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Shir'Mel C. McCullough
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This 7 page Bundle was uploaded by Alex Harris on Saturday August 13, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 1010 at Emory University taught by Dr. Hampton in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at Emory University.
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Date Created: 08/13/16
Genetic and Evolutionary Foundations of Behavior ºChimps and humans are 98.8% genetically identical ºOrigin of Species by Charles Darwin (1859-1963) -Theory of evolution that explains differences and similarities among animal species -We share a common ancestry because of natural selection (a process that allows the strongest to thrive and reproduce) ºAdaptation: modification to meet changed life circumstances ºEvolution: long-term adaptive process How Genes Affect Behavior ºHow can genes affect behavioral traits through their role in protein synthesis? -Genes provide codes for proteins -Proteins are the biological building block (therefore, if genes affect proteins, genes impact our biologicaltraits) ºGenes never produce or control behavior directly ºAll the effects occur through building and modifying physical structures of the body ºThose structures (plus environment interaction) produce behavior ºStructural proteins: form the structure of every cell in the body ºEnzyme: controls the rate of every chemical reaction in every cell -Amino acids: make up proteins -Coding genes: code for unique protein molecules -Regulatory genes: work to activate or suppress specific coding genes and influence the body's development Genes Work Only Through Interaction with the Environment ºWhat does it mean to say that genes can influence behavioral traits only through interaction with the environment? This refers to the Nature v. Nurture debate. Also, the environmental effects also help to turn genes "on" and "off" (ex. physical exercise enhances muscles and activates genes that grow muscles) These changes can occur at anytime in the individual's life. ºEnvironment: refers to every aspect of an individual and his/her surroundings -Includes womb, maternal bloodstream before birth, and events after birth Internal (chemical environment) External environment (sounds, sights, etc.) Gene Activation Proteins Physiological systems Behavior ºHow in general are genes involved in long-term behavioral changes that derive from experience? -Genes build proteins, which form/alter physiological systems, which in turn impact behavior. The internal chemical environment impacts gene activation, and the internal and external environment (together) influence behavior. ºExperiences can activate genes and alter an individual's brain and behavior. -(ex. Mice and rats experiment: Adult mice and rats suddenly become exposed to newborn babies, and gradually learn to take care of them. In this case, the sight/smell/sound of the newborns activates the motherly instinct/gene) Distinction Between Genotype and Phenotype ºGenotype: set of genes that an individual inherits ºPhenotype: observable properties of the body and behavioral traits -The same genes can have different effects on different people depending on the environments (ex. Identical twins can be different in behavior if they are exposed to different environmental factors) How Genes Are Passed Along In Sexual Reproduction ºGenes are the biological units of heredity -They are replicated and passed along from parents to offspring ºChromosomes: this is where the strands of DNA (genetic material) are -Dispersed throughout the cell nucleus and they aren't visible -Just prior to cell division, the chromosomes condense into compact forms (can be seen with a microscope) -Normal humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes -Males and females have the same 22, and the only difference between males and females is the sex chromosome (X and Y) (women have XX and men have XY) The Production of Genetically Diverse Egg and Sperm Cells ºHow does meoisis produce egg or sperm cells that are genetically different from one another? -During meiosis, each chromosome replicates itself once, but then the cell divides twice. The chromosomes of each pair line up next to another and randomly exchange genetic material. They may look the same, but they don't contain the same genes ºMitosis: the process by which cells divide to produce new cells other than egg/sperm cells -Each chromosome replicates itself, and then the cell divides with one copy of each chromosome -Cells are identical ºMeiosis: the process by which egg/sperm cells produce -Cells are generally not alike Genetic Diversity of Offspring ºWhat is the advantage of producing genetically diverse offspring? -Genes are more likely to survive if they are rearranged at each generation. (ex. by producing diverse offspring, parents are reducing the chance of having their offspring die from an unprecedented change in the environment.) ºZygote: when the sperm and egg combine (one of the first phases of life) -contains the full complement of 23 paired chromosomes -Zygote grows through mitosis ºIdentical twins: people who are genetically identical to each other -Known as monozygotic twins -They originate from one zygote ºFraternal Twins: people who are not genetically identical -Known as dizygotic twins -Originate from two zygotes Consequences of the Fact That Genes Come in Pairs ºWhat is the difference between a dominant and a recessive gene (or allele)? A dominant gene (or allele) is one that will produce observable effects in either the homozygous or heterozygous condition. (Ex. brown eyes will show up in BB or Bb.) A recessive gene is one that will only produce observable effects in the homozygous condition. (Ex. blue eyes will only show up in bb.) Sometimes, however, the dominant and recessive traits can mix (ex. Red and white flowers may produce pink flowers.) ºHomozygous: when the genes are identical (ex. BB or bb) ºHeterozygous: when the genes are different (ex. Bb) ºLocus: location ºAllele: pairs of genes Mendelian Pattern of Heredity ºDiscovered that units of heredity come in pairs and that those pairs can either be dominant or recessive ºAlso discovered the Punnett Square by crossbreeding peas R r R RR Rr r RR rr wrinkled and unwrinkled ºWhy do 3/4 of the offspring of the two heterozygous parents show the dominant trait and 1/4 shows recessive trait? -Mendel found the 3:1 ratio. The reason that 3/4 of the offspring will be wrinkled is because the dominant gene (R) occurs in 3 out of the 4 genetic combinations. Examples of Single-Gene (Mendelian) Behavioral Traits ºStudied basenji hounds, cocker spaniels, and mixed breed offspring. Basenji hounds are timid and cocker spaniels are brave. They bred a cocker spaniel and a half-mutt found that half the offspring were fearful and half were not. ºHow did Scott and Fuller show the difference in fearfulness between cocker spaniels and basset hounds is controlled by a single gene locus, with the "fear" allele dominant over the "non-fear" allele? -They could detect the effect of a specific gene pair because they raised all the dogs in a similar environment. ºWhy would it be a mistake to conclude that fear in dogs is caused just by one gene or that it is caused just by genes and not by the environment? -Many different genes must contribute to building the complex neutral structure needed to experience fear and express it in behavior. Mendelian Inheritance of a Specific Language Disorder ºHow did the pattern of inheritance of a disorder in language ability, in a particular family, show that the disorder is caused by a single, dominant gene? Also, what other general ideas about genetic influences are illustrated by this example? -This was studied in depth during the KE Family experiment. This disorder is characterized primarily by difficulty in articulating words, distinguishing speech sounds from other sounds, and learning grammatical rules. Basically, they learn the language but it doesn't come naturally. -This specific gene that causes this language impairment is on chromosome 7. ºMost of the behaviorally relevant traits in humans that derive from alteration at a single gene locus are brain disorders, caused by a relative rare, mutant, malfunctioning genes that are passed from generation to generation. ºTranscription factors: proteins that act on other genes to control the rate at which those genes produce their protein molecules. ºGenes can influence behavior by influencing the development of particular areas of the brain ºA single gene can have multiple effects ºSome genes exert their effects by activating sets of other genes, thereby controlling the production of several or many different protein molecules ºThe evolution of life involves alterations in anatomy and behavior that derive from alterations in genes Polygenic Characteristics and Selective Breeding ºCategorial: characteristics that derive from variation at a single gene locus -They are characteristics that sharply differentiate one group from another ºContinuous: most measurable anatomical and behavioral differences among individuals of any species are in degree not type -The measures taken from individuals don't fall into two or more distinct groups ºNormal Distribution: most scores fall near the middle of the range and the frequency tapers off towards the two extremes ºPolygenic characteristics: characteristics that vary in a continuous way are generally affected by many genes Selective Breeding for Behavioral Characteristics in Animals ºHow are the characteristics of animals shaped through selective breeding? -Selective breeding is all about mating individuals that lie toward the same extreme on the measure. For single gene characteristics the effects of selective breeding are immediate, while the polygenic characters take time over generations. ºSelective Breeding: the degree that individuals within a species differ in any measurable characteristic because of differences in their genes (a characteristic that changes over time) ºAll behaviors depend on particular sensory, motor, and neural structures, all of which are built from proteins whose production depends on genes. Selective Breeding for Maze Learning: Tryon's Classic Research ºHow did Tryon produce "maze bright" and "maze dull" strains of rats? How did he show that the difference was the result of genes, not rearing? -He took a group of genetically diverse group of rats and tested them in a maze. The males and females that did the best and the males and females that did the worst mated. Then he tested the offspring in the same maze to see the results. To make sure that the results weren't due to rearing, he cross-fostered the rats. ºWhy is the strain difference produced by Tryon not properly characterized in terms of "brightness" or "dullness"? -He believed that the performances in the maze could have depended on sensory, motor, motivational, and learning processes. ºHe wanted to demonstrate that a type of behavior frequently studied by psychologists could be strongly influenced by variations in genes. ºHe found that the "dull" rats were sometimes better at learning other tasks. ºThis refers to polygenic traits Polygenic Behavioral Characteristics in Humans ºMost measures of human traits (scores on personality tests) are continuous and normally distributed -They are impacted by genes and many environmental variables Evolution by Natural Selection Darwin's Insight: Selective Breeding Occurs in Nature ºWhat insight led Darwin to his theory of evolution? How is natural selection similar to and different from artificial selection? -Artificial selection is referred to as human-selective breeding. Natural selection is when certain traits are passed down based on the environment and how those traits help a species survive. The insight that led Darwin to believe in evolution was that selective breeding occurs in nature. Genetic Diversity Provides the Fodder for Natural Selection ºHow are genes involved in evolution? What are the sources of genetic diversity on which natural selection acts? -Genes are the unit of heredity. Genetic diversity occurs due to the reshuffling of genes that occur in sexual reproduction and genes. ºmutations: errors that occasionally and unpredictably occur during DNA replication causing the replica to be different than the original DNA -This is the ultimate source of genetic diversity -Most mutations are bad, but some are good. ºPeople used to think that beneficial traits could just be practiced -(ex. Giraffes would have longer necks if they stretched them out over generations) -This was predicted by Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck Environmental Change Provides the Force for Natural Selection ºHow does change in the environment affect the direction and speed of evolution? How did a study of finches illustrate the role of environmental change in evolution? -Drastic changes in the environment can lead to faster changes, while slow and steady changes in the environment result in slow changes that promote natural selection. One huge example was Darwin's finches. For example, there was a drought, and that drought changed the diet of finches, which then resulted in a beak shape change in the next generations. Over generations, a plethora of finch species formed. Evolution Has No Foresight ºWhat are 3 mistaken beliefs about evolution all related to the misconception that foresight is involved? 1. Evolution could produce changes for some future purpose even though they are harmful at the time the change occurs: This is false because evolution has no foresight. 2. Present day organisms can be ranked according to the distance they have moved along a set evolutionary route, toward some planned end: This is false because there's no path. For example, you can't say that humans are the most evolved compared to amoeba. 3. Natural selection is a moral force: There is no right or wrong, good or bad when talking about natural selection because nature is neither good nor bad. Natural Selection as a Foundation for Functionalism ºHow does an understanding of evolution provide a basis for functionalism in psychology? -Natural selection automatically breeds animals to be better at a specific thing and do what they need to do to survive and reproduce. -Functionalism : the attempt to explain behavior in terms of what it accomplishes for the behaving individual. Ultimate and Proximate Explanations of Behavior ºHow are ultimate explanations of behavior different from, but complementary to, proximate explanations? -Ultimate explanations: functional explanations at the evolutionary level (statements of the role that the behavior plays in the animal's survival and reproduction -Proximate explanations: explanations that deal with mechanism, not function. They are statements of the immediate conditions, both inside and outside the animal. Illustration of the Complemetarity of Ultimate and Proximate Explanations ºUltimate example: Songbirds have adapted to a mating system that takes place in the spring. The male sings to attract the female and to warn other males to stay away. ºProximate example: Increased period of daylight in the spring triggers a physiological mechanism that leads to an increased quantity of testosterone, which promotes the drive to sing. The Search for Ultimate Explanations in Human Psychology ºMost things can be explained through drives (ex. drive to breathe air) Limitations on Functionalist Thinking What are four reasons for the existence of traits or behaviors that do not serve survival and reproductive functions? 1. Some traits are vestigial: ºVestigial:remnants of our past that are not necessary anymore (ex. babies latch on to hair) ºRelates to inherited drives/motives º(Ex. great appetite for sugar: before sugar was rare and considered a commodity, and now it has lead to obesity issues) 2. Some traits are side effects of natural selection for other traits: ºUseless changes can come about as by-products -(ex. belly buttons: they serve absolutely no purpose, but it's remnant of the umbilical cord, which is very essential in the prenatal stages of life) 3. Some traits result simply from chance: ºSome traits are caused by one or more mutations º(ex. differently shaped noses among different races) ºgenetic drift: variation due to chance alone 4. Evolved mechanisms cannot deal effectively with every situation: ºSome traits are not effective for every situation º(ex. Guilt is not triggered in many situations because it would be considered harmful) Natural Selection as a Foundation for Understanding Species-Typical Behaviors What evidence supports the idea that many human emotional expressions are examples of a species-typical behavior? ºspecies typical behaviors: another term for instincts ºHumans communicate moods through body language, facial expressions, and movement º(ex. eyebrow flash: universal signal of greetings which encompasses an eyebrow raise followed by a nod/ smile) How do humans emotional expressions illustrate the point that species-typical behaviors can be modified by learning? ºResearchers have found cross-cultural differences The Role of Learning in the Development of Species-Typical Behaviors How is the point that species-typical behaviors may depend on learning illustrated by the examples of two-legged walking and language in humans and singing in white-crowned sparrows? ºThese specific qualities are defining behavioral characteristics. Also, learning plays a huge role in the development of these specific behaviors. Biological Preparedness as the Basis for Species-Typical Behaviors How is the concept of biological preparedness related to that of species-typical behavior? How is biological preparedness illustrated with the examples of human walking and talking?
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