Alps with more elephants and brings siege engines Battle of Metaurus River: General Nero intercepts the letter and makes the huge decision to sneak 250 miles up north (did it in 6 days) and destroy Hasdrubal before he comes back to destroy Hannibal (Hasdrubal in North, Hannibal in South), Army leaves behind everyone who would make the army seem like it’s still there—horses, cooks, bugle players; destroys Hasdrubal’s army Essay Question #2 Hannibal creates the situation that causes Rome’s fall He destroyed the countryside, not the city itself Hannibal destroys the small farmer in Rome. Small farm owners to serfs (slaves) on land that someone else owns Landless Romans need a job, so they join the army, which is the only place to get paid. Mercenaries—not loyal to Rome, but whoever can pay them Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus are tribunes (part of the tribal assembly, meaning they represent the poor). Tiberius puts through reforms to benefit poor: redistribute land. The rich are angry. Tiberius and 300 friends are assassinated when rich fight poor, but they forget to kill Gaius. Gaius Gracchus then becomes a tribune and does the same thing. Rich people kill him and 3,000 of his buddies. Civil war between representatives of rich and poor. Marius and Sulla (15786BCE) Marius represented the poor, and Sulla represented the rich. Senate and Tribal assembly raise armies to go to Syria to stop a war, but end up fighting each other. Rich win, and Marius is destroyed. Sulla becomes dictator. Rome is now a lot like Sparta; it looks like a democracy, but power lies within the leader of the largest army. Syrians surrender The head general runs Rome. Pompey becomes new dictator and decides to pick the next in line—Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar does so well that Pompey wants to get rid of him; Civil War #2 starts. Caesar crosses the Rubicon (he’s the leader of Gaul) and defeats Rome. He is loved greatly, forgives taxes and redistributes wealth, but the rich become upset. Senate thinks he wants to be king. Caesar brings in solar calendar. Months named after Roman stuff. He’s assassinated on the Ides of March (15 ) 44BCE by Brutus for the rich people. Civil War #3: Caesar supporter v. Senate supporter Marc Antony is Caesar’s favorite commander and a good friend leads the supporters with Octavian, Caesar’s nephew. They utterly destroy the opposition. Octavian and Marc Antony take control over separate parts of Rome, and eventually, they begin to fight each other. Marc Antony meets Cleopatra in Egypt and falls in love with her and gives her parts of his land. When they start losing, they commit suicide (Marc Antony falls on sword and Cleopatra lets the asps bite her). Octavian is given title Augustus meaning The Revered. Augustus creates Empire by passing leadership onto child Augustus dies in 14AD He has power, which corrupts him Democracy to dictatorship to emperor Caligula: clinically insane; has favorite horse elected to consul of the Senate, demonstrates the depth of his power First Roman Emperor to claim himself Divine God. Gladiators in Colosseum Army fights army in Colosseum, naval battles also held in it Statues do not accurately portray him because he was short, hairy, and ugly Caligula passes two laws: cannot look down on him from above because looking at his bald head is worth death, also not allowed to talk about goats because he thought it was a code word for him Emperor owns everyone, so on the night of marriage, he has dibs; he’s interested in women and men, so he can leave with either or both for however long he wanted Nero Thought himself a great artist. People would fake death or birth to avoid him. He did fiddle while Rome burned, but he set the fire to build a golden palace. Mother Aggripa, he’s a teenage emperor. Marries Octavia, his sister because Aggripa told him, too. Divorces her and marries Papaya, and she hates Octavia and Aggripa, so he kills both. Nero gets irritated with Papaya, so he kicks her pregnant form to death. Wife #3: Sporus is the love of his life; 14 year old boy cup bearer. He can’t marry him, though because he’s a boy, so he takes him through a horrible sexchange surgery, in which it goes wrong and Nero kills him because he’s no longer of any use. Nero was a great athlete because everyone else gave up. 63CE: commits suicide because he knows he’s going to be assassinated Hates Christians because he’s going against God, chains them own in the Colosseum and lets wild animals loose on them Once, dressed as a lion and bit the Christians’ throats out with his own mouth. Nero loved to throw garden parties, and all invited absolutely showed up. They started in the afternoon, and when darkness hit, lit Christians soaked in oil on fire Nero kills St. Paul and St. Peter Aquaducts ran so well, that they powered fountains, and during parties, they would be filled with wine Chariot racing was #1 sport Great Roman philosopher is a political philosopher—Cicero Cicero is criticizing emperors, which are brave moves Popular or social contract theory of government Government was created to protect people. People choose the government leader(s). Therefore, people can change the government when something is wrong. Popular sovereignty Essay Number One The rise of Christianity Jesus, a Jew, turns up and starts preaching peace and love through God Jews irritated, not really Romans New covenant with a forgiving, loving God Plenty claim to be Messiah, but they are constantly being beheaded People turn over Jesus to Pilate. Christianity was a small Jewish sect (literally 12). Judas hung himself, and Jesus is crucified. Saul becomes Paul, and it becomes clear the Christianity is for everyone, not just Jews. St. Peter: goes straight to Rome and becomes the first bishop of Rome St. Paul: wanders all over, walked physically 8,000 miles to start and spread churches and Christianity Paul and Peter are responsible for making Christianity survive The Persecution of Christianity Rome is well known for being tolerant of all religions, but they slaughter all the Christians. Problems: The Christian church is a Universal church. If you don’t believe, you are eternally damned to Hell; it is therefore the duty of the Universal church to convert people. Universal=Evangelical; Christians won’t leave people alone. Christians must deny that the emperor is a God. Christians found their own schools, write their own book, dress funny; they stand out and don’t play by the emperor’s rule. Within 300 years, Rome will be Christian, and at the time, persecution wasn’t working. Romans were attracted to it because it offered hope of eternal paradise. A lot of Romans are already religious, so there was room for God. Jesus was a real, fleshed out person that existed, versus the gods who had not been seen. Christians also have a rulebook and guide and story: the Bible. Also, Romans admire toughness, and Christians survived: they were tough. They were horribly persecuted and tortured, but yet the people did not give up. “Christianity is like the roach religion.” Saint: someone who is presumed to be in heaven; must be canonized 313CE—Christianity conquers Rome. Constantine is the first Christian emperor of Rome. He passes an edict of Malin, making Christianity legal in Rome. 380CE—Emperor Theodosis makes Christianity the only legal religion in Rome. Christians start persecuting others once they are in power. atholic church “catholic” means universal. Originally, there was no church organization because there was no need to organize a big church because Jesus was going to be back any day. Organization “just happened” when the return didn’t happen. The head preacher guy in a town was called a priest, and his listeners were called a parish. The priest owed his allegiance to the priest in a bigger town. The priest in the big town was called a bishop, who ran the diocese. The pope was over all because he was in Rome. Pope Leo I developed the reason why the pope is the pope other than where he is. He develops Petrine (has to do with Peter) doctrine, saying that Christ appointed the bishop of Rome. Peter was the first bishop of Rome. Every Pope picked since then were spiritual descendants of St. Peter. Doctrine of the Trinity Unitarians don’t agree that God is 3 in 1. They believe that God is #1, but the other two do exist and deserve praise. Trinitarians believe in the 3 in 1 and admit that we can’t wrap our heads around it. The pope is supreme in the church, and there is only one body that is supreme to him: the council. 325CE—Council of Nicaea meets and defines the Nicaean Creed, which makes the Trinity correct and Unitarian incorrect. Arias, a Unitarian, is killed because he’s a heretic. Heresy is disagreeing with the church’s belief while still claiming to be a Christian. Infidels aren’t as big of an insult because they’re just dumb, not deliberately bad. Christians also believe that the church is Christ’s body on earth, and heretics are infections. The church must cut off the infection, the burn it to make sure it doesn’t come back and infect others. They believed that torturing for a little while if someone repented was better than torture forever in Hell. The Bible is also written in Latin, and they codified the Bible. They chunked out a bunch of stuff, and the first draft is called the Vulgate Bible. Only priests can read it. Partly because everyone’s illiterate anyway, but partly because it’s a wonderful controlling document. Council also decides that people cannot get to Heaven on their own, and they must use the church as a middle man. The church believes that there are 7 sacraments that Christians must participate in to achieve salvation. 1. Baptism, named after John the Baptist, the washing away of sin *This says that the church believes that people have original sin. 2. Confirmation, the adult decision to join the body of Christ, versus baptism which is conducted when a child 3. Matrimony, marriage, a promise to and with God, not just another person 4. Holy Orders, confirmation of the power of being a priest upon a person, given at ordination 5. Penance, means literally to pay a price, involves confession to a priest 6. Extreme Unction, last rites can be performed by a layman if a priest in not around and it is an emergency 7. Holy Eucharist, communion, solemn moment of rededication, high point of Mass, priest blesses the host (bread and wine) and transubstantiation occurs, in which the bread and wine is transformed into the physical body and blood of Jesus Christ, main nono of Protestantism Saints You can pray to saints and ask for intercession. There are patron saints for different things. Mary is often asked for intercession. She is a central figure in the Catholic church, mostly because of her humanity. Purgatory In between Heaven and Hell. You get your sins blasted/tortured out of you, but it isn’t eternal. You can pray relatives out of purgatory. All of the above are considered beliefs of the Roman Catholic church. Organization Clergy—popes, church leaders, bishops, priests, 2 types 1. secular: operate in the community 2. regular: live by strict regulations, initially hermits, become monks 300CE, deeply religious people got together to form the first monasteries Benedictine Order: order of St. Benedict Head of monastery called an abbot As a monk, you swear... 1. loyalty to the regulations of the abbot 2. poverty 3. chastity Live in little cells with candles and are constantly at church. Female monk called nun. Books are handwritten For practice before Bible, they write Democritus, Archimedes Monastic beer and wine are apparently really good. I. Essay #2: Fall of Rome A. Rome falls under Emperor Commodus 1. 192CE 2. Rome stagnates economically. It’s not productive. Rome has become Sparta. 3. They can no longer conquer, so their economy collapses. 1. Rough leaders. Each gets assassinated. B. Emperor #1 who tries to fix Rome: Diocletian 1. Divides Rome into 2 states—Eastern and Western Rome 2. Runs to Eastern Rome to escape duties C. Emperor #2: Constantine 1. Solidifies the fallen Rome 2. Rips Rome into 2 independent empires a) Rome and Byzantine Empire. Names the capital Constantinople after himself b) Byzantine is Western Rome 3. He freezes the economy a) Whatever someone’s job is originally, it will be their job and their children’s job forever. Becomes last name b) People make guilds (i) Most are serfs: European version of slavery Both are responsible for Rome’s decline. They hurt the economy. D. Goths (Germans) 1. Rome has never been able to conquer Goths before, even with huge army, but Goths are not organized well enough 2. Goths are in tribes 3. Goths conquer Rome NOT ON THE ESSAY: Gothic Culture Goths are good at fighting and being pissed. They don’t play with science or art or writing. Whoever is in charge is the person who conquered the last guy who was in charge. “Might makes right.” Goths have trial by combat. Belief that the gods won’t let the wrong guy win. A champion can be appointed, which is someone who fights for someone else like a woman. Trial by ordeal—boiling water ordeal: dip arm in water to pull rock out of the bottom of the pot. If your wounds have healed in three days, congrats you live. If the wounds have festered, you’re guilty, you die. Head chief guy can stack odds for you or against you Goths have one big building in the middle of town. They will superheat swords and lay them all over the floor, and there is only one exit one must find while blindfolded. Blessed water ordeal: a priest blesses a body of water (river or lake), body of water accepts you if you’re pure and you sink and hope your family can swim and get you out because you are hogtied. If you bob back up, sucks, you die, you’re guilty. Bot: give money (fine) 4. Germanic system is very warlike 5. Biggest enemy is Huns 6. Two important types of Goths a) Ostro Goths (Eastern Goths) b) Middle Goths (Visi Goths) E. 372CE: The Huns 1. Led by Attila 2. Have been in Asia and Chinese finally drive them out long after Great Wall is built 3. After driven out, they appear in Europe with the Goths 4. Huns destroy the Ostro Goths, and Visi Goths run to Rome VisiGoths and Romans Team Up Romans let the VisiGoths in, but they don’t get along well Romans and VisiGoths finally battle at Battle of Adrianople 378CE, Romans are annihilated by Goths. Lots of other Goths come, and anyone fighting outside of Rome comes back to Rome to fight, meaning there are huge voids in France and Spain, etc. The Francs invade France The Angles and the Saxons invade Britain where the Romans used to be. Rome is destroyed by the Visi Goths, and the Visi Goth king, Alaric takes over. 410CE—Rome falls to Alaric Germans pretend to be Roman for about 100 more years II. The Dark Ages (NON ESSAY) A. All that’s left are Goths pretending to be Romans 1. Law is based on might, no writing, no trade, etc. because Goths value might Another period of oral history because no one could write B. King Arthur (probably not his name) 1. 12 battles led by him a) Battle of Baden was great b) Defeated finally at Battle of Camland 2. Wife Guinevere 3. Happens 400-ishCE, but doesn’t get written down until 1400CE 4. Uther Pendragon (Ultimate Dragon, last name or title) 5. Arthur is baby bastard 6. Mother is named Igrane 7. Uther rapes her 8. Before they can kill it, Merlin (druidic priest) steals him and raises him because he knows that Arthur is to be the real king, not Uther 9. Proves his righteous place as king by pulling Excalibur out of rock a) Excalibur made out of meteor b) Scabbard part is most important because protects Arthur; he can never be hurt 10. Arthur harnesses might. “Might must serve right.” a) Chivalry 11. Has knights of round table 12. Probably did not wear even chain mail, dressed in leather 13. Camelot was earthen, not stone or gold 14. Holy Grail is found by purest knight—Sir Galahad—who is holy a) Best knight=Sir Lancelot 15. Arthur’s father’s sin kills him. a) Arthur’s half-sister, Morgan, loathes him b) Morgan also just happens to be a bad witch c) She rapes him and has his son and names him Mordrid d) Mordrid is raised to kill his father and is given a set of armor that cannot be pierced by any weapon made on Earth e) Morgan convinces Lancelot and Arthur to fight in a tournament f) Lancelot wins, but Arthur won’t give up Excalibur, the prize, but gives up the scabbard g) Arthur and Mordrid end up fighting at Camland and kill each other kind of h) But Arthur is not totally dead, he survives and get someone to rid him of the sword i) He now scoots around the lake where Excalibur was thrown waiting for the hand to come back up with the sword when Britain needs help Insert Tuesday’s Notes Here LAB 101 on November 5th at 5:00 for a Review BE THERE Eastern Roman Empire. Byzantine Empire. Rome split into two, but Western Rome had fallen. o Eastern Rome wont fall until the 1400s ER is the insurance policy of a very weak Europe. o Byzantine Empire protects Europe from Asian Barbarians at its weakest Emperor Basil. He is fighting Bulgarians (Asian tribe) o Byzantines (Basil) stop them. o He defeats Bulgars and captures about 100,000 of them. o He has them all blinded Basil the Bulgar Blinder He sends them home to send a message Ends up only popping out one eyeball so they can get back home Fighting forces of Islam Byzantine empire gives us the first split of Christianity in 726 AD Emperor Leo splits Christianity. He is a member of the catholic church. o The pope orders him around. o He thinks he should be the head of the church. o He wants all the power. He wants control in both lives. o The pope doesn't like this —> Split Iconoclastic controversy Leo says, “Yall are idolizing this art. We need to get rid of it so you stop worshiping art on a wall.” He wants to destroy art. For power. European: Roman Catholic Church Byzantium: Eastern Orthodox Church FIRST SPLIT IN CATHOLIC CHURCH Byzantine Empire falls in 1453 to the forces of Islam Then, Europe is strong again. *Close to 1492* ESSAY QUESTION #3: Islam Background: o Islam starts in Saudi Arabia. o Its full of people “on the move” who move around and herd sheep o People: Betoans o The land is dry and desertlike o Mobility: They’ve not settled down or established their own religion. They were animistic. o Mecca: By the sea. Its a seaport (trade), different peoples live there (different religions) o Kaaba: Building that contains a rock. The rock was delivered by Gabriel (angel) who gave this rock to Abraham. Rock was white. People kissed it. It turned black (sin). Muhammad lives in Mecca. Middle class man. o He’s prone to meditation. He is taken by the religions in his town. He meditates in a cave. o Gabriel shows up into the cave. Muhammad has several of these visions. Gabriel tells Muhammad that Muhammad is the final prophet. He will share the teachings of Allah and fulfill the prophesy with the people. o Allah = God o Jews and Christians have part of the prophesy. (explaining FINAL prophet) o Muhammad has the last piece of the prophesy. o He writes these prophesies down in the Quran. o Quran: Holy book of Islam o BIG DIFFERENCE: Muhammad is not divine. He is a vessel for a prophesy. o Physical: Muhammad takes this religion back and he and his followers are shunned and persecuted (new religion). They leave Mecca KNOW THIS: 622 AD 622 is when he begins to spread the religion Medina: City where he and his followers go. North of Mecca. Islam. This is year 1. Its the Hajira. Medina welcomes him and he becomes a religious and a temporal leader (of the country, of the army). Both religious and physical followers. He returns to Mecca with an army, and Islam spreads like crazy. Muhammad dies in 632 AD. o Beliefs: 5 Basic Beliefs (Five Pillars of Faith): 1. Belief in Allah as the one god and in Muhammad as his most perfect prophet. (This implies universalism: This is the creator of the universe. The same as Christianity. 2 universal religions in the world: Christianity and Islam) Christians and Islam worship the same God 2. Prayer. Direct communion between people and God. Rote (memorized) prayer. 5 times a day that one is called to pray. You have to face toward Mecca (East) when praying. Prostrate yourself on the ground (bow down). Demonstrated devotion to God. 3. Alms giving. (Living “right,” morally, by justice) 4. Fasting. Fast 1 month out of the year: Ramadan: REMEMBER THIS Don’t eat while the sun is up. Only water. This shows devotion to the faith. 5. Pilgrimage to Mecca: Hajj. During the month of Ramadan. You have to do this (If you have the physical ability). Children often send parents. Christians have the Holy Land. Jihad: Holy War. o Fighting for Islam is good. o If you fight, you are looked at in favor of God. If you die, you go to heaven. o Islam has an armed and violent side to it. o Many believe it is an internal struggle of good and evil within the soul. o Many convert by witnessing. The expansion across North Africa was conversion by the sword. When Muhammad dies… Who is the new leader of the country, army, and religion? o Caliph: Muhammad’s followers (officials) o 1.) Ali: Muhammad’s son in law Supposedly ordained by Muhammad. o 2.) Abu Bekar: father of Mohammad's wife) Abu Bekar wins the struggle and becomes the first Caliph. o Islam under him will spread rapidly by the sword o 661 AD: Islam is spread across North Africa 4th Caliph: A new guy named Ali. He will be overthrown. Why? Because there is a deep division in islam (over the original successors). 2 sides. o Suni Islam: Follows the elected Caliph and keeps going. (Majority) o Shia Islam: Traces itself to Ali. Followed him and his successors. (Minority, traditional) Split about books, land, power, etc. o 660 AD: they have been fighting viciously. o Suni’s love killing Shias. o Radical Islam wants to turn the clock back to before 661. o Islam gets all the way to France and almost conquers Europe Charles D. Martel (means: Hammer) leads a huge battle. He is a German, Christian Knight. In the year 732 AD. He meets the forces of Islam outside of Paris and defeats Islam. HUGE moment in history. Europe will survive as a Christian place, not an Islamic place. THIS IS THE END OF THE ESSAY How he wins this Battle of Tours: o He owns land. He says, “Hey, come fight with me, and I’ll give you land.” This was a unifying factor. o He also has a secret weapon: He has an invention that holds one on a horse. He incorporates the stirrup (what keeps you in the saddle on a horse). Medieval tanks. Gothic people in Middle Europe (which will most heavily fall into the Dark Ages) have succession of good kings who almost save everyone I King Clovis (late 1480s) C. Christian D. Meets Pope in Europe and makes alliance with him III. King Charles the Hammer (son) A. Stops the battle of Toures B. Converted money into land IV. King Pepin the Short (son) A. Solidifies the alliance between the kings and the church by giving a lot of his land to the Pope B. That land is Italy V. King Charles the Great (son) A. Called the Great because middle Europe is his empire B. Almost makes a new Rome C. Similar to Alexander, after he dies, his united empire falls apart D. Also known as Charlemagne by French VI. King Louis the Pious (son) A. Good at praying B. Name means Louis the Super Christian Guy C. He was eventually canonized D. Empire falls apart because “Might makes right.” And he isn’t mighty. E. Divides the empire between his three sons, and they fight each other. 1. Louis the German a) His land later becomes Germany after he wipes out Lothair with his brother 2. Charles the Bald a) His land later becomes France after he wipes out Lothair with his brother 3. Lothair a) Destroyed by his brothers VII. Vikings A. As Europe became weak, the Vikings start invading and taking over B. Badassest warriors of all times C. Come from Scandinavia, Norway, Sweden, Finland, known as People from the North 1. Later misconstrued to Norse D. Vikings are raiders who burn all your shit, steal all your women, and leave, unlike previous invaders who take over and rule everyone E. Boats are the key to success 1. Shallow draft so that they can go everywhere, including Rome, Moscow a) Actually even hit America and Canada after Iceland and Greenland 2. Do not hold a lot of people, but don’t need many people to beat up a Viking F. Why did they move? 1. Mini Ice Age a) Perhaps caused by a volcanic eruption that was in Asia 2. Too friggin cold for the Vikings (or humans at all) to live there 3. They split to mainland Europe G. Favorite places to raid—churches or monasteries 1. No people fight back, and lots of expensive goods VIII. Essay #4: Social and Economic System of Middle Ages A. Feudalism=government 1. Doesn’t actually work and is synonymous with no government B. Basically, they needed protection so badly that the entire social and economic system revolve around creating knights C. Knights 1. King is simply the biggest, baddest knight a) His main power is owning the entire country through giving out land to other knights for loyalty D. Property Element of Feudalism=land deal 1. Fief=sort-of states 2. Knights and loyalty are traded for the land E. Personal Element of Feudalism 1. People swear an oath under God to give knights when needed 2. King is called the lord, and the nobles are called vassals 3. Chain continues on and on with vassals becoming lords who are also vassals 4. Subinfeudiation is the title for this process F. The king is so reliant on so many levels of the pyramid of feudalism that when Vikings show up, he can’t gather his army together 1. Central government is essentially destroyed 2. People at the bottom (not serfs) have all the power G. Governmental Element of Feudalism (also the worst element) 1. If there’s money, you make it 2. There are too many types of government because there is no continuity H. Manoralism (Manor=Farm/Plantation) 1. Economic form 2. For the other 95% of the people that exist 3. Manor is a farm on a fief a) Fief is government, manor is economy I. Manors 1. Ways to feed ourselves and make money locally 2. Center of manor is little village and a little church a) One manor in a section of land might have a castle for the knight to live in 3. Arable (producing) land and non-arable (woods) land 4. Manors have a 3-field crop rotation system a) First planted with spring crops b) Second planted with fall crops c) Lies fallow (unfarmed) d) Then rotation occurs 5. Each peasant has 1 strip of land in each field, and they are subsistence farming 6. A knight owns 1/3 of that entire land, so 1 strip for you, 2 for your lord 7. Work Types a) Week work—upkeep of the crops and blah blah blah, always busy b) Boon work—planting and harvesting times 8. Harvest and plant the lord’s crops first. You can wait. J. There is no hope for the future, and a revolution starts brewing. Boys whole lives from the age of seven are spent learning how to kill. Start off as pages, move to squires, then knights. When there’s no fighting to be done for protection, they fight each other. Castles are squat and like fortresses. When knights begin to fight each other and fail to get into the castles, they slaughter all the unprotected peasants/serfs. Pope Urban II 1095, two great ideas: 1. Islamic people are ruling the holy lands, the first crusade springs up as he puts up a call to the Christian knights to fight for the holy land 2. all the kings and peasants want to get rid of the knights that keep slaughtering everybody “Take that outside!”—Pope “Mom” Urban to the knights of Europe Papal indulgence: Pope tries to sweeten the pot and tells everyone that if you live through the crusade, all of your sins are forgiven, and if you die, you get a oneway ticket to Heaven
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