New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Manufacturing Processing

by: Andrew Rogers

Manufacturing Processing MENG 1310

Andrew Rogers

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These cover the basics as well as well as the important machine parts. It is for the class Manufacturing Processing or any class after that.
Manufacturing Processes
Mujiburrahman Khan
simple, Math, claculations, manufacturing, Engineering, machines, lathe, micrometer, Manual, milling, caliper, cutting, speed
75 ?




Popular in Manufacturing Processes

Popular in Department of Mechanical Engineering

This 193 page Bundle was uploaded by Andrew Rogers on Monday August 15, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MENG 1310 at Georgia Southern University taught by Mujiburrahman Khan in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Manufacturing Processes in Department of Mechanical Engineering at Georgia Southern University.

Popular in Department of Mechanical Engineering


Reviews for Manufacturing Processing


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/15/16
Milling Cutting Speeds & RPM Calculations Milling machines are used to perform a wide variety of machining operations. There are those operations that are strictly milling operations, but we also use milling machines to perform other operations such as drilling, reaming, tapping, and boring. The rules and principles of cutting speeds and R.P.M. calculations that apply to these "other" operations being performed on milling machines are still used in the same manner. An example of this would be reaming. Reaming is done at half the speed and twice the feed as drilling. This rule still applies on the milling machine as it does on the drill press or the lathe. Cutting Speed for Milling- Cutting speed is the speed at the outside edge of the milling cutter as it is rotating. This is also known as surface speed. Surface speed, surface footage, and surface area are all directly related. Two wheels can illustrate a nice example of this. Take two wheels, one wheel which is three feet in diameter and the other wheel which is one foot in diameter, roll each wheel one complete turn (Figure 1). Figure 1 Which wheel traveled farther? The larger wheel traveled farther because it has a larger circumference and has more surface area. Cutting speeds work on the same principle. If two cutters of different sizes are turning at the same revolutions per minute (RPM), the larger cutter has a greater surface speed. Surface speed is measured in surface feet per minute (SFPM). All cutting tools work on the surface footage principal. Cutting speeds depend primarily on the kind of material you are cutting and the kind of cutting tool you are using. The hardness of the work material has a great deal to do with the recommended cutting speed. The harder the work material, the slower the cutting speed. The softer the work material the faster the recommended cutting speed (Figure 2). Steel Iron Aluminum Lead Increasing Cutting Speed Figure 2 The hardness of the cutting tool material has a great deal to with the recommended cutting speed. The harder the cutting tool material, the faster the cutting speed (figure 3). The softer the cutting tool material the slower the recommended cutting speed. Carbon Steel High Speed Steel Carbide Increasing Cutting Speed Figure 3 The depth of cut and the feed rate will also affect the cutting speed, but not to as great as an extent as the work hardness. These three factors; cutting speed, feedrate and depth of cut are known as cutting conditions. Cutting conditions are determined by the machinability rating. Machinability is the comparing of materials on their ability to be machined. From machinability ratings we can derive recommended cutting speeds. Recommended cutting speeds are given in charts. These charts can be found in your Machinery’s Handbook, textbook or a chart given to you by your tool salesperson. In Table 4 you will find a typical recommended cutting speed chart. Milling-Machine Operations Table 4. Recommended Cutting Speed for Milling in Feet per Minute (fpm) Hardness, Cutting Speed, fpm Work Material Bhn High-Speed Steel Carbide Plain Carbon Steel, AISI to 150 110 600 1010 to AISI 1030 100 to 140 400 to 900 150 to 200 100 450 80 to 120 300 to 700 The milling machine speed must be set so that the milling cutter will be operating at the correct cutting speed. To set the proper speed we need to calculate the proper revolution per minute or RPM setting. We stated earlier that cutting speed or surface speed would change with the size of the cutter. So to keep the surface speed the same for each size cutter we must use a formula that includes the size of the cutter to calculate the proper RPM to maintain the proper surface footage. Calculating RPM- The RPM setting depends on the cutting speed and the size of the cutter. The RPM setting will change with the size of the cutter. As the milling cutter gets smaller the RPM must increase to maintain the recommended surface footage. Again, take the case of the wheel. Think of the cutter as a wheel and the cutting speed as a distance. A larger wheel (cutter) will need to turn fewer revolutions per minute to cover the same distance in the same amount of time than a smaller wheel (cutter). Therefore, to maintain the recommended cutting speed, larger cutters must be run at slower speeds than smaller cutters. The milling machine must be set so that the milling cutter will be operating at the proper surface speed. Spindle speed settings on the milling machine are done in RPMs. To calculate the proper RPM for the tool we must use the following formula: Cutting speed (CS) X 4 Diameter of cutter (D) This simplified version of the RPM formula is the most common formula used in machine shops. This RPM formula can be used for other machining operation as well. Lets put this formula to work in calculating the RPM for the machining example below. Use the recommended cutting speed charts in Table 5. Milling-Machine Operations Table 5. Recommended Cutting Speed for Milling in Feet per Minute (fpm) Hardness, Cutting Speed, fpm Work Material Bhn High-Speed Steel Carbide Plain Carbon Steel, AISI to 150 110 600 1010 to AISI 1030 100 to 140 400 to 900 150 to 200 100 450 80 to 120 300 to 700 AISI B1111, AISI B1112, AISI B1113, Steel 140 to 180 140 650 110 to 200 400 to 1200 Plain Carbon Steel, AISI 1040 to 1095 120 to 180 195 600 80 to 120 400 to 800 180 to 220 85 350 70 to 110 300 to 500 60 200 220 to 300 30 to 80 100 to 300 All Alloy Steels Having .3% or Less Carbon 180 to 220 80 350 Content: 65 to 100 300 to 600 AISI 1320, AISI 3120, AISI 4130, AISI 4020, 220 to 300 60 300 AISI 5020, AISI 4118, AISI 9310, etc. 30 to 80 200 to 350 40 125 300 to 400 30 to 50 100 to 150 All Alloy Steels Having More Than .3% 180 to 220 80 325 Carbon Content: 60 to 100 275 to 450 AISI 1340, AISI 2340, AISI 4140, AISI 4150, 220 to 300 55 250 AISI 4340, AISI 5140, AISI 5150, 30 to 80 180 to 300 AISI 52100, AISI 8660, AISI 9260, etc. 300 to 400 30 100 20 to 50 80 to 130 A milling cut is to be taken with a 0.500 inch high speed steel (HSS) endmill on a piece of 1018 steel with a brinnel hardness of 200. Calculate the RPM setting to perform this cut. Cutting Speed = 90 (fpm) Diameter of Cutter = 0.500 Since the available spindle speed settings are generally not infinitely variable, the machine cannot be set precisely to the calculated RPM setting. Some judgment must be made in selecting the speed to use. Try to get to the speed which is nearest to the calculated RPM, but if you can’t consider these conditions. Are you roughing or finishing? If you are roughing, go slower. If you are finishing go faster. What is your depth of cut? If it is a deep cut, go to the slower RPM setting. Is the setup very rigid? Go slower for setups that lack a great deal of rigidity. Are you using coolant? You may be able to go to the faster of the two settings if you are using coolant. The greatest indicator of cutting speed is the color of the chip. When using a high-speed steel cutter the chips should never be turning brown or blue. Straw colored chips indicate that you are on the maximum edge of the cutting speed for your cutting conditions. When using Carbide, chip colors can range from amber to blue, but never black. A dark purple color will indicate that you are on the maximum edge of your cutting conditions. Carbide cutting tools are covered in much greater detail in other section of your learning materials. Let’s try some more examples. A milling cut is to be taken with a 6.00 inch (HSS) side milling cutter on a piece of 1045 steel with a brinnel hardness of 300. Calculate the RPM setting to perform this cut. Cutting Speed = 55 (fpm) Diameter of Cutter = 6.00 A 1-inch (HSS) drill is used on a piece of 1010 steel with a brinnel hardness of 100. Calculate the RPM setting to perform this drilling operation. Cutting Speed = 140 (fpm) Diameter of Cutter = 1.00 A milling cut is to be taken with a 3.00 inch carbide face milling cutter using coated inserts on a piece of 4140 alloy steel with a brinnel hardness of 200. Calculate the RPM setting to perform this cut. Cutting Speed = 400( avg. fpm) Diameter of Cutter = 3.00 1/21/14 ACCT_MOI_6_1_PartsOfALatheWithAnswerKey.jpg (864×720) Plan/Metals Technology/Machining Operations 1/ACCT_MOI_6/ACCT_MOI_6_1_PartsOfALatheWithAnswerKey.jpg 1/1 Micrometer User's Manual (TFT Tools Inc) Micrometers The micrometer is a precision measuring instrument used to measure distances between surfaces in thousandths of an inch Figure 2 shows the most common types of micrometers. Most micrometers have a frame, anvil, spindle, sleeve, thimble, and ratchet stop. Micrometers are used to measure the outside diameters; inside diameters; the distance between parallel surfaces; the depth of holes, slots, counterbores, and recesses; and the distance from a surface to some recessed part. There are other uses of micrometers, but those mentioned here are uses you are most likely to encounter. Instructions on how to read a micrometer are given in the manufacturer's owner's manual. Whenever you use a micrometer, carefully observe the "DO's"? and "DON'Ts" in the following list to obtain accurate measurements and to protect the instrument: Figure 2 Common types of micrometers. 1. Always stop the work before you take a measurement. DO NOT measure moving parts because the micrometer may get caught in the rotating work and be severely damaged. 2. Always open a micrometer by holding the frame with one hand and turning the knurled sleeve with the other hand. Never open a micrometer by twirling the frame, because such practice will put unnecessary strain on the instrument and cause excessive wear of the threads. 3. Apply only moderate force to the knurled thimble when you take a measurement. Always use the friction slip ratchet if there is one on the instrument. Too much pressure on the knurled sleeve will not only result in an inaccurate reading, but also will cause the frame to spring and force the measuring surface out of line. 4. When a micrometer is not in use, place it where it will not drop. Dropping a micrometer will cause the micrometer frame to spring. If you drop a micrometer, check it for accuracy before you take further readings. 5. Before you store a micrometer, back the spindle away from the anvil, wipe all exterior surfaces with a clean, soft cloth, and coat the surfaces with a light oil. Do not reset the measuring surfaces to close contact because the protecting film of oil on these surfaces will be squeezed out. How To Measure: Let the anvil contact with the workpeice first. Rotate the thimble or the ratchet stop till the spindle is close to (but not in contact with) the workpeice. Rotate the ratchet stop until you hear a click from the ratchet stop. Tighten the Locking Lever to lock the reading if you have to remove the micrometer before reading. How To Read: Example 1: (Metric Reading) A: 35 B: 0.12 ******************** C: 35.12mm Example 2: (Metric Reading) A: 42.5 B: 0.14 ******************** C: 42.64mm A is the line of the sleeve which is on the left of the thimble. B is the point on the thimble which aligns with the horizontal line on sleeve. C is the reading The graduation on the sleeve is 0.5mm. One rotation of the thimble makes 0.5mm (1 graduation) step on the sleeve. Copyright © 2006 [T.F.T Tools, Inc]. All rights reserved. Revised: INSTRUCTIONS HOW TO USE A MILLING MACHINE Milling is the process of machining flat, curved, or irregular surfaces by feeding the workpiece against a rotating cutter containing a number of cutting edges. The usual Mill consists basically of a motor driven spindle, which mounts and revolves the milling cutter, and a reciprocating adjustable worktable, which mounts and feeds the workpiece. Milling machines are basically classified as vertical or horizontal. These machines are also classified as knee-type, ram-type, manufacturing or bed type, and planer-type. Most milling machines have self-contained electric drive motors, coolant systems, variable spindle speeds, and power-operated table feeds. Diagram of typical "Bridgeport style" milling machine head TYPES OF MILLING MACHINES KNEE-TYPE Knee-type mills are characterized by a vertically adjustable worktable resting on a saddle which is supported by a knee. The knee is a massive casting that rides vertically on the milling machine column and can be clamped rigidly to the column in a position where the milling head and milling machine spindle are properly adjusted vertically for operation. The plain vertical machines are characterized by a spindle located vertically, parallel to the column face, and mounted in a sliding head that can be fed up and down by hand or power. Modern vertical milling machines are designed so the entire head can also swivel to permit working on angular surfaces. The turret and swivel head assembly is designed for making precision cuts and can be swung 360° on its base. Angular cuts to the horizontal plane may be made with precision by setting the head at any required angle within a 180° arc. The plain horizontal milling machine's column contains the drive motor and gearing and a fixed position horizontal milling machine spindle. An adjustable overhead arm containing one or more arbor supports projects forward from the top of the column. The arm and arbor supports are used to stabilize long arbors. Supports can be moved along the overhead arm to support the arbor where support is desired depending on the position of the milling cutter or cutters. The milling machine's knee rides up or down the column on a rigid track. A heavy, vertical positioning screw beneath past the milling cutter. The milling machine is excellent for forming flat surfaces, cutting dovetails and keyways, forming and fluting milling cutters and reamers, cutting gears, and so forth. Many special operations can be performed with the attachments available for milling machine use. the knee is used for raising and lowering. The saddle rests upon the knee and supports the worktable. The saddle moves in and out on a dovetail to control cross feed of the worktable. The worktable traverses to the right or left upon the saddle for feeding the workpiece past the milling cutter. The table may be manually controlled or power fed. UNIVERSAL HORIZONTAL MILLING MACHINE The basic difference between a universal horizontal milling machine and a plain horizontal milling machine is the addition of a table swivel housing between the table and the saddle of the universal machine. This permits the table to swing up to 45° in either direction for angular and helical milling operations. The universal machine can be fitted with various attachments such as the indexing fixture, rotary table, slotting and rack cutting attachments, and various special fixtures. RAM-TYPE MILLING MACHINE The ram-type milling machine is characterized by a spindle mounted to a movable housing on the column to permit positioning the milling cutter forward or rearward in a horizontal plane. Two popular ram-type milling machines are the universal milling machine and the swivel cutter head ram-type milling machine. UNIVERSAL RAM-TYPE MILLING MACHINE The universal ram-type milling machine is similar to the universal horizontal milling machine, the difference being, as its name implies, the spindle is mounted on a ram or movable housing. SWIVEL CUTTER HEAD RAM-TYPE MILLING MACHINE The cutter head containing the milling machine spindle is attached to the ram. The cutter head can be swiveled from a vertical spindle position to a horizontal spindle position or can be fixed at any desired angular position between vertical and horizontal. The saddle and knee are hand driven for vertical and cross feed adjustment while the worktable can be either hand or power driven at the operator's choice. Basic milling machine configurations are shown in Figure 8-1. SAFETY RULES FOR MILLING MACHINES Milling machines require special safety precautions while being used. These are in addition to those safety precautions described in Chapter 1.  Do not make contact with the revolving cutter.  Place a wooden pad or suitable cover over the table surface to protect it from possible damage.  Use the buddy system when moving heavy attachments.  Do not attempt to tighten arbor nuts using machine power.  When installing or removing milling cutters, always hold them with a rag to prevent cutting your hands.  While setting up work, install the cutter last to avoid being cut.  Never adjust the workpiece or work mounting devices when the machine is operating.  Chips should be removed from the workpiece with an appropriate rake and a brush. NOTE Chip rake should be fabricated to the size of the T-slots (Figure 8-2).  Shut the machine off before making any adjustments or measurements.  When using cutting oil, prevent splashing by using appropriate splash guards. Cutting oil on the floor can cause a slippery condition that could result in operator injury TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT MILLING CUTTERS Classification of Milling Cutters Milling cutters are usually made of high-speed steel and are available in a great variety of shapes and sizes for various purposes. You should know the names of the most common classifications of cutters, their uses, and, in a general way, the sizes best suited to the work at hand. Milling Cutter Nomenclature Figure 8-3 shows two views of a common milling cutter with its parts and angles identified. These parts and angles in some form are common to all cutter types.  The pitch refers to the angular distance between like or adjacent teeth.  The pitch is determined by the number of teeth. The tooth face is the forward facing surface of the tooth that forms the cutting edge.  The cutting edge is the angle on each tooth that performs the cutting.  The land is the narrow surface behind the cutting edge on each tooth.  The rake angle is the angle formed between the face of the tooth and the centerline of the cutter. The rake angle defines the cutting edge and provides a path for chips that are cut from the workpiece.  The primary clearance angle is the angle of the land of each tooth measured from a line tangent to the centerline of the cutter at the cutting edge. This angle prevents each tooth from rubbing against the workpiece after it makes its cut.  This angle defines the land of each tooth and provides additional clearance for passage of cutting oil and chips.  The hole diameter determines the size of the arbor necessary to mount the milling cutter.  Plain milling cutters that are more than 3/4 inch in width are usually made with spiral or helical teeth. A plain spiral-tooth milling cutter produces a better and smoother finish and requires less power to operate. A plain helical-tooth milling cutter is especially desirable when milling an uneven surface or one with holes in it. Types of Teeth The teeth of milling cutters may be made for right-hand or left-hand rotation, and with either right-hand or left-hand helix. Determine the hand of the cutter by looking at the face of the cutter when mounted on the spindle. A right-hand cutter must rotate counterclockwise; a left-hand cutter must rotate clockwise. The right-hand helix is shown by the flutes leading to the right; a left-hand helix is shown by the flutes leading to the left. The direction of the helix does not affect the cutting ability of the cutter, but take care to see that the direction of rotation is correct for the hand of the cutter (Figure 8-4). Saw Teeth Saw teeth similar to those shown in Figure 8-3 are either straight or helical in the smaller sizes of plain milling cutters, metal slitting saw milling cutters, and end milling cutters. The cutting edge is usually given about 5 degrees primary clearance. Sometimes the teeth are provided with off- set nicks which break up chips and make coarser feeds possible. Helical Milling Cutters The helical milling cutter is similar, to the plain milling cutter, but the teeth have a helix angle of 45° to 60°. The steep helix produces a shearing action that results in smooth, vibration-free cuts. They are available for arbor mounting, or with an integral shank with or without a pilot. This type of helical cutter is particularly useful for milling elongated slots and for light cuts on soft metal. See Figure 8-5. Metal Slitting Saw Milling Cutter The metal slitting saw milling cutter is essentially a very thin plain milling cutter. It is ground slightly thinner toward the center to provide side clearance. These cutters are used for cutoff operations and for milling deep, narrow slots, and are made in widths from 1/32 to 3/16 inch. Side Milling Cutters Side milling cutters are essentially plain milling cutters with the addition of teeth on one or both sides. A plain side milling cutter has teeth on both sides and on the periphery. When teeth are added to one side only, the cutter is called a half-side milling cutter and is identified as being either a right-hand or left-hand cutter. Side milling cutters are generally used for slotting and straddle milling. Interlocking tooth side milling cutters and staggered tooth side milling cutters are used for cutting relatively wide slots with accuracy (Figure 8-6). Interlocking tooth side milling cutters can be repeatedly sharpened without changing the width of the slot they will machine. After sharpening, a washer is placed between the two cutters to compensate for the ground off metal. The staggered tooth cutter is the most washer is placed between the two cutters to compensate for efficient type for milling slots where the depth exceeds the width. End Milling Cutters The end milling cutter, also called an end mill, has teeth on the end as well as the periphery. The smaller end milling cutters have shanks for chuck mounting or direct spindle mounting. End milling cutters may have straight or spiral flutes. Spiral flute end milling cutters are classified as left-hand or right-hand cutters depending on the direction of rotation of the flutes. If they are small cutters, they may have either a straight or tapered shank. The most common end milling cutter is the spiral flute cutter containing four flutes. Two-flute end milling cutters, sometimes referred to as two-lip end mill cutters, are used for milling slots and keyways where no drilled hole is provided for starting the cut. These cutters drill their own starting holes. Straight flute end milling cutters are generally used for milling both soft or tough materials, while spiral flute cutters are used mostly for cutting steel. Large end milling cutters (normally over 2 inches in diameter) (Figure 8-10) are called shell end mills and are recessed on the face to receive a screw or nut for mounting on a separate shank or mounting on an arbor, like plain milling cutters. The teeth are usually helical and the cutter is used particularly for face milling operations requiring the facing of two surfaces at right angles to each other. T-Slot Milling Cutter The T-slot milling cutter is used to machine T-slot grooves in worktables, fixtures, and other holding devices. The cutter has a plain or side milling cutter mounted to the end of a narrow shank. The throat of the T-slot is first milled with a side or end milling cutter and the headspace is then milled with the T-slot milling cutter. Woodruff Keyslot Milling Cutters The Woodruff keyslot milling cutter is made in straight, tapered-shank, and arbor-mounted types. See Figure 8-7. The most common cutters of this type, under 1 1/2 inches in diameter, are provided with a shank. They have teeth on the periphery and slightly concave sides to provide clearance. These cutters are used for milling semicylindrical keyways in shafts. Angle Milling Cutters The angle milling cutter has peripheral teeth which are neither parallel nor perpendicular to the cutter axis. See Figure 8-8. Common operations performed with angle cutters are cutting V- notches and serration's. Angle cutters may be single-angle milling cutters or double-angle milling cutters. The single-angle cutter contains side-cutting teeth on the flat side of the cutter. The angle of the cutter edge is usually 30°, 45°, or 60°, both right and left. Double-angle cutters have included angles of 45, 60, and 90 degrees. Gear Hob The gear hob is a formed tooth milling cutter with helical teeth arranged like the thread on a screw. These teeth- are fluted to produce the required cutting edges. Hobs are generally used for such work as finishing spur gears, spiral gears, and worm gears. They may also be used to cut ratchets and spline shafts. Concave and Convex Milling Cutters Concave and convex milling cutters are formed tooth cutters shaped to produce concave and convex contours of 1/2 circle or less. The size of the cutter is specified by the diameter of the circular form the cutter produces. Corner Rounding Milling Cutter The corner-rounding milling cutter is a formed tooth cutter used for milling rounded corners on workpieces up to and including one-quarter of a circle. The size of the cutter is specified by the radius of the circular form the cutter produces, such as concave and convex cutters generally used for such work as finishing spur gears, spiral gears, and worm wheels. They may also be used to cut ratchets and spline shafts. Special Shaped-Formed Milling Cutter Formed milling cutters have the advantage of being adaptable to any specific shape for special operations. The cutter is made specially for each specific job. In the field, a fly cutter is formed by grinding a single point lathe cutter bit for mounting in a bar, holder, or fly cutter arbor. The cutter can be sharpened many times without destroying its shape. Selection of Milling Cutters Consider the following when choosing milling cutters:  High-speed steel, stellite, and cemented carbide cutters have a distinct advantage of being capable of rapid production when used on a machine that can reach the proper speed.  45° angular cuts may either be made with a 45° single-angle milling cutter while the workpiece is held in a swivel vise, or with an end milling cutter while the workpiece is set at the required angle in a universal vise.  The harder the material, the greater will be the heat that is generated in cutting. Cutters should be selected for their heat-resisting properties.  Use a coarse-tooth milling cutter for roughing cuts and a finer-toothed milling cutter for light cuts and finishing operations.  When milling stock to length, the choice of using a pair of side milling cutters to straddle the workpiece, a single-side milling cutter, or an end milling cutter will depend upon the number of pieces to be cut.  Some operations can be done with more than one type of cutter such as in milling the square end on a shaft or reamer shank. In this case, one or two side milling cutters, a fly cutter, or an end milling cutter may be used. However, for the majority of operations, cutters are specially designed and named for the operation they are to accomplish.  The milling cutter should be small enough in diameter so that the pressure of the cut will not cause the workpiece to be sprung or displaced while being milled. Size of Milling Cutter  In selecting a milling cutter for a particular job, choose one large enough to span the entire work surface so the job can be done with a single pass. If this cannot be done, remember that a small diameter cutter will pass over a surface in a shorter time than a large diameter cutter which is fed at the same speed. This fact is illustrated in Figure 8-9. Care and Maintenance of Milling Cutters  The life of a milling cutter can be greatly prolonged by intelligent use and proper storage. General rules for the care and maintenance of milling cutters are given below.  New cutters received from stock are usually wrapped in oil paper which should not be removed until the cutter is used.  Take care to operate the machine at the proper speed for the cutter being used, as excessive speed will cause the cutter to wear rapidly from overheating.  Take care to prevent the cutter from striking the hard jaws of the vise, chuck, clamping bolts, or nuts.  Whenever practical, use the proper cutting oil on the cutter and workpiece during operations, since lubrication helps prevent overheating and cutter wear.  Keep cutters sharp. Dull cutters require more power to drive and this power, being transformed into heat, softens the cutting edges. Dull cutters should be marked as such and set aside for grinding. For further information on cutter grinding, refer to Chapter 5, Grinding Machines.  Thoroughly clean and lightly coat milling cutters with oil before storing.  Place cutters in drawers or bins so that their cutting edges will not strike each other. Hang small cutters on hooks or pegs, and set large cutters on end. Place taper and straight shank cutters in separate drawers, bins, or racks provided with suitable sized holes to receive the shanks.  Never operate a cutter backwards. Due to the clearance angle, the cutter will rub, producing a great deal of friction. Operating the cutter backward may result in cutter breakage. ARBORS Milling machine arbors are made in various lengths and in standard diameters of 7/8,1,1 1/4, and 1 1/2 inch. The shank is made to fit the taper hole in the spindle while the other end is threaded. NOTE: The threaded end may have left or right-handed threads. The milling machine spindle may be self-holding or self-releasing. The self-holding taper is held in the spindle by the high wedging force. The spindle taper in most milling machines is self- releasing; tooling must be held in place by a draw bolt extending through the center of the spindle. Arbors are supplied with one of three tapers to fit the milling machine spindle: the Standard Milling Machine taper, the Brown and Sharpe taper, and the Brown and Sharpe taper with tang (Figure 8-10). The Standard Milling Machine Taper is used on most machines of recent manufacture. See Figure 8-11. These tapers are identified by the number 30, 40, 50, or 60. Number 50 is the most commonly used size on all modern machines. The Brown and Sharpe taper is found mostly on older machines. Adapters or collets are used to adapt these tapers to fit machines whose spindles have Standard Milling Machine tapers. The Brown and Sharpe taper with tang is used on some older machines. The tang engages a slot in the spindle to assist in driving the arbor. Standard Milling Machine Arbor The standard milling machine arbor has a tapered, cylindrical shaft with a standard milling taper on the driving end and a threaded portion on the opposite end to receive the arbor nut. One or more milling cutters may be placed on the straight cylindrical portion of the arbor and held in position by sleeves and the arbor nut. The standard milling machine arbor is usually splined and keys are used to lock each cutter to the arbor shaft. These arbors are supplied in three styles, various lengths and, standard diameters. The most common way to fasten the arbor in the milling machine spindle is to use a draw bar. The bar threads into the taper shank of the arbor to draw the taper into the spindle and hold it in place. Arbors secured in this manner are removed by backing out the draw bar and tapping the end of the bar to loosen the taper. The end of the arbor opposite the taper is supported by the arbor supports of the milling machine. One or more supports reused depending on the length of the arbor and the degree of rigidity required. The end may be supported by a lathe center bearing against the arbor nut or by a bearing surface of the arbor fitting inside a bushing of the arbor support. The arbor may also be firmly supported as it turns in the arbor support bearing suspended from the over-arm (Figure 8-12). Typical milling arbors are illustrated in Figure 8-13. Listed below are several types of Style C arbors. Style A has a cylindrical pilot on the end that runs in a bronze bearing in the arbor support. This style is mostly used on small milling machines or when maximum arbor support clearance is required. Style B is characterized by one or more bearing collars that can be positioned to any part of the arbor. This allows the bearing support to be positioned close to the cutter, to-obtain rigid setups in heavy duty milling operations). Style C arbors are used to mount the smaller size milling cutters, such as end mills that cannot be bolted directly on the spindle nose. Use the shortest arbor possible for the work. Screw Arbor Screw arbors are used to hold small cutters that have threaded holes. See Figure 8-14. These arbors have a taper next to the threaded portion to provide alignment and support for tools that require a nut to hold them against a taper surface. A right-hand threaded arbor must be used for right-hand cutters while a left-hand threaded arbor is used to mount left-hand cutters. Screw arbors are used to hold small cutters that have threaded holes. These arbors have a taper next to the that require a nut to hold them against a taper surface. A right-hand threaded arbor must be used for right-hand cutters while a left-hand threaded arbor is used to mount left-hand cutters. The slitting saw milling cutter arbor (Figure 8-14) is a short arbor having two flanges between which the milling cutter is secured by tightening a clamping nut. This arbor is used to hold metal slitting saw milling cutters used for slotting, slitting, and sawing operations. The shell end milling cutter arbor has a bore in the end in which shell end milling cutters fit and are locked in place by means of a cap screw. The fly cutter arbor is used to support a single-edge lathe, shaper, or planer cutter bit for boring and gear cutting operations on the milling machine. COLLETS, SPINDLE ADAPTERS, AND QUICK-CHANGE TOOLING Description Milling cutters that contain their own straight or tapered threaded portion to provide alignment and support for tools shanks are mounted to the milling machine spindle with collets, spindle adapters, and quick-change tooling which adapts the cutter shank to the spindle. Collets A collet is a form of a sleeve bushing for reducing the size of the hole in the milling machine spindle so that small shank tools can be fitted into large spindle recesses (Figure 8-15). They are made in several forms, similar to drilling machine sockets and sleeves, except that their tapers are not alike. Spindle Adapters A spindle adapter is a form of a collet having a standardized spindle end. They are available in a wide variety of sizes to accept cutters that cannot be mounted on arbors. They are made with either the Morse taper shank or the Brown and Sharpe taper with tang having a standard spindle end (Figure 8-16). Chuck Adapter A chuck adapter (Figure 8-17 ) is used to attach chucks to milling machines having a standard spindle end. The collet holder is sometimes referred to as a collet chuck. Various forms of chucks can be fitted to milling machines spindles for holding drills, reamers, and small cutters for special operations. Quick-Change Tooling The quick-change adapter mounted on the spindle nose is used to speed up tool changing. Tool changing with this system allows you to set up a number of milling operations such as drilling, end milling, and boring without changing the setup of the part being machined. The tool holders are mounted and removed from a master holder mounted to the machine spindle by means of a clamping ring (Figure 8-18). VISES Either a plain or swivel-type vise is furnished with each milling machine. The plain vise, similar to the machine table vise, is used for milling straight workpieces and is bolted to the milling machine table either at right angles or parallel to the machine arbor. The swivel vise can be rotated and contains a scale graduated in degrees at its base to facilitate milling workpieces at any angle on a horizontal plane. The universal vise, which may be obtained as extra equipment, is designed so that it can be set at both horizontal and vertical angles. This type of vise may be used for flat and angular milling. The all-steel vise is the strongest setup because the workpiece is clamped closer to the table. The vise can securely fasten castings, forgings, and rough-surfaced workpieces. The jaw can be positioned in any notch on the two bars to accommodate different shapes and sizes. The air or hydraulically operated vise is used more often in production work. This type of vise eliminates tightening by striking the crank with a lead hammer or other soft face hammer. See Figure 4-24 for examples of various vises. ADJUSTABLE ANGLE PLATE The adjustable angle plate is a workpiece holding device, similar to the universal vise in operation. Workpieces are mounted to the angle plate with T-bolts and clamps in the same manner used to fasten workpieces to the worktable of the milling machine. The angle plate can be adjusted to any angle so that bevels and tapers can be cut without using a special milling cutter or an adjustable cutter head. INDEXING FIXTURE The index fixture (Figure 8-19) consists of an index head, also called a dividing head, and footstock which is similar to the tailstock of a lathe. The index head and footstock attach to the worktable of the milling machine by T-slot bolts. An index plate containing graduations is used to control the rotation of the index head spindle. The plate is fixed to the index head, and an index crank, connected to the index head spindle by a worm gear and shaft. Workpieces are held between centers by the index head spindle and footstock. Workpieces may also be held in a chuck mounted to the index head spindle or may be fitted directly into the taper spindle recess of some indexing fixtures. There are many variations of the indexing fixture. Universal index head is the name applied to an index head designed to permit power drive of the spindle so that helixes may be cut on the milling machine. Gear cutting attachment is another name applied to an indexing fixture; in this case, one that is primarily intended for cutting gears on the milling machine. HIGH-SPEED MILLING ATTACHMENT The rate of spindle speed of the milling machine may be increased from 1 1/2 to 6 times by using the high-speed milling attachment. This attachment is essential when using cutters and twist drills which must be driven at a high rate of speed in order to obtain an efficient surface speed. The attachment is clamped to the column of the machine and is driven by a set of gears from the milling machine spindle. VERTICAL SPINDLE ATTACHMENT This attachment converts the horizontal spindle of a horizontal milling machine to a vertical spindle. It is clamped to the column and driven from the horizontal spindle. It incorporates provisions for setting the head at any angle, from the vertical to the horizontal, in a plane at right angles to the machine spindle. End milling and face milling are more easily accomplished with this attachment, because the cutter and the surface being cut are in plain view. UNIVERSAL MILLING ATTACHMENT This device is similar to the vertical spindle attachment but is more versatile. The cutter head can be swiveled to any angle in any plane, whereas the vertical spindle attachment only rotates in one place from horizontal to vertical. ROTARY TABLE OR CIRCULAR MILLING ATTACHMENT This attachment consists of a circular worktable containing T-slots for mounting workpieces. The circular table revolves on a base attached to the milling machine worktable. The attachment can be either hand or power driven, being connected to the table drive shaft if power driven. It may be used for milling circles, angular indexing, arcs, segments, circular slots, grooves, and radii, as well as for slotting internal and external gears. The table of the attachment is divided in degrees (Figure 8-20). OFFSET BORING HEAD Boring, an operation that is too often restricted to a lathe, can be done easily on a milling machine. The offset boring head is an attachment that fits to the milling machine spindle and permits most drilled holes to have a better surface finish and greater diameter accuracy. OFFSET BORING HEAD AND TOOLS Figure 8-21 shows an offset boring head. Note that the boring bar can be adjusted at a right angle to the spindle axis. This feature makes it possible to position the boring cutter accurately to bore holes of varying diameters. This adjustment is more convenient than adjusting the cutter in the boring bar holder or changing the boring bar. Another advantage of the offset boring head is the fact that a graduated micrometer collar allows the tool to be moved accurately a specified amount (usually in increments of 0.001) without the use of a dial indicator or other measuring device. NOTE: On some boring heads, the reading on the tool slide is a direct reading. On other boring heads, the tool slide advances twice the amount shown on the micrometer dial. MOUNTING AND INDEXING WORK An efficient and positive method of holding workpieces to the milling machine table is important if the machine tool is to be used to its fullest advantage. The most common methods of holding are clamping a workpiece to the table, clamping a workpiece to the angle plate, clamping the workpiece in fixtures, holding a workpiece between centers, holding the workpiece in a chuck, and holding the workpiece in a vise. Figure 4-25 of this manual shows a variety of mounting and holding devices. Regardless of the method used in holding, there are certain factors that should be observed in every case. The workpiece must not be sprung in clamping, it must be secured to prevent it from springing or moving away from the cutter, and it must be so aligned that it may be correctly machined T-slots. Milling machine worktables are provided with several T-slots which are used either for clamping and locating the workpiece itself or for mounting the various holding devices and attachments. These T-slots extend the length of the table and are parallel to its line of travel. Most milling machine attachments, such as vises and index fixtures, have keys or tongues on the underside of their bases so that they may be located correctly in relation to the T-slots. METHODS OF MOUNTING WORKPIECES Clamping Workpieces to the Table When clamping a workpiece to the worktable of the milling machine, the table and the workpiece should be free from dirt and burrs. Workpieces having smooth machined surfaces may be camped directly to the table, provided the cutter does not come in contact with the table surface during milling. When clamping workpieces with unfinished surfaces in this way, the table face should be protected from damage by using a shim under the workpiece. Paper, plywood, and sheet metal are shim materials. Clamps should be located on both sides of the workpiece if possible to give a full bearing surface. These clamps are held by T-slot bolts inserted in the T-slots of the table. Clamp supports must be the same height as the workpiece. Never use clamp supports that are lower than the workpiece. Adjustable step blocks are extremely useful to raise the clamps, as the height of the clamp bar may be adjusted to ensure maximum clamping pressure. Clamping bolts should be placed as near to the workpiece as possible so that the full advantage of the fulcrum principle may be obtained. When it is necessary to place a clamp on an overhanging part, a support should be provided between the overhang and the table to prevent springing or possible breakage. A stop should be placed at the end of the workpiece where it will receive the thrust of the cutter when heavy cuts are being taken. Clamping a Workpiece to the Angle Plate Workpieces clamped to the angle plate may be machined with surfaces parallel, perpendicular, or at an angle to a given surface. When using this method of holding a workpiece, precautions should be taken similar to those mentioned for clamping work directly to the table. Angle plates are either adjustable or nonadjustable and are generally held in alignment by keys or tongues that fit into the table T-slots. Clamping Workpieces in Fixtures Fixtures are generally used in production work where a number of identical pieces are to be machined. The design of the fixture depends upon the shape of the piece and the operations to be performed. Fixtures are always constructed to secure maximum clamping surfaces and are built to use a minimum number of clamps or bolts in order to reduce the setup time required. Fixtures should always be provided with keys to assure positive alignment with the table T-slots. Holding Workpieces Between Centers The indexing fixture is used to support workpieces which are centered on both ends. When the piece has been previously reamed or bored, it may be pressed upon a mandrel and then mounted between the centers. Two types of mandrels may be used for mounting workpieces between centers. The solid mandrel is satisfactory for many operations, while one having a shank tapered to fit into the index head spindle is preferred in certain cases. A jackscrew is used to prevent springing of long slender workpieces held between centers or workpieces that extend some distance from the chuck. Workpieces mounted between centers are fixed to the index head spindle by means of a lathe dog. The bent tail of the dog should be fastened between the setscrews provided in the driving center clamp in such a manner as to avoid backlash and prevent springing the mandrel. When milling certain types of workpieces, a milling machine dog is held in a flexible ball joint which eliminates shake or spring of the dog or the workpiece. The flexible ball joint allows the tail of the dog to move in a radius along the axis of the workpiece, making it particularly useful in the rapid milling of tapers. Holding Workpieces in a Chuck Before screwing the chuck to the index head spindle, it should be cleaned and any burrs on the spindle or chuck removed. Burrs may be removed with a smooth-cut, three cornered file or scraper, while cleaning should be accomplished with a piece of spring steel wire bent and formed to fit the angle of the threads. The chuck should not be tightened on the spindle so tightly that a wrench or bar is required to remove it. Cylindrical workpieces held in the universal chuck may be checked for trueness by using a test indicator mounted upon a base resting upon the milling machine table. The indicator point should contact the circumference of small diameter workpieces, or the circumference and exposed face of large diameter pieces. While checking, the workpiece should be revolved by rotating the index head spindle. Holding Workpieces in the Vise As previously mentioned, five types of vises are manufactured in various sizes for holding milling machine workpieces. These vises have locating keys or tongues on the underside of their bases so they may be located correctly in relation to the T-slots on the milling machine table (Figure 8-22). The plain vise similar to the machine table vise is fastened to the milling machine table. Alignment with the milling machine table is provided by two slots at right angles to each other on the underside of the vise. These slots are fitted with removable keys that align the vise with the table T-slots either parallel to the machine arbor or perpendicular to the arbor. The swivel vise can be rotated and contains a scale graduated in degrees at its base which is fastened to the milling machine table and located by means of keys placed in the T-slots. By loosening the bolts which clamp the vise to its graduated base, the vise may be moved to hold the workpiece at any angle in a horizontal plane. To set a swivel vise accurately with the machine spindle, a test indicator should be clamped to the machine arbor and a check made to determine the setting by moving either the transverse or the longitudinal feeds, depending upon the position of the vise jaws. Any deviation as shown by the test indicator should be corrected by swiveling the vise on its base. The universal vise is used for work involving compound angles, either horizontally or vertically. The base of the vise contains a scale graduated in degrees and can rotate 360° in the horizontal plane and 90° in the vertical plane. Due to the flexibility of this vise, it is not adaptable for heavy milling. The all-steel vise is the strongest setup where the workpiece is clamped close to the table. This vise can securely fasten castings, forgings, and rough-surface workpieces. The jaws can be positioned in any notch on the two bars to accommodate different shapes and sizes. The air or hydraulically operated vise is used more often in production work. This type of vise eliminates the tightening by striking the crank with a lead hammer or other soft face hammer. When rough or unfinished workpieces are to be vise mounted, a piece of protecting material should be placed between the vise and the workpiece to eliminate marring by the vise jaws. When it is necessary to position a workpiece above the vise jaws, parallels of the same size and of the proper height should be used. These parallels should only be high enough to allow the required cut, as excessive raising reduces the holding ability of the jaws. When holding a workpiece on parallels, a soft hammer should be used to tap the top surface of the piece after the vise jaws have been tightened. This tapping should be continued until the parallels cannot be moved by hand. After the workpiece is set, additional tightening of the vise should not be attempted, as such tightening has a tendency to raise the work off the parallels. Correct selection of parallels is illustrated in Figure 8-23. Whenever possible, the workpiece should be clamped in the center of the vise jaws. However, when necessary to mill a short workpiece which must be held at the end of the vise, a spacing block of the same thickness as the piece should be placed at the opposite end of the jaws. This will avoid strain on the movable jaw and prevent the piece from slipping. If the workpiece is so thin that it is impossible to let it extend over the top of the vise, hold down straps are generally used. See Figure 8-24. These straps are hardened pieces of steel, having one vertical side tapered to form an angle of about 92° with the bottom side and the other vertical side tapered to a narrow edge. By means of these tapered surfaces, the workpiece is forced downward into the parallels, holding them firmly and leaving the top of the workpiece fully exposed to the milling cutter. Indexing Indexing is the process of evenly dividing the circumference of a circular workpiece into equally spaced divisions, such as in cutting gear teeth, cutting splines, milling grooves in reamers and taps, and spacing holes on a circle. The index head of the indexing fixture is used for this purpose. Index Head The index head of the indexing fixture (Figure 8-19) contains an indexing mechanism which is used to control the rotation of the index head spindle to space or divide a workpiece accurately. A simple indexing mechanism consists of a 40-tooth worm wheel fastened to the index head spindle, a single-cut worm, a crank for turning the wormshaft, and an index plate and sector. Since there are 40 teeth in the worm wheel, one turn of the index crank causes the worm, and consequently, the index head spindle to make 1/40 of a turn; so 40 turns of the index crank revolve the spindle one full turn. Index Plate The indexing plate (Figure 8-25 ) is a round plate with a series of six or more circles of equally spaced holes; the index pin on the crank can be inserted in any hole in any circle. With the interchangeable plates regularly furnished with most index heads, the spacing necessary for most gears, boltheads, milling cutters, splines, and so forth can be obtained. The following sets of plates are standard equipment: Brown and Sharpe type consists of 3 plates of 6 circles each drilled as follows: Plate I - 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20 holes Plate 2 - 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33 holes Plate 3 - 37, 39, 41, 43, 47, 49 holes Cincinnati type consists of one plate drilled on both sides with circles divided as follows: First side - 24, 25, 28, 30, 34, 37, 38, 39, 41, 42, 43 holes Second side - 46, 47, 49, 51, 53, 54, 57, 58, 59, 62, 66 holes Sector The sector (Figure 8-25) indicates the next hole in which the pin is to be inserted and makes it unnecessary to count holes when moving the index crank after each cut. It consists of two radial, beveled arms which can be set at any angle to each other and then moved together around the center of the index plate. Suppose that, as shown in Figure 8-25, it is desired to make a series of cuts, moving the index crank 1 1/4 turns after each cut. Since the circle illustrated has 20 holes, turn the crank one full turn plus five spaces after each cut, Set the sector arms to include the desired fractional part of a turn or five spaces between the beveled edges of its arms, as shown. If the first cut is taken with the index pin against the left-hand arm, to take the next cut, move the pin once against the right-hand arm of the sector. Before taking the second cut, move the arms so that the left-hand arm is again against the pin; this moves the right-hand arm another five spaces ahead of the pin. Then take the second cut, and repeat the operation until all the cuts have been completed. NOTE: It is good practice always to index clockwise on the plate to eliminate backlash. Plain Indexing The following principles apply to basic indexing of workpieces: Suppose it is desired to mill a project with eight equally spaced teeth. Since 40 turns of the index crank will turn the spindle one full turn, l/8th of 40 or 5 turns of the crank after each cut will space the gear for 8 teeth. If it is desired to space equally for 10 teeth, 1/10 of 40 or 4 turns would produce the correct spacing. The same principle applies whether or not the divisions required divide equally into 40. For example, if it is desired to index for 6 divisions, 6 divided into 40 equals 6 2/3 turns; similarly, to index for 14 spaces, 14 divided into 40 equals 2 6/7 turns. These examples may be multiplied indefinitely and from them the following rule is derived: to determine the number of turns of the index crank needed to obtain one division of any number of equal divisions on the workpiece, divide 40 by the number of equal divisions desired (provided the worm wheel has 40 teeth, which is standard practice). Direct Indexing The construction of some index heads permits the worm to be disengaged from the worm wheel, making possible a quicker method of indexing called direct indexing. The index head is provided with a knob which, when turned through part of a revolution, operates an eccentric and disengages the worm. Direct indexing is accomplished by an additional index plate fastened to the index head spindle. A stationary plunger in the index head fits the holes in this index plate. By moving this plate by hand to index directly, the spindle and the workpiece rotate an equal distance. Direct index plates usually have 24 holes and offer a quick means of milling squares, hexagons, taps, and so forth. Any number of divisions which is a factor of 24 can be indexed quickly and conveniently by the direct indexing method. Differential Indexing Sometimes, a number of divisions is required which cannot be obtained by simple indexing with the index plates regularly supplied. To obtain these divisions, a differential index head is used. The index crank is connected to the wormshaft by a train of gears instead of a direct coupling as with simple indexing. The selection of these gears involves calculations similar to those used in calculating change gear ratio for lathe thread cutting. Indexing in Degrees Workpieces can be indexed in degrees as well as fractions of a turn with the usual index head. There are 360 degrees in a complete circle and one turn of the index crank revolves the spindle 1/40 or 9 degrees. Therefore, 1/9 turn of the crank rotates the spindle 1 degree. Workpieces can therefore be indexed in degrees by using a circle of holes divisible by 9. For example, moving the crank 2 spaces on an 18-hole circle, 3 spaces on a 27-hole circle, or 4 spaces on a 36-hole circle will rotate the spindle 1 degree. Smaller crank movements further subdivide the circle: moving 1 space on an 18-hole circle turns the spindle 1/2 degree (30 minutes), 1 space on a 27- hole circle turns the spindle 1/3 degree (20 minutes), and so forth. Indexing Operations The following examples show how the index plate is used to obtain any desired part of a whole spindle turn by plain indexing.  Milling a hexagon. Using the rule previously given, divide 40 by 6 which equals 6 2/3 turns, or six full turns plus 2/3 of a turn or any circle whose number is divisible by 3. Take the denominator which is 3 into which of the available hole circles it can be evenly divided. In this case, 3 can be divided into the available 18-hole circle exactly 6 times. Use this result 6 as a multiplier to generate the proportional fraction required. Example: Therefore, 6 full turns of the crank plus 12 spaces on an 18-hole circle is the correct indexing for 6 divisions.  Cutting a gear. To cut a gear of 52 teeth, using the rule again, divide 40 by 52. This means that less than one full turn is required for each division, 40/52 of a turn to be exact. Since a 52-hole circle is not available, 40/52 must be reduced to its lowest term which is 10/13. Take the denominator of the lowest term 13, and determine into which of the available hole circles it can be evenly divided. In this case, 13 can be divided into a 39- hole circle exactly 3 times. Use this result 3 as a multiplier to generate the proportional fraction required. Example: Therefore, 30 holes on a 39-hole circle is the correct indexing for 52 divisions. When counting holes, start with the first hole ahead of the index pin. GENERAL MILLING OPERATIONS GENERAL Setup The success of any milling operation depends, Before setting up a job, be sure that the to a great extent, upon judgment in setting up the job, workpiece, the table, the taper in the spindle, selecting the proper milling cutter, and holding the cutter by the best means under the circumstances Some fundamental practices have been proved by experience to be necessary for and the arbor or cutter shank are all clean and good results on all jobs. Some of these practices are mentioned below...  Before setting up a job, be sure that the workpiece, table, the taper in the spindle, and the arbor or cutter shank are free from ch


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.