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Exam #3 Study Guide The Middle Classes and Consumer Society Conspicuous consumption describes middle class consumer habits Middle class was at the center Middle class moved to suburbs Thorestein Veblen “ conspicuous consumption” An Advertiser’s Guide to Publicity usefulness and value of most things depends, not so much on their own nature, as upon the number of people who can be persuaded to desire and use them Developments and trends in British advertising (18801914) 90% would leave out men in ads, public spaces had ads, newspapers 50% were ads, budgets for ads increased, respectful company would have no ads, if good product it could sell itself Two major consequences of industrialization: o Rise of the middle class to economic, social and political power o The emergence of consumer society The department store in Paris by Aristide Bouclaut, “Bon marche”ladies paradise, symbol of consumer society, middle class women to shop, there were men chairs, 52 departments Two key components of Consumer Society: o 1) Advertising development/ trends in Britain o 2) a new retailing institutions: department store 5 New Selling Techniques (revolution on how goods are sold) o 1) Department store amassed an unprecedented variety of goods under one roof “universal provider” o 2) Displays window and interior displays were used to sell goods o 3) Price tag prices were fixed and marketed working class could not afford, middle class could o 4) Sale huge semiannual events in January and July o 5) Mail order catalogue The Second Industrial Revolution Age of progress, age of steel, Germany is the leader New developments in industry: o 1) Steel development of Bessemer process for steal production led to the mass production of cheap steel o 2) The chemical industry Bayer company in Germany created chemicals and pharmaceutical products, heroin, lycetol, salophen o 3) New inventions wireless radio, phonograph, typewriter and telephone o 4) New form of energy electricity, electrical products: lamps in public spaces and restaurants, Germany Karl Benz Mercedes, 1 petroldriven vehicle to go into production and sold, looked like a horse less carriage, 1887 had 3 wheels, 1892 had 4 wheels The European automobile industry France was the center from 1880s 1914, shifted from bike and carriage to car Craft Production of Automobiles: each car was custom made, by hand, by a highly skilled worker, produced 4,704 cars in 1913 with 3,900 workers Eve of WWI in France: 125,000 automobiles owned, 40 million people “Red Flag” Act travel restrictions, Locomotive Act in Britain in 1865, passed a law to apply to steam tractors o Speed limit of 4 miles per hour on country roads, 2 miles per hour in city A man would walk in front of vehicle for warning o 1896 speed increased to 14 mph o 1903 speed increased to 20 mph American, Henry Ford: mass production of automobiles, everyone will be able to afford Imperialism Statistics regarding European conquest of Africa: Europeans acquired a little over 10 million square mile of territory in Africa and Asia containing 150 million people The scramble of Africa: o 1870 11% of the continent was under European control o 1914 a little over 90% Motivations for imperial expansion o 1) Economic (the major motive) Link between industrialization and imperialism Jules Ferry colonial policy is the child of the industrial revolution, image of motivations for new imperialism, create new markets and sell goods, materials and resources they can use Rubber installation for telephone o 2) Nationalism Every verial people establish colonial, measure strength, power, status, standing in the world Need bigger empire, empire envy British is larger than roman empire o 3) European “civilizing” mission Racial and cultural superior of white people in the west Racial hierarchy and not shy about it Western civilization and culture is superior Duty to conquer and bring western civilization there and raise them up, install political progress on the indigenous Threatened colonial stability Heaven of new moral and material regeneration Guiding direction of providence Railroad system of the country Imperialism and racial thought Count Arthur de Gobineau wrote a book called “The Inequality of the Races” it sparked interest during the new imperialism o Race offered the “master key” for understanding human societies in the modern world o “Blood” was the determining factor in human history o Originally divided into 3 races: black, white and yellow: people of present day were a mixture of these components Argued that the white race had superior blood lines and was superior Other races than white suffered “adulteration” which meant they were degenerate and no longer capable of civilization Looked to science to legitimate their theories o Charles Darwin: natural scientist, attracted attention with his theory of evolution Only “fit” individuals could bear viable offspring “Natural selection” explained how species Diverged from one another o Herbert Spencer Logic of competition for scarce resources Evolution of social groups result of natural selection, inequality of wealth or ability o Houston Stewart Chamberlain Follower of Gobineau Scientific arguments to the claim that human “races” evolved over time Books sold 10,000 copies in England and Germany o Francis Galton Half cousin of Charles Darwin Scientist who studied evolution Improve population by selective breeding of “superior types” o They feared the improvements in health care and hygiene would allow individuals with inferior traits to survive reproductive age o Eugenic: system of racial management, would save European populations from a decline in their vitality and biological fitness o Galton or Gobineau’s theories did not cause imperialism o Scientific Racism: made it easier for many to reconcile the rhetoric progress, individual freedom, and civilizing mission with contempt for other peoples Conquest of Africa: the 3 tools of empire o 1) Quinine & malaria West Africa was known as “white man’s grave” Malaria keeps the Europeans out Quinine helps deal with malaria 40 out of 49 got malaria Quinine used until 1940 o 2) Ironhulled steamboats Improvement over wood ships o 3) European Weapons Significant development was the maxim gun Maxim Gun invented by Hiriam Maxim 500 bullets a minute Used in 1898 Battle of Omdurman in the Sudan o 20 maxim guns used o Sudan used spears and the musket (single shots) o 11,000 Sudan died, 48 British died o It was couple of hours Not battle but execution More like hunting than fighting Imperial culture: imperial images and imperial ideology became a significant part of European culture o Empire Day 1904 talks about all the land they have Britain: An ABC for Baby Patriots o C is for colonies, Rightly we boast, Of all the great nations, Great Britain is the most o Education would study possessions The Paris World’s Fair (1889) o Built Eiffel Tower, center place o Colonial pavilion o Bring empire to people Imre Kiralfy: “native villages” at exhibition (Imperial International Exhibition) o Human circus, like reality TV, commercial indever o Agents got to villages, step up “factors” they had rubber quotas, male adults worked Stock quotas: hold family of men hostage so they don’t run away (terror & violence) Mutilation: most common, cut off right hand, expected them to bleed to death, sheer cruelty “rubber terror” Leopold II’s ‘Rubber Terror’ in the Congo o Congo private colony, get ivory o King is greedy, rubber is most profitable o Force Publique: militia George Washington Williams: “An Open Letter to his Serene Majesty King Leopold II” o Your majesty’s government has sequestered their land, burned their towns, stolen their property, enslaved their women and children and committed other crimes too numerous to mention in detail World War I World War I: started on August 4, 1914 Assassination of Archduke Francis Ferdinand (June 28) Member of a Serbian terrorist group Group was dedicated to the creation of the Slavic state July 28: Austria declared war on Serbia Ideas about War Mood in the Europe at the outbreak of war o Stefan Zweig shock, enthusiasm, thought would be a short war Central Powers: Austria and Germany Allied Powers: Russia, France and Britain o Italy 1915 o United States 1917 The alliances in place and war plans turned the conflict between Austria and Serbia into a conflict between the major powers in Europe Stefan Zweig (Austria) o “A rapid excursion into the romantic, a wild manly adventure” o “Afraid that they might miss this most wonderful and exciting experience of their lives” Adolf Hitler “overpowered by storming enthusiasm I fell down on my knees and thanked Heaven for granting me the good fortune of being permitted to live at this time” World War I a new kind of war: (first industrialized war) o 1) Weapons of Chemical Warfare Deadly weapons, machine gun, artillery Railway Howitzer 2,500 pound shell Bear Company: chlorine/ mustard gas April 22 1915 5:30 pm: first use of poisonous gas Germans used chlorine gas, no gas masks Germany first used mustard gas Could cause blindness, eat away at your skin September 15 1916 British used a new weapon: tank o 2) New mod of fighting: trench warfare o 3) Total war: mobilization Schlieffen Plan: target is Paris, than go to Russia o Thought it would be a quick war o September 5 1914 (Germany was closing in on Paris) German: 900,000 soldiers France: 1,012,000 soldiers Britain: 70,000 soldiers The Battle of the Marne o Destroyed the Schlieffen Plan o Germans stopped and retreated The Western Front o Both sides dug trenches, from north sea to Switzerland “No man’s land” space between the trenches, villages in trenches, underground world Trenches/life in trenches “lousy scratch holes” o Cramped and miserable existence of daily routines and continual killing o 25,00 miles of trenches o Logistical centers ended up acting as tether and making it difficult to advance o Railroads did not make war more mobile, trains only took men to the front o Soldiers lived with lice, and large black rats, which fed on dead soldiers o 7,000 British men were killed daily o “Wastage” part of the routine: 2 years bloody and stagnant o New weapons: exploding bullets, liquid fire, and poison gas o Gas: brought visible change to the battlefront Psychologically unnerving Took more lives but could not end the stalemate Lord Kitchener: Secretary of War o Thought it would be a long war o Recruitment poster: sense of duty patriotisms, similar to Uncle Sam January 1916: conscription (draft) Trench warfare—the Battle of the Somme o 2.5 million volunteered for the army o First experience with fighting o 20,000 were killed that day o 60,000 British casualties o Tank was not very effective but there was more of a shock for Germany o Ended because of weather (heavy rain) World War I Poetry Wilfred Owens & Siegfried Sassoon Dulce Et Decorum Est (Owens) o sweet and fitting to die for your country o old lie, do not be excited about war o a man could not get his gas mask on, haunts him The Troops o Scared from o Youth who will not return o Haggard and hopeless o Losing friends o Not positive for war Trench Duty o Things can change in an instant o In a moment you can be killed They o People at home do not understand war o They had honors o Soldiers say it is awful & There was a lot of change World War I—the Homefront Facets of total war o 1) Sample government posters addressed to civilians Image of Marianne Raising money for war Civilians should be active in war effort Conserve resources food Keep up morale o 2) Women’s war work 1 million were employed, women munitions Ages to 18 to 35 Dangerous work especially when filling the shells, die of TNT poisoning Earn 3 times more than before the war (same as high as 10 times) Women left textile factories to go work at munitions Welfare: cafeterias so that they did not need to leave, lead to improvements in diet, Eat meat used to be male breadwinner that could eat it Nurseries at work government paid for 75% of costs o 3) Food Situation in Germany Germany had the worst shortages Began with the rationing of bread Naval block aide of Germany and Austria: set up by allies, affected their ability to import food, imported one third of food before the war January 1915 started the food rationing with bread 5lbs of “war bread” a week “war bread” 80% flour, 20% potato starch It decreased during the course of the war Other foods that were rationed Meat, sugar, fats, potatoes Only consumed 1,000 calories a day on average, some would eat 700800 calories a day Should be having 2,280 calories If no potatoes they had a turnip “Turnip winter” thought it was for animals Alternative meats Weasel, squirrel, marten, dog, cat, fox, mole, jay, crow Would not eat mice or rats 11,000 food substitutes o Real foods vanished Three fourths of a million Germans died from the food shortages Malnuritioned, illness or disease Government posters addressed to civilians o Important medium for army o Get people together from same area, join with pals, could be a huge loss o Campaign for men to volunteer for the army at first then moved to funding o Similar to Uncle Sam, it’s your duty, patriotic ‘ersatz’ foods o Sawdust as bread o Soda water as butter o Yellow powder as egg o Ash as pepper o Animal intestines, brains, hearts or dog meat or turnips as sausage o Bark or turnip as coffee By the end of the war nearly three fourths of a million German civilians had died as a result of the wartime food shortages The Aftermath of World War I The human cost of the war\ o About 9 million men were killed o Ended at 11am on November 11,1918 Commemoration of the war dead o War memorials & Rolls of honour o All have the names of people that passed away on them o Soldier is a popular form o Putsthe names in places like church’s, trains, schools o 1 Armistice Day November 11, 1919 New ritual at 11am two minutes of silence Disability from war o 1.5 million German men o Three fourths of a million British men o France called me with facial injuries “the men with broken faces” British Disability Pension Scheme o Value of body parts o Certain losses would allow certain portions of pensions o 100% is a loss of two or more limbs, very severe facial disfigurement, bedridden, loss of both hands, total loss of sight o Facial disfigurement brought up the idea of plastic surgery Francis Derwent Wood o Made masks for men to feel comfortable o They were very light weight only about 49 ounces and very thin o They were custom made, individually o Helped them integrate back into society o Three fourths of a million British men The Treaty of Versailles o Peace settlement o Signed between the allied powers and Germany o Woodrow Wilson United states “fair and just peace” o George Clemenceau France “revenge” & “Security for France” o David Lloyd George Britain “make the Germans pay” Significant Provisions o 1) Germany lost her colonies o 2) Germans was required to surrender territory in Europe (Alasce and Lorraine and most of the west Prussia to Poland) o 3) The Rhineland are of Germany was declared a demilitarized zone o 4) Germany was forbidden to possess an air force, reduce its army to 100,000 and cut back its navy o 5) “War guilt” clause: Germany had to accept responsibility for the starting the war o Reparation payments: at the conference they decided that Germany would pay $5 billion a year until 1921 and in 1921 Germany was to pay $33 billion in war damages over the next 30 years History 150:Exam #4 The Russian Revolutions of 1917 Conditions/problems on the Eastern Front o Battle between Russia vs. Germany & Austria o Major problem: lac of weapons and a lot of casualties o Russia had 15 millions soldiers o Lacking behind in industrialization (some soldiers didn’t have weapons) o 9 out of 10 did not have a rifle or 1 in 3 did not have a rifle o Women were told to be nurses but Yashka lead women’s battalion of death o Russians had half the artillery of Germany The February Revolution o Petrograd, 10,000 women o Slogans: bread for workers, down with starvation, bread and peace, down with the czar o Day 1: 87,000 factory workers left jobs and joined demonstration Within 3 days 300,000 demonstrators Shops & factories closed down Transportation had stopped running o Czar Nicholas II Ordered troops to disperse the crowd Troops ended up being defected and joined the demonstrators He was told to step down He was abducted from the throne and replaced by a provisional government o Provisional Government Democratic system in Russia Unpopular decision to continue fighting in WWI “Fight to preserve Russia’s honor” Czar Nicholas II o Personal command of military campaign, went to the front o Boost the morale, encourage them to fight o He had no military experience o He ends up being blamed for the disaster on the eastern front His wife (Alexandria) talked to rascubuent (gotten killed) What Is To Be Done? o Lenin Socialists state for Russia Group is called Bolsheviks, was in NY, then went to Russia Revision of Karl Marx Revolution to take place in the most advance industrial, capitalist society, & downtrodden and exploited proletariat will lead to revolution Pamphlet, revolution in Russia will be led by a party of professional revolutionaries (Bolsheviks) All about revolution, campaign for more people to be in Bolsheviks/ supporters Home Front o Petrograd Material hardship due to weather Issue: food shortage (bread), prices raise (inflation) Lead to February revolution Police concerned about population of Petrograd Only a single spark to burst them into flame, starving children Lenin’s campaign for supporters o Slogan: “Peace, land, bread now” “All the power to the Soviet” o Take out of war, give food and land to peasants o 250,000 followers in October of 1917 o Soviet Worker council, workers could have control of industries Leon Trotsky o He is Lenin’s right hand man o Brains and he forms a militia Red Guard o Training to take over power o Took over communication centers in Petrograd Railway stations, telephone, post office o Broke into the winter palace where the provisional government was meeting and arrested them o “Little blood shed, got wine” o Lenin “now begins a new era” The October Revolution o Trotsky and the Red Guard o Bolshevik seizure of power Important developments after the October Revolution 1. March 1918: Peace Treaty signed with Germany a. Closed participation in WWI (Russia out of war) 2. 1918 1921: Civil War a. White army (Anti Bolshevik) vs. Red Army (Bolshevik) b. Red army led by Trotsky c. Right after WWI d. Red Army will win and keep power 3. January 1924: Lenin’s Death a. Rise of power for Stalin Fate of Nicholas II and his family o 1918 execution of him and his family (Anastasia died) o Image of basement with blood and he lastly said “what, what” Lenin’s “Testament” o After his first stroke o Who will be the next leader, mortality o Records of communists power o December 24, 1922: “Comrade Stalin, having become secretary has unlimited authority and I am not sure if he will always be capable of using that authority with sufficient caution” o January 4th: “Stalin is rude, this is why I suggest the comrades think about removing him from the post” o Stalin had risen to the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party o Did not hear about this until 1956 Stalin’s falsification of photographs o Stalin built of his power base by saying if you support me you will get this position o Power struggle between Stalin and Trotsky o Stalin had Trotsky removed from photos and Trotsky got kicked out of Germany o Fake photos showed that Stalin and Lenin were “friends” Stalin’s “Revolution from Above” Five Year Plans (started in 1928) o Emphasis on the development on heavy industry Steel production, railway system and power plants Minimal production of consumer goods o 1938 (first 2 things of 5 year plan completed) No unemployment in Soviet Union 400% increase in overall industrial production 3rd major industrial power in the world “The most rapid social and economic transformation any nation has seen in modern history” o Forced industrialization Conditions of everyday life for industrial workers o People did not like it o Scarcity & hardship for workers o Cramped living conditions (barracks) o Multiple Families per apartment, living in hallways, living under staircase o 17 million moved from countryside to urbanization Stalin’s industrial development: the view from below o Compared the working class to horses carrying 100 poods when they can only hull 75 No matter what they do it won’t move o Socialist competition Either at work, class, meetings, or at home Only a certain amount of money so they eat without additives “dishwater” o Lice have eaten us to death o From hunger and filth Collectivization of agriculture o Greater output of the land to feed industrial workers o Export grain from soviet union for production (equipment) o Movement away from farms o 6 year period to state farms Kulaks o Peasants that resisted collectivization o Burnt fields, slaughtered livestock o Stalin “liquidate them as a class” o Several hundred thousand were killed o Gulag labor camp system 2 million were sent o Propaganda poster: tractors stand in the way of progress & collectivization Famine 19323 o “Let people just die, let famine happen” o Laisez faire let nature take its course o 35 million lives in southern region of Soviet Union o A few thousand is tragedy, a few million is a statistic Collective farming: need to meet quotas o Close to serfdom and lord is Stalin The Great Terror o Campaign, enemy of the people Similar to French revolution o Essential to success o Party line = Stalin line o Liquidate them (all groups: officials, workers, red army members & peasants) o No Bolshevik alive, eliminated them from photos o 1 million people killed o 1.5 million people sent to labor camps Stalin’s Methods 1. Terror a. Enjoyed it, pick a victim, implement 2. Rewards for Stakhanovites a. Really productive, hero, motivation to work hard b. More privileges, extra rationing, own an apartment or house c. Reward with consumer goods: bed, clothing, dress, shoes, suitcase d. 15 minutes of fame: wrote something about them 3. Propaganda a. A.O. Advienko i. Wrote about Stalin ii. Greatest time period because of Stalin iii. Never had an equal in history iv. Have everything due to Stalin v. Child’s first word will be Stalin b. “The Cult of Stalin” i. Worshiped as if God c. Romance Novels i. Promote certain ideas & plots ii. Out produce all other workers (why he is attractive) iii. Skip honeymoon for work d. Paintings i. “Higher & higher” ii. Young people, power plant, happily engaged in 5 year plan iii. Collectivization, couple of people with sticks, daisy’s, smiling, idealized view 1. Reality: famine, skinny, realistic collectivization The Nazi State Hitler’s economic programs o Help unemployment o Public work projects (gave them a lot of money) o Could get jobs Construction buildings/ canals o Rearmament Created more jobs than the public work projects Hitler began building an air force secretly Enabling Act o Granted Hitler unlimited power for 4 years o Said that Germany suffer economic instability High levels of unemployment o Autobach highway system Provided employment for numerous types of different people Engineers/ workers 19331938 constructed 1,8760 miles with no speed limit Unemployment o Winter of 1932: 6 million unemployed o 1937: less than 500,000 o 1939: virtually no unemployment o “economic miracle” similar to stalin Hitler Youth o Males aged 1018 o Future soldiers League of German Girls o Females aged 1018 o Good wives and have children 1939: 7.3 million youths joined these groups o Go on camping trips to get away from parents and there interference Nazi Party Rally o Nuremberg Rally of 1934 o Boys and girls meet o Hitler address the youth o Message: obedience, future of Germany, alteristic do not think about yourself, think about the greater good of Germany Nazi ideology and school materials o Anti Semitism Jews Responsible for WWI, Versailles Treaty, armistice of 1918, downfall of Roman Empire & Communists o Math Problem Bomber, Aircraft, fuel, crusade, weight of aircraft, bombing a town Fuhrer Cult (song sung by the boys of Hitler Youth) o Hitler is Savior, our hero, noblest, die for him, we live for him, our lord, who rules a brave new world Heinrich Himmler and the Lebensborn o Special program to expand the Aryan race o Lebensborn: special maternity homes o Breeding program o Member of SS had sex with a girl from the league o Gift of a pure Aryan child o 12,000 child produced o Produced “racially desirable” children Marriage loan scheme o Law to reduce unemployment o German couple carefully screened could apply for an interest free loan of 1,000 Reichmarks Conditions: future wife has to be employed and must leave her job upon marriage Needed for children to repay the loan completely, each child represent a fourth of the loan Between 1933 1943: 2 million men received a marriage loan Only had an average of 1.1 children per couple Congenital Feeble Mindedness o Directors of institutions, welfare authorities, doctors, employer, hospitals, prisons Put forward names of people they believed to be suffering o Largest percentage of people (53%) were sterilized on the grounds Intelligence Test: name of Nazi leaders Honor Cross of the German Mother o Mother’s Day Public national holiday Received a metal Prolific honor just as much as a combat soldier Risk body and life for fatherland and people 4 children bronze, 6 children silver, 8 children or more gold Sterilization program o Eugenics program of racial engineering o 530% of population should not have children o Hitlerschnitt Hitler’s cult 2 doctors (one needs to be a genetic expert) & a lawyer o “Social and moral deficiency” Alcoholism 8 hereditary aliments epilepsy, chorea, blind, deaf, depression, schizophrenia, cognitive feeble mindedness, physical deformities Bias against the factory workers o Healthy families only had 1 or 2 children but the “inferiors” had a lot of offspring that was sick and asocial and a burden on the community o 1939: 320,000 sterilized AntiSemitism in Nazi Germany AntiSemitism in Europe o Purify the body politic, eliminate the “unfit”, made this its central vision o Sterilization of the “innumerable inferior and hereditarily tainted” o Aim of creating a racial utopia & need to posses “value” o Started with Christians, views Jews as permanent outsiders o Dreyfus affair in France o Blamed for the troubles of the modernity o Pogroms violent assaults on the Jewish community especially in Russia o Said that Jewish people were capitalist and against businesses o Racial laws excluded Jews from public office & boycott of merchants o Opposed parliamentary and democracy as cumbersome and divisive April boycott o 1933 undermine the economic situation o First antiSemitic action o Boycott Jewish shops and business There were signs and pamphlets “Germans! Buy nothing form the Jews! o Want public to participate Public was not enthusiastic and did not want to participate o Supposed to last 5 days only lasted 1 day .77% of the population was Jewish 500,000 Exclusionary laws of 1933 o Jewish people were excluded from working certain jobs Civil service, legal profession, judgeships, medical profession, teaching positions, cultural and entertainment, the press o Hurt them economically o People lost their jobs Reich Citizenship Law or Nuremberg Laws: April 1, 1933 o Stripped Jewish people of their citizenship and made them subjects of the state o No rights and protections o State can do what they want with them Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor: September o Prohibit the marriage and sexual relations between Jews and Germans o 35,000 mixed marriages o Usually German men and Jewish women o Threat to the state o Pressured to get a divorce 3 or 4 Jewish grandparents the full Jew 1 or 2 Jewish grandparents than a mixed breed “The Night of Broken Glass” November 9th, 1938 o Scariest o Destruction of Jewish businesses, synagogues and homes Went into private places, broke into homes o Women referred to it as “the night of flying feathers” Tore up pillows and blankets o Majority of the people left after this night 30,000 people went to concentration camps o Could get them out if they showed that they migrated from Germany o Encouraged Jews to leave They made it difficult Need sponsorship from another country, a lot of paperwork and pay a tax Marta Appel’s account o 2 daughters and married to rabbi o Hostile environment & misfortune of our people o Doesn’t want to go out in public Theatre or parks o Friends are embarrassed and don’t want to be around her o Felt more pain through her children There was an assembly with a race specialist Said that her daughter was the perfect Aryan or Teutonic Pure German race Blonde, slender, blue eye, big forehead All of the people laughed at her Social death before there was physical death o Outcast Kids wanted to leave public school o Wanted to get hit by a bus instead of go to school o Emotional stress Hitler’s Foreign Policy Hitler’s violations of the Treaty of Versailles o First violation was the German Rearmament Increase/ expand army beyond the limits of the treaty Build a navy Build an air force Which was a violation of the treaty o Special newspaper: “First great measure to liquidate Versailles” o Britain, France & Italy Were alarmed and condemned him but took no further action against Hitler AngloGerman Treaty o Britain and Germany o “German could build navy but limited” o Navy Treaty o Beginning of Appeasement Appeasement (keep peace and avoid war, made concessions) o WWI o Some people believed that the treaty of Versailles was too harsh and that Germany had legitimate grievances to redress o People were strong about the fact that Germany would stop the spread of communism in Europe o NUMBER 1 reason for appeasement was to avoid war Rhineland o Treaty of Versailles made this area a demilitarized zone, buffer zone from France o German Territory o Hitler moved troops there o France and Britain did nothing Hitler annexed Austria o United Germany and Austria o British did not get involved Sudetenland in Czechoslovakia o Hitler wanted for its natural resources, unite the German people o Will go to war for the land o Got the attention of Neville Chamberlain Biggest appeaser &Peaceful solution Prime duty is to avoid repetition of great war Munich Conference o Focus is the fate of Sudetenland o President of Czechoslovakia is not there o Italy, France, Germany and Britain are there o Hitler ended up getting Sudetenland He got his way because he said “He did not want anymore European territories and that he was satisfied with his power” Supplementary Agreement o Between Chamberlin and Hitler o The two will never go to war again o “Anglo German “Peace” Declaration” Chamberlin considered this a triumph, extremely happy, returning a hero, brought back peace Critics of Appeasement o David Low (Cartoon artist) Wrote for the newspaper Evening Standard Hitler was walking all over them and they were spineless leaders People were laying down o Winston Churchill Made him unpopular “Instead of snatching his victuals, served to him course by course” We are in the presence of a disaster of the first magnitude which has befallen Great Britain and France Do not suppose that this is the end, only the beginning of the reckoning Hitler invaded and took over the rest of Czechoslovakia and that ended appeasement o Naked aggression o If Poland attacked Britain would help, Poland is the next objective Pact of Steel o Mussolini & Hitler o Mutual aid in event of war Nonaggression Pact o Stalin & Hitler o Soviet Union neutral in event of war o Stalin would get part of Poland and other territories in eastern Europe American Cartoon o Stalin & Hitler are getting married o How long will the honeymoon last Study Guide Final Exam World War II in Europe Battle of France o May 10th 1940 o June 14th Germans captured Paris o Sue for peace French surrendered on June 22nd o WWI had a different outcome Quickly defeated France and sign an armistice Winston Churchill o Replaced Neville Chamberlain as prime minister of Britain o Speech called “Battle of Britain” Consulted with leaders, assurance of victory, no reason to panic British preparations for a possible war—civil defense measures (1938 1939) o Evacuation of Children o Bomb Shelter Anderson Shelter Build your own private shelter at your house in the backyard Free if you had an income under 200 pounds Public Shelters Brick o Recruit people to work in Air Raid Precautions (ARP) Air raid wardens, rescue workers o Gas Masks Distributed during the Sudetenland crisis Practice wearing the masks for 30 minutes a day Donald Duck mask for children Expectations for war o Hitler will send plans with bombs for civilians in London o Gas bombs with mustard gas Battle of Britain o German air force eliminate the British air force Operation Sea Lion o Codename for the Invasion of Britain o Herman Guring (Germany) In charge of German air force Confident, more in numbers, experience Thought it would be easy Plans bombed air force base, radar stations, ports and factories o Britain Radar, invented in 1930s Stations on coast line Air battle Development’s that changed Hitler o Dropped bombs on London by mistake o British bombed Berlin in retaliation (shock to the Germans & Hitler was pissed) ‘Blitz’ of London (September 7th, 1940) o Germans Plan Concentrate on Long and bomb until submission Leave radar stations alone Never put into affect Operation Sea Lion o Began on East end of London (hundreds of German planes) o British was bombed accidently o London Bombed for 56 nights in a row Spread throughout the city Sporadic bombing until May 1941 o Physical Destruction Notable landmarks damaged (house of commons, British library) Buckingham Palace Queen stated that they have all been hit, no matter your class, both of our homes were hit St. Paul’s Cathedral still stood, was in an image 20,000 killed 250,000 were homeless after first 6 weeks, 1.5 million by May of 1941 How did people cope during the Blitz o Barbara Nixon “Raiders Overhead: The Record of a London Warden” 1943 Formed groups, fell into a new routine, bomb shelter picked who they hung out with Young people courted in the shelters Mrs. Baker had a gramophone player to help people that were nervous & would play when bombs were going down, drunks and fights, women gave birth “roll out the barrel” Edward Murrow o “A Report During the Blitz” o American worked for CBS radio o “I decided to have a haircut; the windows of the barbershop were gone, but the Italian barber was still doing business” o Business as usual, adapted to their surroundings London Underground o Expanded the bathrooms, bunk beds o Special refreshment cars tea and food o Sent entertainers Posters o Hitler thought it would take 10 weeks o Thought they defeated Britain o Wisecracks Blast!, More open than usual Operation Barbarossa o Invasion of Soviet Union o 4 Million Med, 3,300 tanks, 5,000 aircraft o Advanced along 1,800 mile front o Germans acquired 900,000 miles of territory in Soviet Union “General Winter” o Daytime temperature 13 F o Night temperature 40 F o Lowest was 76F o Squatted to relieve dysentery congelation of anus (frost bite) Battle of Stalingrad o German commanders surrender for the 1st time o Turning point in the battle of the eastern front o Soviets were victorious o 25 million Soviets (8.5 million soldiers, the rest were civilians) o 4 million German soldiers died during the fighting on the eastern front Pearl Harbor o Japanese bombed, fight in the pacific, became a global war o US/ Japan enter the war Grand Alliances o Britain, Soviet Union, USA Operation Bolero o USA helped with Normandy Invasion o Send men and equipment from USA to Britain o Stalin is impatient because it takes too long to plan o 5 million tons of equipment o Hieshawar greatest military base of all time, Britain o 1.5 million USA soldiers went to Britain Fortitude o Surprise landings codename o Make Germans think they going to Calais o Deception Plan Spy’s false information to Germans Created a fake military base in Dover England Jasper Masculine Illusionist created a fake military base Rubber tank, jeeps, ships George Patton Base of 1st Army King did promotion for the base The Normandy Invasion o June 6 1944 o 150,000 Allied Soldiers o American, British, Canadian o Americans landed in Omaha / Utah Beach o Canadian Sword Beach o British Gold Beach o 10,000 Allied casualties, almost half were killed o Anti landing obstacles o Invasion was a success Omaha Beach o Saving Private Ryan that is where he landed o 19 of 34 participated in the landing o 19 were killed o Bedford percentage wise lost the most people (Bedford population 3,200) The ‘Bedford Boys’ o From Bedford, Virginia o Trained in Britain, live there before the war o Slapton Sands is where they practiced beach landings o 1943 evacuated people from Slapton Sands so they had more room (2,700 population) o Image of Frank Draper Jr one of the Bedford Boys Diary “Sleep in your trouser, shirt, gas mask. Breakfast 2:30am, departure 4am, Hit water 4:30am” Germany unconditionally surrendered o Hitler committed suicide Soviets were blocks away from his bonker Said the war started because of the Jews The Holocaust Einsatzgruppen o Mobile killing units, German army o Killed Jews in Soviet Union o There method was slow because they killed each person individually Wansee Conference o 15 men at this conference o Reinhard Heydrich chaired this meeting o Adolf Eichman was the secretary and took notes o 13 men represented different departments The Final Solution of the Jewish Problem o Plan of Himmler & SS Comb Europe from east to west for Jews Deported to east (Poland) 6 death camps constructed Auschwitz was the major one If fit worked to death, others death with appropriately Companies put bids on construction of ovens (massive plan) o Gas is used more effectively o 2,000 people in less than 30 minutes (zicklongze) European participation/collaboration in the Holocaust o French Vichy Required that Jews wear stars and strictly limited their movements and activities, they cooperated o Italy Fascist country, participated less actively Minimal effort until 1943 for anti Semitic o Hungarian Fascist and allied with the Nazis Persecuted the Jews but dragged on about deportation 1944 German soldiers stepped in o Killed about 12,000 Hungarian Jews a day at Auschwitz in 1944 o Total of 600,000 Hungarian Jews killed “Industrialization of death” o Use of technology/ developments for mass murder o Use of railroad for transportation Millions of Jews to Poland Resistance to deportation o Most did not do anything to stop or save Jews o Denmark Danish people saved 7,200 of the 7,700 Jewish people in Denmark Hid them in homes or brought them to Sweden o Netherlands Johannes Boggard, farmer, saved more than 300 Jews many of them children 56 million Jews killed (2/3 Jews in Europe killed) Living in the Nuclear Age The atomic bomb and its consequences o Manhattan project o Petitions about having a warning or not, but it never reached the president o President Harry S. Truman see views of scientists on secretary of war’s advisory committee o Atomic power is a new means of destruction o Wanted to hit a military base o Kyoto was not hit because it was close to a religious shrine (General Arnold) The nuclear arms race o Weapon of mass destruction o Soviet Union and USA are the super powers o USA was the only country with a bomb for only a few years o Intercontinental missiles that have nuclear warfare new delivery system Soviet Union o Joe 1 bomb in 1949 USA o 1st Hydrogen bomb o 1,000 times more powerful than a atomic bomb Soviet Union & USA expanded their military budgets and increased their amounts of weapons Federal Civil Defense Administration (civil defense measures/advice to civilians about how to prepare for a possible nuclear attack) o Created by Harry Truman (President) Response from pressure & to prepare for attacks o Make plans for evacuation (major cities) o 4 Wheels to survival Shelter from a bomb Live and sleep in your car Duck and Cover o Bert the Turtle o Kids watched in the classroom o Did drills o Said that you will be safer o Flash means act fast Highway Act (Eisenhower interstate system) o Primary reason facilitate movement of the military o Second reason evacuation o $31 billion for a new highway system o 13 years of construction o 41,000 miles Bomb shelters/products for bomb shelters o Major piece of advice to a nuclear family o Fallout= bomb shelter o Pamphlet Home shelter might not actually protect you Concrete blocks, build it in the basement Will protect you against radioactive fallout o Typically dad builds it and mom would stock it o Supplies 7 gallons of water per person, 2 week supply of food, covered pail, chlorine/ DDT to purify water Entrepreneurial o Become part of culture o Ladies home journal magazine o Kelsey Hayes Company of Detroit 5,000 copies a month 73 prefabricated sheet of steel o MPF Multi Purpose Food Powder by General Foods Protein, minerals, vitamins Long shelf life, mix with a liquid or eat it dry Senisim o Not everyone believed that the shelters would protect them o “In case of nuclear attacks this card can be used as a fall out shelter” Youth Culture in the 1960s Mass consumption and mass culture o Rising employment, higher earnings and lower agricultural prices= more purchasing power o Increased standards appliances, vacuum, washing machines o “More work for mother” o Car romance, movement, freedom and vacation o Reduced the work week o New industries of advertisement, marketing and credit payment o Abundance, credit, consumer spending and standards of living became part of everyday life o Expansion of popular press, music halls, organized sports and “nickelodeons” o Mass culture increased in 1920s because of mass politics o 1950s spending more money and increase in leisure time o Cultural revolution The “teenager” o New identity o Belonging to a new group o New social category o Distractive spending patterns o Got their own stores to shop at Teenage clothing trends from London o Mary Quant Store on Kings Road Mini Skirt o Lord Kitcheners Valat on Carnivy Street Boys boutique Military jackets the who and jimmy Hendrix shopped there Teenagers and music o Rock’n’Roll teens purchased singles and albums o Music magazinesfocuses on teens “new musical express” popular Ready, Steady, Go TV show for teens o Friday night 6:07 o “the weekend starts here” Radio 1 o Jingle “BBC was dead and cold, Radio 1 is fresh and bold. This is my radio station” o Same as the who’s “My generation” THE WHO o Band members had a lot of different personalities o Roger Daltrey “Rock n roll was my saver” Saved him from being a factory worker o Pete Writes songs, play guitar, started smashing instruments o John “The ox” and played bass o Keith Drummer, pay attention to him, destroyed hotel rooms, banned from holiday inn, not studious David Marsh o “My generation” was the “anthem for 1960s youth” Living in the Technological Age Technological Age o Post 1945 but especially during the 1990s o Measurement of Development Use of internet, cellphone, and computer o Origin of the Computer WWI used for the purpose of speed up the process of math for military purpose $400,000 & 30 tons & it took up 1,800 square feet Important developments in electronic technology o USA Department of Defense First internet system o IBM built the computers Dominate in the industry Mainframe for businesses o Bank & stores for storage of data Electronic technology and its global implications (see textbook, pp. 699700) o Changes of division of labor
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