History 101 Test 3/Final
History 101 Test 3/Final HIS101
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This 14 page Bundle was uploaded by Sloan Garner on Thursday August 11, 2016. The Bundle belongs to HIS101 at University of Southern Mississippi taught by Andrew Wiest in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see World Civ I in History at University of Southern Mississippi.
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Date Created: 08/11/16
I. The Pope (Boniface) A. The church is extremely powerful. B. Power of the Pope 1. Temporal 2. Spiritual a) Excommunication: Pope throws you out of church, and there is no other church to go to, so you are no longer a Christian. Your soul is now damned to hell. b) Interdict: excommunication of an entire country, and everyone must go to hell, unless they swear away the king. 3. He is using interdict to make people rise up and overthrow the king. II. Pope Clement A. He moves the government of the church (papacy) to Avignon in France from Rome. 1. He is sucking up to the king, and the French king takes control for 70 years. 2. Church has become a business, and the power of the church is destroyed. III. Great Schism A. 2 more Popes... B. Church moves back to Rome because the Pope at that time was dying. C. Next Pope is Italian D. French king has lost his power, so he elects another Pope 1. Now there are two Popes a) French and Italian b) French Pope and Italian Pope excommunicate one another E. Kings of Europe finally get together F. 1414: Council of Constance elects Pope Martin a) He excommunicates and interdicts them, and the do the same to him G. The rise of the kings has threatened the church, and so they get the Church gets its shit together. IV. Knights A. 2 weapons come along and can destroy them 1. Welsh longbow a) Made of yew wood b) About 6 feet long with 3 foot arrows c) Steel tips on arrows that can kill someone over the length of two football fields while dressed in armor 2. Gunpowder from China B. October 25, 1415: Battle of Aschincore 1. Henry V’s knights take out the French knights V. Richard III A. Britain has lost the 100 years’ war B. Wars of the Roses—civil wars C. Richard III takes over 1. Battle of Bosworth is where he’s killed 2. Weak king VI. Henry Tudor VII A. Church is collapsing, and knighthood is gone. Britain has also gone through civil war. 1. Britain is behind on colonizing because they were busy fighting themselves. VII. ESSAY #2: Renaissance (“Rebirth” of Lost Culture of Europe) A. Monastic libraries are still holding all of the old learning 1. This old learning is threatening to the church. a) If it was not already weak, the Reformation wouldn’t have happened. B. Reformation 1. 2 problems of the current church lead to this a) Old learning and weakness of the church b) Middle class (i) Use money to get prestige—Patrons (ii) Artists make an emergence C. Humanism (founding idea of the Renaissance): art, philosophy, etc. can be used to better man’s condition on Earth 1. Learning is used to make life better 2. Before humanism, the churchly, religious learning was only learning done 3. Petrarch is the Father of Humanism a) Lawyer, constantly researching, so in libraries all the time and finds all the old learning b) Hell is scared into him because he’s a deep Christian, but the learning is attacking his religion c) Writes the book Secret (i) Debate between St. Augustine and himself in which St. Augustine says no constantly because it would cause the unveiling of “double truth” (ii) Double Truth: science and religion are both true (a) Religion is faith (b) Science is what you can see and prove D. Church finally lets the old works be dug back up 1. Keep Plato, deny Aristotle E. Art 1. Middle Age art sucked 2. Masaccio starts building depth and texture in art a) Realism (make art lifelike) starts b) He uses geometry to make horizon line and vanish point 3. Veramonte a) St. Peter’s in Rome is built by him (i) Died during its construction 4. Michelangelo a) Sculptor and painter b) His Statue of David is incredibly realistic c) Sistine Chapel commissioned by Pope (i) Was in the middle of making a tomb for the Pope (ii) He did not want to take the job because he thought himself to not be a good painter (iii) He was so tortured that he included a self-portrait as St. Bartholomew’s skin d) Moses statue (i) The sculpture has horns because the Latin word for halo was the same as horns, only two letters are reversed, and this was all written down by the Pope. Unfortunately, Michelangelo was dyslexic. 5. Leonardo DaVinci a) Knows everything because he rediscovers most of the old learning b) Invented the tank, automatic well, helicopter c) Literally the Renaissance Man d) Wrote all of his notes in perfect backward Latin e) The Last Supper and Mona Lisa (i) Mona Lisa is probably DaVinci in drag 6. Art is stuck in essentially a ghetto a) It’s for rich people and literate people 7. Johannes Gutenburg a) Lives in Germany, so obviously the Renaissance has spread b) Engineer who invents moveable type and the printing press in the mid-1400s c) Before him, books were expensive because they were either written by hand or stamped by giant 1-page blocks d) Makes learning cheap because everyone can afford books e) First book printed on the printing press is the Bible (i) This revolutionizes Christianity because now everyone can have a Bible, and everyone can decide for themselves what they believe (ii) Church is furious that people are allowed to read and choose because the power falls out of their hands. (iii) They can’t take free learning from everyone so they tell everyone that they are not qualified to read it to try to keep people from F. Christian Humanism 1. Erasmus a) Prints as many Bibles as he can, and he prints them in different languages so that everyone can read them b) Can be traced to the source of all Protestantism G. Closing Stages of the Renaissance 1. Sir Thomas Moore a) Writes book Utopia (perfect society) and essentially destroys kings because he says “How we live is right? WTF?” H. William Shakespeare Essay 3- Nov 24 1. German: Luther 2. German: Calvin 3. Luther wasn’t trying to leave the church. He was trying to reform it. Tetsel caused him to break from the church. 4. 95 theses. 5. Calvin: New ideas in France. 6. SHORT ANSWER AND MULTIPLE CHOICE 7. Spain. Aragon. 8. King of Aragon is poor, and he produces beautiful daughters. 9. She will marry Henry Tudor (8th) 10.Catherine of Aragon, daughter of the king of Aragon, was sent to England when she was 16 to get married to the english King of the throne. 11.She goes over and marries Arthur, Henry’s older brother, because Henry dies. 12.She was told to go marry the next guy in line to the throne —> Arthur 13.Dad wants this marriage. It is a marriage for money. It had already happened. 14.They have a daughter. 15.He isn’t faithful to her and has several sons. 16.But she isn’t able to produce him a son. Henry is very religious. He is Catholic. 17.Verse in Leviticus says do not marry or sleep with your brother’s wife. 18.He believes that he is cursed by God. He has to get out of this marriage. 19.He tries to convince the Pope to grant him a divorce. 20.Catholics don’t dig divorce. 21.He splits the English church from the Roman church. 22.He split it to get a divorce. 23.How does he split the church? 1. The Act of Supremacy Henry is supreme in the English church, not the Pope (Technically gives control to parliament). Henry is now wealthy because he is the head of the church. 2. The Act of Treason It’s treason to question that first law —> Death 1. The 6 Articles Leaves the English church’s beliefs Catholic. All that was done is he separated it from Rome (with how people acknowledge the Pope) 2. Cramner was appointed Arch Bishop of Canberry to do one job, to be the head of the church. His one job was to give Henry a divorce 3. Anne Bolyen Wife number 2. Was the mother of Queen Elizabeth. She goes on and doesn’t have a boy. Married to her for 2 years. He thinks that he is cursed by God. 4. He kills her so he doesn’t have to divorce her. He accused her of adultery and incest (with her brother). Treason —> Dead 5. Hung, Drawn, and quartered messed up way to kill somebody. 6. Jane Seymour Wife #3. Married her for a year because she is perfect. She has a boy named Edward. She dies of complication to childbirth 7. Anne of Cleaves #4 Alliance with the protestant church. King’s consultant. Cromwell tells an artist to paint a beautiful portrait of her. “The flander’s mare” aka. You ugly horse. King divorces her (she is ok with it). He calls in Cromwell and has him executed. 8. Catherine Howard #5 Henry is 49 and fat (syphilis). He falls in love with 14 year old Catherine Howard. Catherine Howard does commit adultery. She is beheaded. 9. Catherine Parr #6 Henry’s nurse. Divorced. Beheaded. Died. Divorced. Beheaded. Survived. 10.King Edward takes over as a young boy. He is 13 and a protestant. Son passes a new law. 1. 42 articles England has a protestant church. 11.Edward dies because he gets Tuberculosis. 12.Mary becomes queen. She loathes her father and his church, so she says they are Catholic again and that they are teaming back up with Rome. She marries the King of Spain. She kills so many protestants, she gets the name Bloody Mary. She is hated by many people, including her husband, who married her go get England. She dies. 13.Queen Elizabeth She gives us the English Church we know today. Elizabeth wants to end the fight of the church, so she comes up with a new law. 1. 39 articles most concurrent. Compromised the church in England. Anglican (Episcopalian church). Her church looks Catholic, but its beliefs are protestant. 14.Puritans They wish to “purify” the English church of the Catholic look. 15.Elizabeth persecutes the Puritans. 16.———————————————————————————— 17.Wiest is now talking about Africa. 18.Subsaharan desert. Rainforests. Deserts. Both are terrible for raising food. 19.A bunch of Africa is uninhabitable. Big civilizations don’t rise in this area (Explains Ethiopia, Nigeria, South Africa. Have inhabitable land with some rain. Famines. Savannah Swahili term meaning grasslands. VIII. Africa A. Geography 1. Stateless society a) Group of people in the shitty places of Africa who wander and do not recognize borders (i) They have to follow the rains (ii) No concept of land ownership 2. Limits growth but also helps protect people a) Travelling is hard because there are fault lines in rivers when you travel by water b) Disease is prevalent 3. Equator a) Protects the people because you lose the North Star after you cross it IX. Africa’s People (ESSAY) A. Bantu 1. Modern-day Nigeria a) Invent iron tools and weapons in sub-Saharan Africa (i) RESULT: population explosion and powerful army (ii) Take over everything B. People taken over are now ethnically similar, but differ in all other areas (religion, language, etc.) 1. NOT A POLITICAL ENTITY C. No written language or wheel 1. No draft animals, so no wheel needed D. BANTU STATES 1. Axum a) Savannah rains b) Has ports because it’s on the Mediterranean (i) Not as isolated from Greece and others c) Featured in the Bible as Sheba d) Pretty powerful e) First Christian nation on Earth, even before Rome (i) King Ezana accepted Christ and turned his country Christian after Saint Andrew converted him (ii) AFRICA HAS ITS OWN BRAND OF CHRISTIANITY with a Pope and saints and a Bible and everything: COPTIC (a) Most prevalent in Egypt now (b) Unitarian: do not believe in the Trinity f) Some of Muhammad’s followers go to Axum after being thrown out of Mecca and are welcomed (i) When they come back to take over, Axum is saved g) 1600-1700s: Europeans want their shit and wanna sell it and get rich (i) Also want to bring Christianity and civilization (ii) Axum was already Christian, so they were passed over h) Longest standing independent African state—does not fall until World War II 2. Ghana a) Savannah rains b) Animistic c) Monarchy d) Capital Kumbi-Saleh e) Mandinca dialect f) Women are full citizens g) Has the 3 most valuable trading items in the world—salt, gold, people—so they’re rich (i) So full of gold that they export 9 tons of gold to Europe per year in the 1200s—caused the Renaissance by trading for animals and crops h) Islam sweeps in to give them a religion and renames them Mali with the capital Timbuktu (where Moses lost his left shoe), the richest and most educated and literate city in the world with i) If you were someone who was educated, you went to uni at Timbuktu j) Mansa Musa—Malise king (Mansa means king) makes trip to Mecca with a hella thick wallet k) Africans discovered New World when Mansa Musa sent out 300 ships and two returned with news of a new land in that direction (West) l) The rains stop, and the society collapses (i) Europeans don’t have to try real hard to take over 3. SWAHILI—people who live on the coast a) Cosmopolitan b) Has slavery and is always at war with each other c) Still lacking animals but can trade Easternly for horses with slaves (i) Surplus of people, shortage of animals (ii) 7-8,000 a year exported slaves (iii) Slaves used for sex, 13, 14, 15-year-old children (iv) Some men are traded to protect the women until they get to their owners and they are castrated to become Eunuchs d) No refrigerators so everything has to be bought fresh e) Most people just eat rotten meat f) Therefore, SALT WAS SUPER VALUABLE IN PRESERVING MEAT g) SPICE IS WORTH MORE IN WEIGHT THAN GOLD h) 3 Opium Wars in Britain over shit to make you so high you can’t taste the rot i) Sugar is the cause of slave trade because turning it into rum and getting drunk will keep you from throwing up X. END OF ESSAY XI. African Slave Trade A. 1480—Diaz from Portugal shows up, first to go south of equator and discovers the cape of good hope 1. Portugal then realized they can make it to Africa and built factories and set up a trade. There are draft animals, booze, firearms and people being traded. a) The traded people are shipped to grow sugar in the New World. 11 million Africans imported to the slave trade B. African Diaspora—the “scattering” of slaves C. Slavery Steps 1. Have to be captured when you lose a war 2. Hauled to African coastline a) Africans die in the war and on the way to the coast b) Options are to escape or commit suicide c) Life was horrible on the coast—chattel slavery D. Slaves are property. They have no soul to justify Christian’s actions. Like animals, they are dehumanized. E. They are shipped to the New World in boats, crammed too full, using the Middle Passage. 1. 1 million slaves die in the Middle Passage a) If you’re sick, you’re thrown overboard. F. American Slavery—of the 11.5 million shipped out, only 500,000 are sent to America G. British are left behind in the race to America because they are busy in a religious struggle. Spanish and French colonies are hella rich and make the British look like shit (which they are). H. Equal numbers of men and women shipped to America. 1. America bought equal numbers because they can’t afford anymore slaves, and any children are profit. 2. Economic Imperative: We don’t have much money; it’s imperative that we spend our money well. a) This means that in America, you try to keep them alive instead of killing them. b) It’s better to manipulate them. Sell their children away or religiously restrain them because there is no way for them to know for sure what a slave owner is telling them. I. They all have tough life, even non-slaves J. The most effective way for slaves to resist was to hold onto their humanity against all odds. K. 10.5 million slaves went to the sugar-growing places in the world. 1. Haiti was the most valuable property in the world because it grew the most sugar. 2. Only men were brought in because they were rich and didn’t need them to reproduce 3. The life expectancy was 3 years, and slaves were indispensable. Worked to death and bought a new one. Death rate was 100%. The only survivors were the ones who were there when slavery ended. XII. ESSAYS A. English Governmental System 1. William the Conqueror and Henry I develop the executive branch of government with a rich and powerful king + a cabinet. 2. Henry II creates the judicial branch to have king’s law overtake the feudal law. COMMON LAW. 3. Richard the Lionheart and John and how they lost power. 4. King Edward who tried to gain power but screwed around and gave himself Parliament, in which he lost more power. B. Renaissance 1. Who funded it? Why? 2. Humanism and its founder, and the book he wrote about it that started it all 3. High Renaissance—the guy who redeveloped art, 2 of 4 ninja turtles doing art (Mikey and Leo), the most important invention in the world from Germany—the printing press 4. Christian Humanism and the guy who says the printing press should be used to take the Bible to everyone C. Reformation 1. Indulgences—what they were and who sold them 2. Lawyer-turned-monk named Martin Luther and everything he did, 2 main ideas—sola fide and sola scriptura, meeting with the German Emperor, Diet of Worms 3. John Calvin—what did he come up with (1 new big idea) and what book did he put them in? 4. WHERE DID CALVINISM SPREAD TO? D. Sub-Saharan Africa 1. Who took over and why were they able to do it? Bantu people 2. Axum—who runs it, why is it different, why does it survive? 3. Ghana—who ran it, what its capital was, why it was so rich, why did it fall? 4. Mali—Mansa Musa and what he develops
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