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Social Psychology Exam notes 1 -11

by: Sadiematic

Social Psychology Exam notes 1 -11 Psyc 335

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This study guide includes vocabulary, bullet pointed facts, and information on social psychology textbook THINK Social Psychology 2012 Ed. This also has some class notes i found to be helpful.
Social Psychology
social, SocialPsychology, psych335, groupthink
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Ausirys Alviz Psychological Sociology 1. September 19, 2015 INTRODUCTION TO THE PSYCHOLOGY OF SOCIOLOGY What is Psychology? What is Science? and what are their goals? Psychology is the study of human behavior and mental process. Science is the systematic gathering of knowledge through empirical(observation) and rationalist(logic) methods. Their goals are to explain, predict and control behavior. This is done by identifying the person and the situation. - Kurt Lewin- a german solider who became a psychologist in Berlin and later taught social psychology in america. He believed in an interactionalist perspective. between the time of WW1/WW2. His theory experimentation aimed to research the group dimensions of people which set up the main areas of social psychology. What is Social Psychology? social psychology is a science that studies how people think about one another, how people influence one another, and how people relate to one another. - 3 Main areas that psychologists study? The main areas are Social perception, Influence, and Interaction. There together explain how one forms an impression of another based on the available information, how ones cognition and behavior are affected by others, and how the relationships between people work. (Perspectives: Evolutionary, social cognitive, social Learning, sociocultural) Why study Social Psychology? the study of Society through Psychology is not only for the curiosity of group dynamics and how people based on age, gender, culture, religion interact but it is also to form solutions that aim to solve social practical problems. - To study what makes people unique from other animals through studying the biological and behavioral composition. - To study the group structure of humanity as people part of society: Culture, gender, peer groups - To study individuality in personality, physical and intellectual ability, and the Nature vs. Nurture/ Social cognition -> Biology and Brain -> Focus on self -> Focus on Conflict. The Asch Experiment , was a test asking “which of 3 lines looks like line number 1” experiment assigned to to observe and analyze the subjects reaction in a controlled environment where the people participating were both 1. true participants and 2.confederates. The most important part of this experiment was analyzing how and why the social influence of the majority of the group answering wrongfully affected the 1.true participants answer. On one occasion, the true participant would just agree with the fake participants from the 1. beginning. either because they were convinced the other person was right [ this is called informational conformity], or to avoid social discomfort where a group will disapprove [ this is called normative conformity] 2.On another occasion, the true participant is reduced from social pressure due to being late and having to respond to questions by papers avoiding social pressure or disapproval. What do Social Psychologists do? They use the ABC triad to understand how people feel, act, and think by examining personal and situational influences. Affect - Behavior - Cognition Ausirys Alviz Psychological Sociology 1. September 19, 2015 How do people study Social Psychology? Social Psychology is studied through research: applied (action research by kurt), basic. Overall through the Scientific Method to avoid bias and explain thoroughly the results. - 2 Research debates: 1. The use of research [ mostly usa?] 2. The ethics of research - 2 Cultural social psychology views: individualistic (like in the USA) and collectivist (persons reaction to culture/surrounding) 1. Bias to avoid: Hindsight (Thinking we knew what happened after it happened), confirmation bias (being selective to information based on personal beliefs), and false consensus effect (assuming everyone shares one opinion- generalizing perception of belief). 2. Create Operational definition or specific definition of what is being measured or manipulated. All in order to take care of Validity (accuracy) and Reliability (consistency) of information. replicability. 3. The Scientific Method: - State problem - pose question - Formulate testable hypothesis : define variable and how they’ll be measured/manipulated - design study and collect data - test hypothesis with data - communicate study results - replicate and extend findings Know what independent (changing or manipulated variable) variable and dependent (observed) variable is. - Roots of Social Psychology: -Norman Triplets questioned competition effect on human behavior. Used Scientific research to prove people were motivated to work harder when around others: Social Facilitation. -Max Ringleman questiones triplet’s ideology by seeing that people may tend to put less effort in a group setting Social Loafing -Kurt Lewing- father of sociology composed interactionalist perspective from internal [personality psych] and external [Social Psychology] combinations to explain leadership roles.. -Mazufer Sherif- 1rst to apply auto kinetic effects theory -Leon Fertinge- coined terms Cognitive dissonance (our ideas attitudes disagree with our behavior) and Social Comparison Theory (how people perceive themselves in terms of others) -Fritz Heider- Coined the attribution theory (explain why and how people explain behavior of self and others) -Kahnman & Tvestky developed the idea of heuristic or mental shortcut, thoughts intentionally made Chapter 6: ATTITUDES: MAKING EVALUATIONS ABOUT THE WORLD SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - HOW DO ATTITUDES DEVELOP? Attitude: having an evaluative component toward a stimulus that is made up of effective, behavioral, and cognitive information. • Attitudes: Global evaluations toward some object or issue Beliefs : Information about something; facts or opinions • • Attitudes help guide behavior : seek things that are rewarding, avoid things that punish Ambivalence : simultaneously experiencing strong contradictory emotions, or motivations. Attitudes may vary from ignoring how one feels to a weak, strong, positive indifferent, negative, or ambivalent. • Attitude Formation - Attitudes form through affective (feelings and emotions evoked), behavioral (actions intended to take), and cognitive components (thoughts or knowledge about stimulus). - Attitudes develop as either positive or negative in tone and mild to passionate in strength. - Implicit Attitude: attitudes automatically formed or activated without our being aware of it. • one may feel that we are unable to override fears. • may come from early experiences and forgotten experiences. • may be more formed by affective reaction because they have to do more with automatic responses. • cultural biases have more influence on implicit attitude. - Explicit Attitude: attitudes of which one is conscious, and can control. • could be formed more recent as reaction • come more from a cognitive controlled mindset. - Pychologist Laurie A. Rudman [2004] - pointed out four factors between these two types of attitudes: early experiences, affective experiences, cultural biases, and cognitive consistency. - not all attitudes are shared with others and we are not always aware of our own attitudes. - People have attitudes because attitudes are evaluations of like and dislikes that can help us cope with complex the world around us and help us make decisions. 1 • Classical Conditioning • Classical Conditioning: type of learning by which a neutral stimulus gets paired with a stimulus (UCS) that elicits a response (UCR). Through repeated pairings, the neutral stimulus (CS) by itself elicits a response (CR) of the second stimulus. - Ivan Pavlov 1927: salivating his dogs - learning in which through two stimuli repeated pairings, a neural stimulus comes to evoke a conditioned response. • Can form both explicit and implicit attitudes: negative or positive attitudes toward conditioned stimulus can be formed depending on the response by unconditioned stimulus. - Advertisers link celebrities and products. • Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): stimulus that elicits a response automatically, without learning taking place. “the meat” - natural response evoked when paired with neutral stimulus until conditioned response is formed. • Unconditioned Response (UCR): response that occurs automatically in reaction to some stimulus, without learning taking place “the salivation” • Conditioned Stimulus (CS): stimulus that only by repeated association with a particular. “the bell” • Conditioned Response (CR): a learned response to the conditioned stimulus that was previously a neutral stimulus.”salivation from bell” • Mere Exposure Effect: the phenomenon whereby objects become better-liked with exposure - we like things more with which are familiar. advertised • Zajonc 1968: tendency to like things because we encounter them repeatedly. there may be subliminal presentation of stimuli. • Name-Letter effect: the tendency to show a preference for letters in out own name and prefer stimuli that contain those letters. - Operant conditioning • Operant Conditioning: type of learning in which the frequency of a behavior is determined by reinforcement and punishment. • type of learning in which people are more likely to repeat behaviors that have been rewarded and less likely to repeat behaviors that have been punished. • The Law of Effect: responses that are rewarded will be repeated. 2 • develop positive attitudes toward something being reinforced. • Edward Thorndike 1938 & B. F. Skinner: - Observational Learning • Observational Learning : acquiring an attitude or behavior due to the observation of others exhibiting that attitude or behavior. • Social learning in which people are likely to imitate behaviors if they have seen others rewarded for performing them, and less likely to imitate behaviors if they have seen others punished for performing them. • observed learning can directly be countered with educational techniques. polarization: attitudes become more extreme as we think about them. • - True in strong initial attitude. - Evaluation of evidence in a biased manner accepting evidence that confirms attitude and accepting evidence from in-group members. • Group polarization: enhancement of like-minded groups prevailing attitudes in discussion, exposure and it is an affect of isolation. (Myers & Bishop 1970) - National Polarization: percentage of landslide victories in individual counties increased from 26% in 1976 to 48% in 2004. • Assessing Attitudes - explicit attitudes can be measured through self-report measures that are questionnaires that ask to describe our own attitudes or opinions. • usually attitudes that are explicit are easier to asses than the implicit attitudes because most times people may not even be aware of they own attitudes. - Implicit association Test or IAT : test that measures how easily we associate categories with positive or negative attitudes, including measures in categories ranging from racial and religious attitudes to attitudes about presidents. • uses deceptions to assess implicit attitudes that people may be unable to report, and attitudes about stigmatized groups. (sorts out good or bad words with images). • can examine attitudes toward topics of race, religion, and politics • some say that it can only measure associations and not actual attitudes. observational measures of behaviors are not always reliable - - DO ATTITUDES INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR? • When attitudes do not predict behavior 3 - attitudes influence behavior sometimes but the link between attitudes and behavior is weak. - Attitudes may not always predict behavior because other factors including the external situations can influence behavior. • LaPiere 1934: restaurant owners allowed Chinese patrons, but 6 months laters they would not when they went alone to the restaurants. • Corey 1937: university students states that they felt cheating was wrong but 76% cheated on a difficulty exam. • How attitudes do influence behavior - Attitudes can affect health. Optimist. effects appeared to have been weaker than pessimist effects. Cancer study 1996 by Schulz saw that pessimists were more likely to die, optimism made no difference. - Theory of Planner Behavior : the theory that attitudes, social norms, and the perceived control of the individuals lead to behavior. Sometimes behaviors are a result of careful and thoughtful deliberation. • action will rise from reasoned thinking and will involve the consideration of personal attitude, the attitude of others and the perceived feasibility of the behavior. - Optimistic attitudes improve immune functioning for cancer patients and they are able to live longer. Why attitude matters - • attitudes impact our self concept and help us create our self-concept. • attitudes can be context dependent and depend of the social environment we are in. • Factors to consider when Evaluating Behavior • Prediction of behavior based on attitudes is best when measures are specific, behaviors aggregate overtime and situations, attitudes are consciously prominent and influence thoughts regarding the choice, and when attitudes come to mind easily. - Strength of Attitude • importance of attitude to the person and basis of experience. • if something is more important to you it will have more of an effect on your attitude. - Specificity • the more specific attitudes call for more specificity in reporting behavior. - Accessibility 4 • people with more accessible attitudes perform more consistent actions to attitude than those with less accessible attitudes. • Accessibility : the degree to which a concept is active in our consciousness. • Chronically Accessible : accessibility arising from frequent and recent exposure to a construct that has permanence. It is accessible all of the time. - WHEN DOES BEHAVIOR INFLUENCE ATTITUDES? • Role Playing affects behavior: - Zimbardo 1972: assigned the role of guards and prisoner to random students. The guards and prisoners quickly developed extreme attitudes that then led to extreme behaviors. • actions influence attitudes more often. If we behave as though we believe something, we ofter come to believe it. • cooperative actions can lead to mutual liking and therefore beliefs. • Why do actions affect attitudes? when our attitudes and actions are opposed and induces tensions we bring out attitudes closer to our actions. • Cognitive Dissonance: • Cognitive Dissonance : the anxiety that arises from acting in a way discordant with your attitudes. This anxiety is resolved by adjusting one’s attitudes to be in line with the behavior. when attitudes and actions are opposed and cause tensions that causes people to - rationalize their behavior and bring their attitudes into line with their actions. - Festinger & Carlson 1959: Experiment motivating others to do mental jobs. After the participants spent an hour doin a mental job, they were asked to lie about how fun it was to the next participant for wither $1-20. Those who were given a dollar were more dissonance/discomfort and rated the task more enjoyable. • Effort Justification: when people work hard or suffer to make sacrifices, they convince themselves that it was worthwhile. People tend to justify and rationalize any suffering or effort they have made. Example: Fraternity Hazing. - Aronson & Mills 1959: woman who suffered a more embarrassing test to get into a boring group ended up liking the group more. - A greater choice is necessary for dissonance and dissonance is marked by unpleasant arousal. 5 - self-presentation plays a role in cognitive dissonance because peoples have stronger desire to be viewed consistent by others. • Post-decision Dissonance : cognitive dissonance that results from having to reject one appealing choice in favor of another. • When we have to reject one appealing choice in favor of another, we will devalue the option not selected • Four step model: - 1. The individual must realize that the attitude-discrepant action has negative consequences - 2. The individual must take personal responsibility for the action. - 3. The individual must experience physiological arousal. - 4. The individual must attribute the arousal to the action. • - Alternative Methods of self-persuasion • Self-Affirmation Theory : the theory that we are more open to the attitude change when we have recently been given an opportunity to affirm our core values and identity. • Impression Management : the process by which people either consciously or unconsciously attempt to monitor how they appear to others by regulating the information conveyed about themselves in a social interaction, and thus attitude change is more likely when counterattitudinal behavior occurs in public. 6 Chapter 7: THE POWER OF PERSUASION SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - WHAT ARE PERSUASIVE MESSAGES? AND WHICH ARE MOST EFFECTIVE? • Persuasion : The way people communicate on order to influence other people’s attitudes and behaviors. - started to be central forcusl= for sociology after world war 2 - power of persuasion has to do with what is said, how its said, when its said, and by who • ROUTES TO PERSUASION • Carl Hovland and co. 1949,1953, yale model suggesting that a message will be accepted based on three factors: communicator, content, and audience. • Central Route : a type of processing that occurs when an individual has the ability and motivation to thoroughly listen to and evaluate a persuasive message. - more analytical approach - opinions adopted by this route processing result in more resistance to change - person will rely more on the message as well as their own reflections • Peripheral route : a type of processing that occurs when an individual lacks the ability and motivation to thoroughly listen to and evaluate a persuasive message, and is therefore influenced by external cues like attractiveness of the speaker. - less analytical approach that uses much more superficial information to make decisions • Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) : a model of persuasion that proposes that there are two different routes, central and peripheral, that an individual may take when processing a message. The route is impacted by cognitive capacity and individual differences of the perceiver. - Petty and Cacioppo’s 1981 model framework that organizes and understands basic process of persuasion in communication by stating how people react to persuasion in communication. • WHAT INFLUENCES WHICH ROUTE TO TAKE? • communicator, message, and audience • most are heuristic or shortcuts used to form opinions • The source • Source : the person or persons who deliver the message. 7 - attractiveness, likability, credibility, and similarity of a source can strengthen the persuasion of a message. • Sleeper effect : the effect whereby the persuasive impact of a non-credible source increases over time; we remember the message but forget the criticism. • low-credibility can suppress initial attitude change but increase it over time. • similarity of a source can apply to a persons backgrounds, values, associations, appearance, or any of a number of factors. • The message • The content is the tactics used to the audience, words or images used. the constructions is the way in which message is put together. • The strength of the message is important especially if conveying both sides of the argument for the message. • Valence: the degree of attraction or aversion that a person feels toward a specific object, event, or idea. - source must know if it wants its message to be positive or negative, attract or repel audience. • Fear-based appeals : an attempt to provoke fear in the audience in order to persuade them not to do something. - not all fear appeals work for all messages being conveyed: it its too overwhelming, - the vulnerability of the audience can affect the persuasion content. • Outcome-Relevant Involvement : the degree to which the economic or social outcome promoted in the message is important to the receiver. • The Audience - often identified by the demographic of age, gender, and education. AGE: younger and older adults are most susceptible to attitude change than middle aged - - GENDER: woman are most influenced by face-to-face persuasion [like in sales]: men are often influenced euqually in personal and impersonal messages. - NEED FOR COGNITION: high need for cognition will be more persuaded by thinking abstractly and creatively as opposed to those in low need of cognition. SELF-MONITOR: ability to self-monitor or to adjust behaviors in response to different - situations. high self monitors change their attitudes more than low self monitors. - FOCUS: if there is no focus one can fall into peripheral processing. 8 - MOOD: the need to maintaining mood may facilitate persuasion. • CIALDINI’S SIX WEAPONS OF INFLUENCE • Reciprocation - making a person feeling indebted to an organization by giving away free things in attempts to have these people back. - has been see to occur out of desire for balance and not necessarily selfish need • Commitment and consistency - “footinthedoor” making a person feel committed to contribution. - like asking a person to RSVP to an invitation - Study: putting up a large drive safe sight after having already put a smaller sign up. • Social Proof - other peoples action suggest what is correct. - Bandwagon affect: doing something even if its wrong because others did so too. • Liking - being persuaded by people we already like. - the more people compliment you the more persuaded you will be • Authority - anyone with a title or badge is likely to be persuasive because of the initial fear of being penalized for inaction. • Scarcity - people want what they cant have because they tend to have higher value like the limited time offers. - Cialdini study in Arizona University got energy reduction by using the social proof persuasion method. - WHAT DOES RESEARCH TELL US ABOUT RESISTING PERSUASION TACTICS? • ability to resist persuasion is influenced by three factors: forewarning, reactance, and inoculation. • FOREWARNING • Forewarning : the process of being informed ahead of time that a favored attitude will be challenged. 9 - delay between warning and message can give time to react and generate counter message • REACTANCE • Reactance : when individuals feel that their freedom is threatened, they instinctively want to restore their freedom. Jack Brehm 1966 stated that people oppose whatever threatens their freedom - - some warning labels may cause contradicting act like watching rated R movies. • INOCULATION • Inoculation : the process of building up resistance to unwanted persuasion. - Stockholm Syndrome: captives identify and become close with their captors. - William Mcguire 1961: developed inoculation to protect a person against persuasion by protecting agains weak attacks over time to be stronger to stronger persuasive acts. - WHEN SHOULDN'T WE RESIST PERSUASION? • some behaviors can be good to change for the environment and person • these kinds of goals can be seen as gain (thinking something good can come) or loss frame (thinking something bad can be avoded). - risky behavior benefits from loss farming - low-risk behavior benefit more from gain framing. • 
 10 Chapter 8: SOCIAL INFLUENCE: SHOULD WE RESIST? SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - HOW DO SOCIAL ROLES AND NORMS DEFINE THE WAYS IN WHICH WE BEHAVE? • social influence occurs when our attitudes, cognitions and behaviors are affected by other person in group through conformity, compliance, and obedience. • Chameleon effect : the non conscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors or one’s interaction partner, such that one’s behavior passively and unintentionally changes to match that of others in one’s current social environment. - Tanya Chartrand & John Bargh 1999: study of students had conversations with confederates who at times smiled and at others did not to see if behavior of smiling was reciprocated. Students did in fact still more back but not as mockery, for they were asked about it and were unable to recall the confederates behavior. - Robert Provine 2005: yawning video expose of 5 minutes which 21% people yawned back due to mirror neurons • Social Roles • Social Roles : expectations for the ways in which an individual should behave in a given situation. - Stanford Prison Experiment: some college students were guards and others were prisoners, and it was seen that guards developed their role of guards and what was expected from that role quickly. • Social Norms • Social Norm : patterns of behavior that are accepted as normal, and to which an individual is expected to conform in a particular group or culture. rules of how your expected to behave. Rules can be explicit (“no shoes allowed”) or implicit • (general knowledge). - we accept the influence of our social norms to be accepted ourselves. - norms can actually change what people themselves believe • Muzafer Sherif (1935) – Autokinetic effect - illusion, caused by very slight movements of the eye, that a stationary point of light in a dark room is moving – Asked participants in the presence of each other to estimate distance of movement – Estimates became more and more similar as time went on 11 • Descriptive norms : how people typically behave in a given group or situation. easy to follow - specify what most people do - how people typically behave in group or situation have not been effective in reducing littering - • injunctive norms: behavior of which people typically approve or disapprove of in a given group or situation - perceptions of what we should do in a typical setting. - effective in reducing litter - 1994 Robert Cialdini: descriptive norm on littering where the Arizona National Park was abel to get rid of littering through the use of injunctive norms which calls out what people should not do because it is agains the norm. • Pluralistic Ignorance : The type of norm misperception that occurs when each individual in a group privately rejects the norms of the group, but believes that others accept them. people in a group reject group norm privately - - those individuals believe that others accept the group norm - this is incorrect • WHAT FACTORS AFFECT AND PROMOTE CONFORMITY • Conformity : type of social influence in which an individual changes his or her behaviors to stay in line with social norms. • adjusting one behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard. • Conditions that strengthen conformity: 1. One is made to feel incompetent or insecure. 2. The group has at least three people. 3. The group is unanimous. 4. One admires the group’s status and attractiveness. 5. One has no prior commitment to response. 6. The group observes one’s behavior. 7. One’s culture strongly encourages respect for social standard. • Solomon Asch 1950s tested participants to judge a lines length through a series of test where there were confederates who manipulated the outcome of the participants to see if the answer would conform to everyone elses. 12 - Public conformity: type of conformity that occurs when we feel pressured to conform to group norms. When publicly conforming, people pretend to agree with the group, but privately think the group is wrong. - Private conformity: type of conformity that occurs when people truly believe the group is right: occurs even in the absence of group members. • why we conform? - informational social influence: type of influence that occurs when one turns to members of one’s groups to obtain accurate information. - most often leads to private conformity - not listening to others who have good points - ambiguous situation - crisis situation - genuine belief that others are right • Baron’s eyewitness identification task. • Manipulated task difficulty – lineup exposure ½ sec or 5 sec. • Manipulated task importance – Preliminary test or establishing fixed norms for use by police. -When accuracy was important and task was easy, conformity was low. -When accuracy was important and task was hard, conformity occurred half the time. - Conformity occurred one-third of the time when importance was low. - normative social influence: type of influence that occurs when one goes along with a group because one wants to be accepted. • would rather be wrong than risk group disapproval. • inner belief that the group is wrong • Factors affecting conformity • Study found that conforming manifest in the brain throughout the rostral cingulate zone (behavioral outcomes) and nucleus accumbent (anticipation and process of rewards) which are associated with reinforcement learning or the triggering of prediction error when disagreeing with others • characteristics of the group - with larger number of people the easily a person will be swayed to changed their answer - Asch: adding 3 people led to more conformity but after that no much more was different. 13 • Social impact theory: theory that suggests that social influences depends not he strength, immediacy, and number of source persons relative to the target persons. - strength of a source come from status, ability, and relationship to target a person. - immediacy has to do with how close person is to target. Demographic variables • - Barndt study : of 3,6,9,11,12 grader student attitudes were more conforming with peers than with parents. - woman tend to be more concerned with interpersonal relationships than men • Alice Eagly and Carole Chrvala 1986: study that opinions that differ from the subjects opinions were showed and the female subjects then conformed their answers when they were being watched. not men. ages under 19 had no conformity. - female are more susceptible to conformity — typically because they are expected to keep harmony - conformity also depends on familiarity of subject, when unfamiliar with material people will go with the group opinions. - CULTURE: collectivists cultures are more conforming than individualistic cultures. • Resisting the pull of conformity • Finding an Ally - having someone to agree makes you wan tot pursue a goal - Vermon Allen and John Levine: demonstrated the strength of having an ally • Motivation - desire to be unique can make one not want to conform. • Minority Influence : a process in which a small number of people within a group guide a change in the group’s attitude or behavior. - WHAT METHODS DO PEOPLE USE TO GET OTHERS TO COMPLY WITH REQUESTS? • Compliance : form of social influence involving direct requests from one person to another. - words are not always needed for compliance, sometimes all thats needed is the appearance. Brinol and petty 2003 saw that all that it takes is a head nod in agreement - 14 • The six principles of compliance • friendship or liking - Integration Technique: techniques in which we get others to like us so they are more likely to comply with a request . flattery, and familiarity tend to work very well in helping other comply • • commitment or consistency - Foot-in-the-door technique : compliance technique that begins with a small request that, when granted, lead to a larger request. • tendency for people who agreed first agreed to a small request, to comply later with a larger request. • Korean War prisoners who made false confessions and divulged important information : Biderman 1957 • carry bigger “Drive carefully” sign study : Freedman & Fraser 1996. • Racism in the south. - Lowball technique : compliance technique in which a target accepts a “low-cost” offer, only then to be told that there are additional hidden costs. - Bait and switch technique: draw people in with attractive offers thats not available and then switch to less attractive that is available. • scarcity - Worchel, Lee ad Adewole 1975: confirmed the effectiveness of perceive scarcity asking participants to rate cookies running low as more attractive, • reciprocity - Door-in-the-face technique : a compliance technique in which the requester make an initial offer that is much larger than the tiger offer, in the hope that the final offer will have the appearance of the requester doin a favor for the target person. - Thats not all technique : compliance technique in which an initial request is followed by adding something that makes the offer more attractive commitment • Social Validation - comply with a request because others like ourselves have seemed to do so as well. - wanting to fit in so match the behaviors of others. - one of Cialdinis most encountered weapon of persuasion. 15 • authority - HOW DO AUTHORITY FIGURES GET US TO OBEY THEM? • Obedience : form of social influence in which an individual orders another person to do something. • Stanley milgram study allowed participants to perceive they were conducting electric shocks and only when experimenters perceived a scientist as an authority figure did they comply. • Obedience outside the lab - social modeling, group conformity, paired with stress and a lack of accountability played roles in obedience. - Examples of obedience are all around you • Reality television • Abu Ghraib prison atrocities • Stanford prison experiment • McDonald’s in Mt. Washington, KY • Bringing milligram to prime time • Cults and Obedience • Strategies for resisting obedience • Changing Authority perception of who's is in power not to be • Changing proximity how close you feel to someone James Warren Jones - Jonestown 1978 - 900 suicide Adolf Hitler - Nazi - 15 million people killed • Legitimization-of-Paltry-Favors Technique – Make a small amount of aid acceptable – “Even a penny will help!” • Pique Technique – One captures people’s attention by making a novel request • Disrupt-Then-Reframe Technique – Introduce an unexpected element that disrupts critical thinking and then reframe the message in a positive light • As many as 93% of people complied under some circumstances. Important factors: • – Proximity of authority figure – Prestige of authority figure – Depersonalized victim 16 – No role models for defiance 17 Chapter 9: Groups SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - WHAT DEFINES A GROUP ? • Group: two or more people who are seen as a unit and interact with one another. • Cohesion: The degree to which a group is connected. • • - HOW DOES A GROUP INFLUENCE INDIVIDUALS BEHAVIOR? • Evaluation Apprehension: The idea that one’s performance will be hindered or heightened due to approval or disapproval from others. • Distraction Conflict Theory: the idea that a person performing a task in front of others experiences a conflict of attention between the audiences and the task at hand, thus increasing the motivation to succeed when completing simple tasks. • Deindividuation: The tendency for an individual within a group to let go of self-awareness and restraint and do what the group is doin. • Risky Shift: the tendency for people in groups in groups to take greater risks than if the actions were to be taken by individual members alone. • Group Polarization: the tendency for an attitude or belief to become magnified within a group after member discuss an issue amongst themselves. - HOW DOES A GROUP MAKE DECISIONS? • Groupthink: a manner of thinking that happens when the desire for harmony in a decision- making group overrides a realistic evaluation of other solutions. • Group Norms: rules or experiences regarding desirable behaviors that group members strive to follow. • Transformational Leader: a leader who believes in inspiring his followers with energy and devotion, thereby transforming the group and its members. • Transactional Leader: a leader who believes in a ladder of authority and considers people lower rungs to be subordinates and therefore required to follow the instructions set forth by their manager; this type of leader rewards good work and works efficiently to solve problems. • - HOW ARE CONFLICTS AMONG GROUPS RESOLVED? • Conflict: the perceived incompatibility of actions,, goals, or ideas. • Realistic Group Conflict: the theory that conflict steps from competition for limited resources such as money, land, power or other resources. • Hostile Attribution Bias: occurs when people assume that the intentions of another person are hostile • Biased Perception: The belief that we are justified in our own thoughts and actions but that others are biased in their belief and behaviors. • Bargaining: a means of resolving conflict that involves each side of the dispute making offers, counteroffers, and concessions. • Grit: Stands for “graduated and reciprocated initiatives in tension reduction”; a step-by-step formula for de-escalating a conflict that involves unilateral concessions and quick reciprocation by the opposition. Chapter 10: STEREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, AND DISCRIMINATION: CAUSES AND CONSEQUENCES SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - WHAT ARE STEREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, AND DISCRIMINATION? • prejudice: a negative learned attitude toward particular groups of people. - an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members of different cultural, ethnic, or gender groups - components: beliefs [streotypes] - emotions [hostility, envy, fear] - predisposition to act [ to discriminate] – How is it measured: Implicit Association Test (IAT) • White respondents slower to identify words like “peace” or “paradise” as good when viewing a black individual’s photo. • Implicit Measures of IAT Racially influenced perceptions (Amado Diallo, Sean Bell) – Participants shoot an armed target more quickly and more often when that target is Black, rather than White. – Participants decide not to shoot an unarmed target more quickly and more often when the target is White, rather than Black • Interracial feedback bias – Whites provide more praise and less criticism to work thought to be authored by Black writers than for same essays by White writers (Harber, 1998) • Why it exists: Tendency to hold stereotypes and prejudices may be innate. Formed like schemas and scripts learned though socialization • Ingroup favoritism: Preferential treatment or favorable attitudes toward one’s own group members • Minimal group effect: Ingroup favoritism occurs even when group membership was random. • Rationalization for Oppression – Powerful group retains power through use of stereotypes/prejudices Prejudice and self-esteem • – Can be self-affirming – If other groups are inferior, my group (“I”) must be superior • Most prejudice arise from external characteristics – Racial prejudice (Racism) – Gender prejudice (Sexism) • Most people claim not to be prejudiced – Behavior sometimes differs from expressed attitudes • Most common prejudice and targets: • 1. Arabs - Prejudice and discrimination increased in US after September 11, 2001 • 2. People who are overweight: Anti-fat attitudes begin as early as preschool • Stigma: Individual’s characteristics considered socially unappealing • Stigma by association: Discrimination toward people associated with a stigmatized person (Pingitore et al., 1994) - Subjects less likely to hire job applicants made • to look overweight. • 3. Homosexuals - Homophobia – excessive fear of homosexuals or homosexual behavior • Women typically hold more equivalent attitudes about gay men and women • Men are more intolerant of gay men than of lesbians • Discrimination: a behavior directed toward a group of people based solely on their membership in that group. - unequal treatment based on group membership • racism: an institutional practice that discriminates against individuals on the basis of their race. - prejudiced attitude toward a particular race • sexism: an institutional practice that discriminated against individuals on the basis of their gender. • racial prejudice: the tendency to hold a hostile attitude toward an individual because of his or her racial background. • Gender Prejudice: the tendency to hold a hostile attitude toward an individual because of his or her gender. • Gender Stereotype: peoples ideas about how men and women behave based on social and culturally defined believes. • Ambivalent sexism: the contradictory attitudes of hostile sexism and benevolent sexism. • Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice, but prejudices still exist. – Women perceived as less intelligent – More likely to live in poverty than men – Selective abortion of girls in China and India – Racial profiling - HOW DO WE MEASURE STREOTYPES, PREJUDICE, AND DISCRIMINATION? • old-fashioned racism: over, oppressive acts and feelings toward a group of people based on their race. • modern racism: negative feelings toward a group of people based on their race, manifested in more subtle form of racism. • old-fashioned sexism: overt sexism, characterized by the endorsement of traditional gender roles, differential treatment of men and women, and stereotypes about lesser female competence. • modern sexism: internalized negative feelings toward a group of people based n their gender, characterized by a denial of continued discrimination, antagonism toward women’s demands, and lack of support for policies designed to help women in work and education. • Aversive racism: the attitude of whites who openly endorse egalitarian views but discriminate in ways they're able to rationalize. - simultaneously holding egalitarian values and negative feelings • - WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF STEREOTYPING AND PREJUDICES? • Authoritarian Personality: a personality type that favors obedience to authority and intolerance of people lower in status. • social categorization: the process o dividing people into categories according to their race, gender, and other common attributes. • outgroup homogeneity effect: the tendency to see outgrip members as similar to one another but ingroup members as diverse individuals. • Ingroup Favoritisms: the natural tendency to favor an in-group versus an outgroup. Intergroup relations at Robber’s Cave (Sherif & Sherif, 1954) • – After one week of group competition the two groups were intensely hostile – To induce cooperation, introduced superordinate goals • social dominance orientation: seeing one’s own group as naturally superior to other groups • ultimate attribution error: the tendency to explain the behavior of groups in terms of internal dispositions factors, without taking the situational constraints into considerations. • Just world hypothesis: the tendency for people to believe that the world is fair and just; therefore, victims of misfortune deserve what happens to them. • realistic group conflict theory: the idea that when different groups are in competition for resources, they tend to close ranks, favoring in-group members and discriminating against outgroup members. - “Us versus them” Competition over scarce resources leads to intergroup hostility and conflict • Competition - situation in which people can attain their goals only if others do not. Led to survival favoring deeds for in-groups. • Some societies have little or no competition – Typically peaceful, economically undeveloped groups • costs and gains: – May produce prejudice, hostility, aggression – May also produce progress, advancement • Cooperation - situation in which people must work together with others to help all achieve their goals • Discontinuity Effect – Groups are more competitive than individuals are – Motivated by fear and greed • Reduce intergroup competitiveness – Have people consider long-term effects of their actions – Make group members identifiable – Must consciously override prejudice feelings – Automatic system may sustain prejudice – Implicit prejudices are strong predictors of behaviors • relative deprivation: discontent cause by the belief that we might fare badly in comparison with people in other groups. Social Roots of Prejudice: In and out groups – Social Roots: Social Inequality: When some people have money, power and prestige and others do not, prejudice develops. Social inequality “justifies” discrimination. — “Victim blaming” •The tendency to blame people less fortunate than we are for their misfortunes. •Helps preserve our sense of order and control. Examples: Rape victims , Homeless people , Guantanamo detainees Ingroup: People with whom one shares a common identity. • Outgroup: Those perceived as different from one’s ingroup. • Ingroup Bias: (ingroup favoritism) The tendency to favor one’s own group. • • Out-group homogeneity bias - the assumption that outgroup members are more similar to one another than ingroup members are to one another • Eyewitnesses are more accurate identifying people of their own racial group – Except: Angry outgroup members are easier to identify than angry ingroup members – Cognitive roots: The tendency of people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get (the just-world phenomenon). – categorization: natural human tendency to group objects – Social categorization: sorting people into groups on common characteristics. – we simplify our worlds by categorizing. when we categorize people into groups we stereotype them. Reduces appreciation of individual diversity. – Vivid cases—We remember very salient, violent events very well. – When such events involve members of a particular group, we attribute negative characteristics to the whole group. (example of ultimate attribution error) – Emotional Roots: When people are afraid, angry or frustrated, they seek someone to blame--scapegoating. There’s some evidence that we are biologically prepared to associate fear with outgroup members. – Example: After 9/11 some people lashed out against innocent Arab-Americans. Mental Process of Non prejudiced people: Which mental processes underlay prejudice (Devine, 1989) • – Both prejudiced and non-prejudiced had equal knowledge of stereotypes – Both groups thought of the stereotype when they encountered a member of that group – Nonprejudiced people consciously override the stereotype • People accused of prejudice, often exert themselves to prove the opposite • People overcome prejudice by making conscious efforts to be fair and equal in their treatment of others - WHAT ARE THE CONSEQUENCES OF STEREOTYPES? • stereotype threat: fear of anxiety held by people in minority groups that they might conform to a negative cultural stereotype. • stereotype: beliefs that associate groups with traits - sometimes they begin with some degree of truth but eventually they become exaggerated and overgeneralized toward new people and new situations - applying stereotyping involves assimilation Negative stereotypes Are more durable and takes more exceptions to disconfirm a • bad stereotype • Subtypes of stereotypes: categories for people who don't fit a general stereotype - forming new knowledge structures to fit new information involves accommodation. Stereotypes as Heuristics (mental shortcuts) – Law of least effort (Allport, 1954) – Stereotypes simplify the process of thinking about other people – We conserve energy and effort by using stereotypes – Use information from other people versus direct experience Inner Process of stereotypes can form on the basis of salience • Scapegoat theory: Blame problems on outgroup, contributing to negative feelings • • Self-serving bias: People make internal attributions for success but refuse external attributions for failure • Difficult times cause people to behave aggressively toward outgroups • Conflict and stress bring out stereotypes • People use their stereotypes as hypotheses to be tested rather than rules applicable to all – Confirmation bias Accuracy of Stereotypes Many stereotypes may be based on genuine difference, but then overgeneralized • Accuracy may be based on roots • Heuristics may be fairly accurate – – Exaggerated with little factual basis • Used to boost self-esteem, oppression, or rationalize status quo Impacts of Prejudice on Targets: • Self-fulfilling prophecy – belief about the future that comes true in part because the belief causes it to come true – Belief in event ▯ new behavior caused by expectation ▯ expected event takes place • Self defeating prophecy – a prediction that ensures, by the behavior it generates, that it will not come true - HOW CAN WE COMBAT STEREOTYPING AND PREJUDICE? • Contact Hypothesis: the belief that increased communication and contact between different racial groups reduces levels of prejudice and discrimination. Contact hypothesis only works Among people of equal status, When interactions are positive, and When outgroup members are perceived as typical of their group - Problems with contact hypothesis – Students of different racial backgrounds do not interact with each other – When they do, the interactions are generally negative Gordon Allport (1954) suggested: Under favorable conditions, regular interaction between members of different groups reduces prejudice – Negative stereotypes arise because groups don’t have contact with each other – Under specific conditions, intergroup contact does reduce prejudice to outgroup – Vicarious contact can also influence – Covert expressions of prejudice can be reduced through contact Motives for Overcoming Prejudice Plant & Devine’s (1998) measure • Internal Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice – • Based on strong inner belief that prejudice is wrong – External Motivation to Respond Without Prejudice • Socially unwise to express politically incorrect opinions • Jigsaw classroom techniques: teaching method that focuses on small-group activities and fosters a cooperative rather than competitive environment. – Jig-saw classroom – some contribution from each student is necessary to meet goal • Decreases prejudice and increases academic performance – Symbols as superordinate goals Patriotism and the flag (Plant, Butz & Doerr, 2005) • • Whites respond more favorably to Blacks? • Mendes et al. (2002) paired participants with either White or Black confederate partners • Measured physiological threat responses • Increased threat response correlated to greater “liking” and more positive statements for Black than White partners • • Essay content rated more positively if writer Black vs. White (Harber, 1998) • Feedback more positive to unfriendly Black (Harber, 2004) • Teacher trainees provided more positive feedback when egalitarian self-image was threatened (Harber, Stafford & Kennedy, 2010) White teachers with low social support were less critical of Black authors (Harber, Gorman, et • al., 2012) • Despite history of oppression, African Americans tend to have higher self-esteem than European Americans – Social comparison – Self-worth – Attribution theory • Receiving criticism from a supposed White evaluator does not cause drop in self-esteem – Receiving praise from White decreases self-esteem for Blacks when race is salient
 Chapter 11: AGGRESSION SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - WHAT IS THE NATURE OF AGGRESSION? • Aggression: behavior, either verbal or physical, that is used to intentionally harm another individual. • can be social or antisocial • used to release frustration and address conflict • emerges from the interaction of biology and experience. • Victim loses more than the perpetrator gains • Aggression is not a neutral exchange – Does not allow for a trade of resources, but an overall loss of resources – It lowers the total value available • Murder, theft, sex crimes • Psychological distress can last for years while perpetrators only gain a moment’s sense of satisfaction • Antisocial behavior : any act carried out to harm interpersonal relationship or cultural undesirable. • Hostile [affective] Aggression: a behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is to make the victim suffer. - -Motivated by emotional reaction typically anger. - hot, impulsive • instrumental aggression: a behavior that occurs when the primary goal of an action is not to make the victim suffer, but to attain a non-injurious goal. • col, premeditated - Example: - bank robber to get money - football player tackling a member from another team • Reactive Hostility or hostile aggression behavior is carried out driven by emotional reaction against perceived aggression • Proactive Hostility- calculated means to an end • Passive aggression - harming others by withholding a behavior (e.g., purposely failing to convey an important message). • Active aggression - harming others by performing a behavior (e.g., spreading vicious rumors). • Displaced aggression – attacking a different or innocent target rather than the original source of the anger – Kicking the dog effect • Triggered displaced aggression – Minor triggering event increases aggression in angered participants • 25% of toddler interactions in day-care settings involve physical aggression – Limited alternatives for solving conflict due to limited cognitive capacities – But at least they’re too small to do real damage Good reason why guns and weapons must be strictly guarded around • children! • Gender and aggression- Males tend more toward hostile aggression than females • • Females tend more toward relational aggression than males • Males are also more often the victims of aggression • When under stress – Males – fight or flight syndrome – Females – tend and befriend syndrome • In all known societies – men just over age of puberty commit most violent crimes and acts • Females exhibit more relational aggression • The research shows, however, overall differences in "aggression" are not that big (including all forms of aggression) • Provocation is a big factor • The type of aggression affects gender differences – Direct – clearly derived from aggressor, aimed at victim – Indirect – not clearly derived from aggressor, victim is unclear (ex: refuse to shake hands) – Expressive view of aggression – aggression is used to express anger and reduce stress two fac- Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed that our physiology and out cognitions together cause emotions. - Emotions have two factors • Arousal increases aggression – Physical arousal has the capacity to increase our potential for aggression – Schachter and Singer (1962) • Physical arousal is the same with different emotions • We label the arousal based on situational information • This arousal can lead to aggression if we label events as being negative • direct aggression: an action or behavior that is clearly derived from the aggressor and is aimed directly at the target. - Direct and physical: ex: punching - Direct and verbal: ex: name calling • indirect aggression: an action or behavior that is not clearly derived from the aggressor, and where it is not obvious to the target that he or she had been the victim of aggression. – indirect and physical: ex: refuse to shake hands – indirect and verbal: ex: spreading a rumor • expressive view of aggression: a method of aggression in which aggression is used as a way to express anger and reduce stress. • Domestic violence – Occurs within the home, between people who have a close relationship • Aggression is highest between siblings • Surgeon General declared domestic violence the number one health risk in US (1984) • Domestic violence occurs all over the world • It is leading cause of injuries to women 15-44 – Women in noncommitted relationships especially at risk Women attack relationship partners slightly more than men do, but without as • much harm – Male victimization underreported • Physically weaker family members are at greatest risk – Abusive spouses tend to be abusive parents • Nearly 25% of women and 7.6% of men were raped and/or physically assaulted by a current or former spouse, cohabiting partner, or dating partner/acquaintance at some time in their lifetime – (based on survey of 16,000 participants, equally male and female). • An intimate partner killed approximately 33% of female murder victims and 4% of male murder victims. Access to firearms yields a more than five-fold increase in risk of intimate partner • homicide when considering other factors of abuse – abusers who possess guns tend to inflict the most severe abuse on their partners. – A gun in the home is 22x more likely to be used on someone in the home rather than an intruder • culture of honor: a culture in which song norms suggest that aggression os an appropriate response to an insult or thereat to one’s honor. • A society that places high value on individual respect, strength, and virtue, and accepts and justifies violent action in response to threat’s to one’s honor • Southern US has culture of honor – More violent response to threats to one’s honor than men from the north – More violent names are used Humiliation • Primary cause of violence and aggression in cultures of honor – – May be an important cause of terrorism - WHAT ARE THE THEORIES OF AGGRESSION? • instinct theory: a theory in which aggression is an innate and inevitable force. • Freud proposed human motivational forces are based on instinct – Sex – life giving instinct – Eros – Aggression – death instinct - Thanatos • Instinct and evolution – Instinct theory – aggression is an innate and inevitable occurrence


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