Principles of Management Class Notes Bundle
Principles of Management Class Notes Bundle
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This 9 page Bundle was uploaded by Megan Deschaine on Tuesday August 16, 2016. The Bundle belongs to at William Paterson University of New Jersey taught by Staff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.
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Date Created: 08/16/16
Chapter 1‐ Who is a Manager? Manager‐ the person responsible for work performance of group members o Has formal authority to commit organizational resources Management‐ process of using organizational resources to achieve objectives through planning/organizing/staffing/leading Levels of Management Executives‐ top level, empowered to make major decisions C‐level managers‐ "chief" in title Middle‐level managers‐ between top and first level First‐level managers/supervisors Types of Managers Functional Managers‐ supervise workers in special activities General Managers‐ responsible for groups performing a variety of functions Administrator‐ managers of public/non profit companies Entrepreneurs‐ small business owners Team leaders‐ catalysts/facilitators The Process of Management Managerial work is a process‐ series of actions that bring about a goal To achieve objective, managers use resources o Human resources‐ workers o Money o Physical resources‐ buildings, materials o Information resources‐ data 4 Managerial Functions o Planning‐ setting/attaining goals o Organizing/staffing‐ obtain human/physical resources to do job o Leading‐ influence others to achieve goals, execute to accomplish goals o Controlling‐ ensures performance conforms to plan Executives plan, supervisors lead Managerial Roles Planning Negotiator Strategic Team builder Operational Team player Organizing Technical problem solver Organizer Entrepreneur Liaison Controlling Staffing coordinator Monitor Resource allocator Disturbance handle Task delegator Leading Motivator/coach Figurehead Spokesperson Chapter 10‐ Leadership Leadership‐ ability to inspire confidence and support among the people who are needed to achieve goals Link Between Leadership and Management 3 distinctions 1. Management is more formal and scientific i. Relies on planning, budgeting, controlling ii. Set of explicit techniques and skills based on reasoning 2. Leadership involves having a vision i. Elicits cooperation and teamwork 3. Managing focuses on continuous improvement Management and leadership are both needed in the modern workplcae Managers must be leaders, leaders must be good managers, workers must be inspired Leadership Use of Power and Authority Power‐ ability, potential to influence decisions 1. Legitimate‐ authentic right of a leader to make decisions 2. Reward‐ leader's control of value and rewards 3. Coercive‐ Leader's control over punishment 4. Expert‐ knowledge by group members 5. Referent‐ ability to control based on loyalty 6. Subordinate‐ employees can exert upward in org. Influence Tactics 1. Leading by example‐ serve as positive role model 2. Leading by values‐ articulate values to guide behavior 3. Assertiveness‐ being forthright in demands 4. Rationality‐ appealing to logic and reason 5. Intellectually able 6. Sense of humor 7. Emotionally intelligent 8. Leadership efficacy‐ feeling of effectiveness associated with confidence Behaviors of Effective Leaders 1. Adaptive to situations 2. Establish direction 3. Visible, maintains social presence 4. Provides emotional support 5. Gives frequent feedback 6. Plays role of servant leader Leadership Styles Participative leader‐ shares decision making with group leaders Autocratic leader‐ task‐oriented, retains authority Situational leader Entrepreneurial leader 1. Strong achievement need 2. High enthusiasm and creativity 3. Uncomfortable with bureaucracy Chapter 12‐ Communication Communication‐ process of exchanging information by use of letters, words, symbols, or nonverbal behaviors Depends on perception Steps in Communication Process Encoding‐ process of organizing ideas into a series of symbols designed to communicate with receiver Better grasp of language= easier to encode Some messages can be communicated through media, some better in person Decoding‐ receiver interprets message and translates it into meaning information Barriers surface at decoding process Receiver acts after receiving and decoding message Feedback‐ receiver responds to sender's message w/o feedback, it is difficult to understand whether or not message was received and understood Should be analysis, not opinion Noise‐ unwanted interference that can distort or block message Nonverbal Communication in Companies Nonverbal communication‐ transmission of message by means other then words o Hand a body gestures o Facial expressions and movement o Posture o Body placement o Voice quality o Clothing, dress, appearance Organizational Channels and Directions of Communication Formal communication channels‐ unofficial network that supplements the formal channels in org. o Operational networking‐ aimed at doing a task more effectively Employees consult each other outside of formal network Personal networking, strategic networking Capitalizing on informal networks Focus on issues important to org Establish goals and deliverables Provide real governance Set high management expectations o Chance encounters and unplanned meetings helpful o The grapevine‐ informal means by which false rumors are transmitted Communication Directions Communication network‐ pattern of messages that traces communication from start to finish o Downward and upward communication Open door policy Town hall meetings Complain program, hotlines Blogs o Horizontal comm.‐ same level o Diagonal comm.‐message between levels of different departments Learning org.‐ skilled at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge Knowledge management‐ means by which a company leverages its knowledge resources to generate business value Barriers to Communication Low motivation and interest Info overload Inappropriate language Poor comm skills Defense comm (denial) Electronic problems Insufficient nonverbal comm Organizational Politics and Interpersonal Communication Organizational Politics‐ informal approaches to gaining power or other advantage through means other than merit or luck Ethical tactics to gaining power: Be courteous, pleasant, and kind Develop power contacts Create positive image Ask satisfied customers to contact boss Be politically correct Send thank you notes Unethical tactics to gaining power Backstabbing Setting someone else up to fail Playing territorial games Being unpredictable Chapter 13‐ Teams, Groups, and Teamwork Types of Teams Group‐ collection of people who interact with each other and are working towards the common purpose and perceive themselves to be in a group Team‐ special type of group in which members have complementary skills, are committed to the common purpose, have performance goals and approaches Teamwork‐ situation characterized by understanding and commitment to group goals on part of all members Formal group‐ deliberately formed by company to accomplish specific tasks and achieve goals o Departments, project groups ,task forces, committees Informal group‐ group that emerges over time through interaction of coworkers Self‐managed work team‐ formally recognized group of employees who are responsible for entire work process or segment that delivers products or services to an internal or external customer o AKA self‐directed work team Project team‐ small group of employees working on temporary basis in order to accomplish goals Cross‐functional team‐ group composed of workers from different specialties at the same organizational level who come together to finish a task Virtual team‐ small groups of people who conduct almost all of their work by electronic communication Characteristics of Effective Work Groups Enriched job design‐ group workers feel high intrinsic motivation, challenging work contributes to effectiveness Empowerment and shared leadership‐ believes in authority, requires leadership from all team members Interdependent tasks, info sharing, rewards‐ clearer tasks lead to more shared information, more job satisfaction Right mix and size‐ diversity, knowledge, education improve problem solving, large enough to accomplish but small enough to decrease confusion Emotional intelligence‐ able to build relationships and make constructive work with emotions Support for work group‐ needs support for organization Effect processes within group‐ reflects high team spirit, trusted teams perform better Familiarity with jobs, coworkers, and environment‐ important to guide new employees o Collective Efficacy‐ groups' shared beliefthat its combined capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required for certain outcomes Stages of Group Development Forming Storming Norming Performing Adjourning Managerial Actions for Building Teamwork Begin with mission and agreement on meaning of success Help group focus on strengths Compete against a common enemy Make teamwork the norm Use consensus decision making, provide information Use teamwork language Minimize micromanagement Reward team and individuals Encourage face‐to‐face communication Show respect for team members Participate in offsite teamwork training Rise to challenge of teamwork for virtual teams Being an Effective Team Player Task‐related actions and attitudes Possesses and shares technical expertise Assumes responsibility Willing to commit to team goals Able to see big pictures Willing to ask tough questions Willing to try new things People‐related actions and attitudes Trust team members Share credit Recognize interests and achievements of others Listens attentively and shares information Gives and receives criticism Doesn’t rain on the parades of others Potential Contributions and Problems of Teams Contributions o Lift‐out‐ practice of recruiting a high‐functioning team from another company o Teams more productive than individuals Problems o Group polarization‐ situation in which post‐discussion attitudes tend to be more extreme than pre‐ discussion attitudes, leave to caution in further decisions o Social loafing‐ freeloading when a person is placed in a group setting and removed from individual responsibilities, can hide o Ostracism of unwanted group member Extent to which an individual member perceives that he or she is being ignored by other group members o Career retardation‐ too much focus on group work delays career Resolving Conflicts Conflict‐simultaneous arousal of two or more incompatible motives Task conflict‐ issue that focuses on substantive, issue‐related differences Chapter 14‐ Information Technology and eCommerce IT and Manager's Job Increased demands placed on managers to transform company to keep up with demands of technology Wireless networks are a must Positives and Negatives Positives Improved productivity/teamwork Increased competitive advantage Enhanced competitive advantage Improve customer service, implied relationships, use extranet Enhanced communication/coordination a. Virtual office‐ employees work together electronically despite being physically separated Negatives Wasting time on computer Repetitive motion disorders Deterioration of customer service, long waiting calls Confused customers Encourages nonproductive multitasking Extra learning material Impact of Internet on Customer and Other Relationships Different strategies online and through social media Managers must integrate traditional ways of business with new e‐business Enhances globalization Effects of Internet on Internal Operations Evens playing field globally Change methods of distribution Cloud computing Factors Associated with Success in eCommerce Excellent call centers and customer service Constant monitoring and updating Protection against fraud Chapter 16‐ Managing Ineffective Performers Employee Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance Insufficient mental ability Insufficient knowledge of job‐provide more training, write job description Job stress and burnout Low motivation and loafing Excessive absences and lateness Emotional problems Drug problems Conducting outside business on the job Family and personal problems Physical limitations Preoccupying office romance Fear or traveling and flying Poor organizational citizenship behavior Job Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance Ergonomic problems Repetitive, physically demanding job Built‐in conflict Night‐shift work assignment Substandard industrial hygiene "sick" building Managerial Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance Inadequate communication about job responsibilities Inadequate feedback about performance Inappropriate leadership style Negative and untrusting attitude Bullying or intimidating behavior from manager Organizational Factors Contributing to Ineffective Performance Culture that tolerates poor performance Poor ethical climate Counterproductive work environment Negative work group influences Intentional threats to job security Violence or threats thereof Sexual harassment General harassment No adequate reward system Control Model Define performance standards Detect deviation from acceptable performance Define and assess cause of problem Communicate! Set goals for improvement Select and implement action plan Re‐evaluate performance after time interval a. Formal and informal reviews b. Positive reinforcement and punishment, applaud good results i. Positive Consequences of Punishment 1. Informs employees that certain types of conduct will not be tolerated c. Discipline‐ oral warning, written warning, counseling, discussion, suspension or layoff, discharge i. Rules‐ 1. Must be legal 2. Applied immediately after infraction 3. Must be documented 4. Focus attention to unsatisfactory behavior 5. Return to usual work after discipline is over Provide coaching and constructive criticism Engage in joint problem solving Obtain commitment to change Termination Must be fired for good cause, but needs to be documented to avoid wrongful discharge Avoid errors in firing at all costs
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