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Political Science 111 Comparitive Politics UMass Amherst

by: Ashley Gratton

Political Science 111 Comparitive Politics UMass Amherst 111

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Political Science > 111 > Political Science 111 Comparitive Politics UMass Amherst
Ashley Gratton

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About this Document

These are the notes for Political Science 111, the final was cumulative and you were able to bring a cheat sheet that could be printed. I compiled all of my notes and put it onto one document, hope...
Comparative Politics
Ahmel Ahmed
political, Science, PoliSci111, Umass Amherst, Global Comparative Politics, Comparitivepolitics
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This 31 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Gratton on Wednesday August 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 111 at University of Massachusetts taught by Ahmel Ahmed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 08/17/16
March 7, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics The Third World and the Impact of Colonial Rule Part II: Will focus on the Spread of the Modern Industrial Nation­State State ? Nation      Market  What is the Third World?  The ‘third way’ o Bandung Conference 1955  Trying to resist the influence of the first and second worlds and their  dominant pulls at the time  Significant Category? o Common history of colonization and decolonization o Similar challenges  Permanent Category? o Are countries in the third world always in the third world? Or do they ever move  out of this category? What is Colonialism?  Common primary motivation: Economics o Extracting Resources o Opening markets  These are the two primary goals  European Context o Link to industrialization o Competition among European Powers  However, a lot of ways to understand colonialism, economics as a motivation is just one  of them  Two Models of Colonialism  British Model o Native­authorities o Divide­and­rule  French Model o Assimilation and integration as part of French ‘nation’ o Much more extensive settlement o (Saw an example in the Battle of Algiers movie from last week)  The Japanese Model: A Third? The Battle of Algiers  Film: 1966  Portrays Algerian Decolonization: 1954­1962  FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) o Algerian National Liberation Front Decolonization: Struggle over the State  Not Just a military struggle… o Political Institutions  Competing laws  Trying to demonstrate strength, authority, and legitimacy; who  would the people listen to? o Economic Realm  Strike o Social Control  Wedding  Weddings often conducted in secrecy as to not need the state to  officiate marriages Role of Violence  For the colonizer o Colonel Mattieu  For the colonized o “Weapons of the weak” – Jim Scott (famous political scientist)  One of the ways you can fight back even though outnumbered o Gandhi v. FLN Decolonization: India v. Algeria  India o British Model  Struggle for independence less violent  More social tension post independence o Partition – 1947  Algeria o French Model  Struggle for independence more violent  Pattern continues post independence Common Colonial Legacies: Impact on Building Blocks  Weak states  Lack of national unification  Economic underdevelopment Colonial Legacies: What Accounts for Differences?  Systems of Colonial Organization  Timing/Purpose of Colonization o Regional Patterns of Colonialism 1500s­1950s  Latin America  South Asia  Middle East  Africa  East Asia March 9, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics The Third World and the Impact of Colonial Rule (Continued) Colonialism  Working definition o A period of occupation aimed at the extraction of resources and opening markets  Sometimes, but not always, accompanied by a political/military presence Regional Patterns of Colonialism: 1500s­1950s  Latin America  South Asia  Middle East  Africa  East Asia Latin America: Late 1500s­early 1800s  Colonizer: Spain/Portugal  Pre­industrial colonialism o What was being extracted was generally pure raw materials  Settlement and Mixing o In the early stages, saw a lot of settlement, because there were not preexisting  centralized authorities  Early independence South Asia: 1757­mid 1900s  Colonizer: Britain  Linked to industrialization o British East India Company (1612)  India o Special Case o “Jewel in the crown”  India was the prize of the British Empire, as a result, they received a lot of  benefits that other areas did not, such as investment in education and  infrastructural development Middle East: 1880s­WWII  Colonizer: Britain and France o Significance of Ottoman Empire  Settlement/“Civilizing” Efforts o Missionary Work  Some Semi­Independent Regions o Egypt and Turkey Africa: 1880s­1950­60s  Colonizer: Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Italy o Berlin Conference (1884­1885)  Late Independence  Settlement in some areas East Asia (Manchuria, Korea, Taiwan): 1890s­WWII  Colonizer: Japan  Highest Level of education and industry o Linked to “Greater East Asian Co­Prosperity Sphere”  More Cohesive national identity Outliers: Iran, China  Not fully Colonized o Multiple colonial powers, no one power able to control o Very valuable, European Colonizers fought each other for control over these  regions  Ambiguity of independence Colonial Legacies: What Accounts for Differences?  Systems of Colonial Organization o Native Authorities vs. Settlement o Missionary Work  Timing/Purpose of Colonization o Pre­Colonial conditions o Colonizer’s intent o Colonization is not the same everywhere. It has a lot to do with the strategies and timing  of colonization. Systems of Colonial Administration ItalianshGerman Dutch French  Model Model Native  Settlements Authorities Timing/Purpose of Colonization Pre­Industrial Post Industrial 1500 1700 1960 Latin America South Asia Middle East Africa East Asia March 21, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Third World Political Development – State Building and Nation Building Colonial Legacies  What accounts for differences? o Systems of colonial organization  Native authorities vs. settlement  Missionary work o Timing/Purpose of colonization  Pre­colonial conditions  Colonizers intent Common Challenges of Post­Colonial Development  Colonial Legacies o Weak states o Weak national identity o Weak economic capability  Compressed time frame o Speed introduces complications o Trying to catch up but needs to be done (have to industrialize) What is a Weak State?  Lacks autonomy   Lacks capacity (have resources to implement)  State has to implement policy regardless of social issues and opposition Government State Public      Policy                   Enforcemen     Comply/Reject Why Weak State in Third World?  State formation o Compare Europe vs. Third World (War)  Paradox of post­colonial states o State apparatus is poorly developed o Greater demands placed on the state  Most still keep borders set by the colonizers Impact of Colonization  “A human community that successfully claims the monopoly of legitimate use of  physical force within a given territory” (Max Weber)  Territory – arbitrary borders  Organization – weak bureaucracy  Authority – competing claims on power  Legitimacy – lacks popular recognition of the rulers right to rule (timing) o Cannot start over Sources of Legitimacy  Nation o Ideological legitimacy  Market o Distributive Legitimacy The Nation  “An imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and  sovereign” (Benedict Anderson)  Evolutionary process in European contract o Print capitalism and Protestant Reformation  Neglect/Exacerbation of identity divisions under colonialism (Berlin Conference) Challenge of Nation Building in the Third World  Lack of common sense of identity  Only shared history is colonial history  Often no common language o Hinders “Imagined Community” March 23, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Third World Political Development – State Building and Nation Building (Continued) Strategies of Nation­Building  Different approaches to national unification Modernist Syncretist Nativist           India: Nehru    Gandhi     Cape Verde: Cabral       Turkey: Atatune       Egypt: Al­Bonnq  Rudra Sil o Syncretism – an approach to native­building which combines elements of  foreign/modern and native/traditional values  More natural  Wouldn’t allow to reject things that were already there Common Problems of Weak (Nation­) States  Corruption  Violence Corruption  “Corruption is the behavior of public officials which deviates from accepted norms in  order to serve private ends” (Huntington, Page 59)  Examples: o Theft (Public officials gaining rein) o Patronage Politics (Use public office to serve certain groups) o Common bribes (Fee for doing their job, under pay, very frequent) Corruption: A Modern Phenomenon?  Public/Private dichotomy  Speed of modernization  Systematic and unproblematic  State too weak to collect tax revenue, functions on info Violence  Coup  Revolution  Civil War  Terrorism Explanations of Instability  Economic (Modernization Theory) o Poverty leads to political instability  Social (Sil) o Foreign institutions lack the legitimacy needed for mass acceptance Huntington: Gap Hypothesis  Source of Instability o Speed of industrialization  Gap between economic development and political development produces  instability  “Rapid social change and rapid mobilization of new groups into politics coupled with the  slow development of political institutions” (Page 4)  Modernization is the goal, but also the problem  “It is not the absence of modernity but the efforts to achieve it which produce political  disorder” (Page 41)  Development produces stability, the path to development produces instability Pathologies of Patterns of Political Development  Comparing at similar developmental stages o Iran and France o Nigeria and US o Compare at different times during economic development March 25, 2016 Discussion Notes – Polisci 111 – 2:30­3:20 Class Economic/Political Development in the Third World  Industrialize in a different time  Huntington development and democracy o Stability vs. instability o Gap between economic and political development speed, one is happening faster  than the other o US supported dictatorships  US government and foreign policy  Sil: modernist, syncretist, nativist Guatemala  Pre­Colonial o Three Mayan groups o Fought off Aztecs o Topographical diversity  Conquest o Spanish (Pedro de Alvarado) 1520s o Conquest takes over ten years o Many small kingdoms o Disease came before arrival o Worse conditions than Mexico   Colonialism o Conflict between Spain and colonial elites  Encomienda – tax  Repartamiento – forced labor  Reducción – indigenous resettlement o Main exports: Cacao and Indigo o Elites don’t want to pay Spain o 1821 independence (300 years)  Colonial Legacy o Continued export economy  Coffee  Produce o Civil war 1960­1996 guerilla v. state o 2% of population = 20% of durable land o 60% depend on land o 50% of children under five suffer from malnutrition o Arbenz wants society like US, FDR  Overthrown by produce company o State does not own ports  State and Nation Building o The Guatemalan Nation  Language, Geography, Education o The Guatemala State  Civil war, recent protests, outside forces  Conclusion o Modernization o Growth unstable, little to no growth o Underdeveloped nation o 60  globally weak state o 3  in western hemisphere March 28, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Economic Development in the Third World Violence  Coup  Revolution  Civil War  Terrorism Coup  Military displaces weak civilian government o Both permanent and watchdog coups (Brazil 1964, Chile 1973, Egypt 2013) o Mechanism of policy change o Military vs. Civilian rule o Military is direct hold on means of violence Revolution  Social groups overthrow old order, very rare o Seek new institutions o New vision for society  Class­based (Mexico 1911 > Diaz, Cuba 1958 Castro > Batista)  Religious/ethnic mobilization (Iran 1979 Khomeini > Shah) Iran  Ambiguous colonial history o Shah modernist  Western orientation  Concession (oil to western countries)  Mossadeq incident 1953  White revolution  Introduced foreign social and political institutions  Islamic revolution Civil War  Results from: o Division of population and military o Secession or incomplete coup/revolution  Incomplete revolution (Angolan, Libya) o Case of Secession  Nigeria Nigeria  British Colonial Rule o Three distinct communities  Igbo (Christian) – 20% (Oil reserves in East)  Yoruba – 30%  Hausa­Falari (Muslim) – 50% o Biatara Wars  Secession of resource high, Igbo dominated region Terrorism  Use of violence to trigger anxiety, expedite, political objectives  Violence does not same immediate political/military objective o Depends on means and ends of violence (Al Qaeda vs. PLO vs. US in Japan vs.  FLN) Pathologies of Patterns of Political Development?  Comparing of similar developmental stages o Iran and France 1776 o 1867 Nigeria and United States 1867 Neocolonialism  Three theories o Rostow – Spontaneous Growth o Myrdal – Cumulative Caused o Frank – Dependent Development W. Rostow  Five stages of economic growth o Third world countries in an early stage  Example of eco liberalism o Adam Smith for the third world belief in free, self regulating markets  Laissez­faire approach o No state intervention needed March 30, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Neocolonialism? Economic Development in the Third World Three Theories  Rostow – Spontaneous Growth  Myrdal – Cumulative Causation  Frank – Dependent Development  Gunnar Myrdal –  Circular Cumulative Causation  Critique of economic liberalism  “Misguided belief in equilibrium” o “… in the normal case, there is no such tendency toward automatic self  stabilization in the social system. The system by itself is not moving toward any  sort of balance…” (Page 13)  Multiplying effects of economic weaknesses o One weakness doesn’t stand on its own; it produces other weaknesses, which  produce other weaknesses. The strong will become stronger and the weak weaker. Dynamics of Circular Cumulative Causation  Upward Spiral and Downward Spiral o “Virtuous Cycles” and “Vicious Cycles” o Why downward spiral?  Backwash effects > Spread effects  Applies to regions, groups, and countries o International vs. Domestic context  Andre Gunder­Frank –  Dependency Theory  NEOcolonialism o Same logic of exploitation continues  Extracting resources  Opening markets o Uneven trade replaces force Dynamics of Dependency  Underdevelopment o Structure of domestic economy in satellite o The closer the ties, the worse the fate of the satellite  Uneven terms of trade o Bananas for Televisions Development of Underdevelopment  All countries in the same stage o Development of the West depends on the underdevelopment of the Third World. o Relationship between Metropole and Satellite  Metropole = West  Satellite = Third World Remedy for Dependency  Isolation o Withdrawal from the International Economy  Examples: Brazil, U.S., maybe China  Problem with isolation o Is self­sufficiency realistic in all cases? Applications of Dependency Theory  South­South Cooperation o International o Regional o Commodity Based  Domestic Strategy o Import Substitution Industrialization International Cooperation  Examples o UNCTAD, 1964 o NIEO, 1974  Main Goal o Change Principles of International Economy  “Fairness Over Free Markets  Main Problem o Enforcement  Conflicting interests Regional Cooperation  Examples o ASEAN, 1967  Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Australia o Andean Pact, 1969  Chile, Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador  Main Goals o Regional trade barriers o Joint industrial ventures  Main problem o Competing interests Commodity Cooperation  Examples o OPEC o International Tin Council o International Coffee Agreement  Main Goal o Price­setting o Production Management  Main Problem o Success depends on value of commodity Domestic Strategy  Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) o Investment in domestic industry o High barriers to trade  Main Goal o Use domestic consumption to support international production  Main problem o Source of funding April 1, 2016 Discussion Notes – Polisci 111 – 2:30­3:20 Class Class began with a quiz, the term is: “Metropole” The Third World and Economic Development Myrdal  Circular Cumulative Causation – vicious cycle, rich get richer, poor get poorer. Money  perpetuates more money, lack of money perpetuates lack of money  Key argument is inertia Gunder­Frank  Relationship between development of the Western world and the underdevelopment of  the third world  Main term is underdevelopment o In contrast to development and undevelopment  Metropole is colonizer, satellites are colonized Discussion about Metropoles and Satellites  Example: NAFTA o Watched two videos about NAFTA and their effect on US­Mexico trade relations  and economic conditions  Video discussion:  o NAFTA removed one of the major barriers to the flow of resources from satellites to metropoles o Gunder­Frank’s solution was isolationsism, called this autarky = no trade.  Many countries adopted this method o BRICS countries have now come up with their own bank April 4,  2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Models of Development for the Third World – Structural Adjustment and the East Asian Alternative Domestic Strategy  Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) o Investment in domestic industry o High barriers to trade  Main Goal o Use domestic consumption to support international production  Improve quality of production  Main problem o Source of funding Developmental (Statist) Model: 1950s­1970s  Import Substitution Industrialization o Domestic consumption supports international production  State ownership of industry o Need for Capital and Coordination  Heavy spending on social services o Helps population cope with economic transformation Achilles Heal of the Developmental Model  Foreign Debt o Countries used commercial banks to fund industry o Compare to Credit Mobilier (France) and Universal Banks (Germany) Commercial Banks              vs.             Industrial Banks ­ Short Term Loans    ­ Long Term Loans ­ Floating Interest Rates    ­ Fixed Interest Rates Oil Shock  OPEC Oil Embargo o Rise in oil prices  Between November ‘73 and April ‘74, prices quadrupled  Shock of oil prices greater for Third World  Cost of loans rises with oil prices Debt Crisis  1979­1982: rising interest rates o Countries default on loans  International involvement o World Bank and International Monetary Fund o Provide long­term, fixed interest loans  Many strings attached  Structural Adjustment Programs  Economic Liberalization Liberal (Capitalist) Model: 1980s­Today  Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPS) o Imposed by World Bank and IMF  Key Features o Fiscal Austerity  Decrease state spending o Privatization  Reduce state ownership o Trade Liberalization  Lower tariffs and other barriers to imports Debate Over Economic Liberalization  Main Controversy o ‘Washington Consensus’ (US, IMF, WB)  Implementation Success? o Short vs. long term  Results? o Macro­economic results good (Growth) o Problems at the domestic level (Distribution) Brazil  Intense ISI 1950s­1970s o Rapid growth (7%) and diversification  Debt Crisis o Economic liberalization implemented  Economic Liberalization (1980s ) o Steady growth (3%) o Socio­political instability Economic Liberalization and Political Stability  Goal of SAPs o Loan repayment o Increase GDP  Socio­Political Consequences o Lower standard of living  Decline in social services  Uneven distribution of wealth o Conflict between groups Role of the State  Early Developers o England  Speenhamland Scale  Middle Developers o Germany  Universal Banks  Liberal model prevails in these countries today, but developmental model made it  possible April 6, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Models of Development for the Third World – Structural Adjustment and the East Asian Alternative Problems with Earlier Models  Developmental (Statist) Model o Stagnation o Inefficiency o Shortage of Capital  Liberal (Capitalist) Model o Decline in social services o Uneven distribution of wealth o Undermines state strength New Models of Development  “Guided Capitalism” – minimal interference o East Asian Tigers  Japan, Korea, Taiwan  Combines features of liberal and developmental model o Avoids both dependency and stagnation Chalmers Johnson – ‘Capitalist Developmental State’ (CDS)  Economic Dimension o Open markets (along with some ISI) o ‘Government­Business’ Nexus  Active Private Sector  Provides information, expertise  Active State Actors  Private coordination, limit competition, more efficient  Social Dimension o “Zaibatsu” in Japan o “Chaebol” in South Korea  Large firms provide source of social stability  Job security, profit­sharing, welfare  Privatized social welfare program  Political Dimension o ‘Soft Authoritarianism’  Usually incorporates elections… but divorces authority from  accountability  Goal is to protect economic growth from social demands o Labor Suppression  Cheap labor helps attract FDI Possible Reasons to Limit Application of the CDS Model  Historical and Social Conditions o Japanese colonialism and its legacies are different  Ethnic and linguistic homogeneity  Higher level of infrastructure  Stronger states  External Factors o U.S. role  Military defense, open markets  Unique nature of Government­Business Nexus Peter Evans – Predatory and Developmental States  Developmental States: East Asian Tigers o “… are able to foster long­term entrepreneurial perspectives among private elites  by increasing incentives to engage in transformative investments and lowering the risks involves in such investments.” (Page 562­3)  Predatory States: Zaire o “… extract such large amounts of otherwise investible surplus and provide so  litter in the way of ‘collective goods’ in return that they do indeed impede  economic transformation.” (Page 562)  Dangers of “Soft Authoritarianism”  Embedded Autonomy o The key to successful state intervention  Combines capacity with intervention  Depends on cultural and institutional dynamics  Cooperation and organization A Newer Model? Ireland  The Celtic Tiger  Guided Capitalism Successful Despite: o Heterogeneous society o Colonial history o Democratic institutions  Social Pacts Take Home Exam  Choose two out of the three essays posted  Posted on Moodle  Due before class Wednesday 4/20 o Submit electronically to Moodle Grading Rubric: Essays  Thesis Statement (20 percent) o Clarity of statement: Thesis should be clearly stated in introductory paragraph o Clarity of Argument: Argument should respond to the question  Analysis (30 percent) o Logic of analysis o Consideration of competing evidence  Evidence (30 percent) o Requirement: At least 3 authors o Quality of evidence: appropriate choice of cases and authors o Citations from the readings  Organization and Language (20 percent) o Structure o Grammar, syntax, and style April 8, 2016 Discussion Notes – Polisci 111 – 2:30­3:20 Class Handed out a chart to better help organize information from the course thus far: Developmental Statist Model  Time Period o 1950s­1970s  What characterizes this model? o ISI – Import substitution industrialization o State involvement  Tariffs  Government creates industry  Social spending  Problems o Shortage of capital – not enough wealth o Foreign debt  Examples o Brazil (pre­1980) o Turkey Liberal Capitalist Model (Neoliberalism)  Time Period o 1980s­present  What characterizes this model? o Low state involvement o Privatization  o Industrialization of trade o Austerity  All of these things are part of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs)  Problems o Hard for the country to get on its feet o Undermines strength of the state o Widens class gap (increases inequality)  Example o Brazil (post­1980) Capitalist Developmental Model  Time period o 1905s­present  What characterizes this model? o State­sanctioned monopolies o Open markets and ISI  Problems o Soft authoritarianism  Examples o “East­Asian Tigers” Predatory State  Time period o 1960­present  What characterizes this model? o Corruption  Problems o Money stays at the top with the rich  Examples o Zaire Watched a quick video on Neoliberalism Neoliberalism  Which author would agree with neoliberalism? o Adam Smith – Liked free and open markets  Marketplace will adjust itself and eventually reach equilibrium  Infrastructure and education, government should be responsible for that,  neoliberalism AGAINST this o Douglas North – Market can’t exist without the state  North wouldn’t like neoliberalism, would have chaos without the state o Polanyi   Role of violence?  State regulating transactions April 11 & April 13, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Watched a movie in class this week while the take home exam is underway. April 15, 2016 Discussion Notes – Polisci 111 – 2:30­3:20 Class Our Brand in Crisis Article:  Czeni was trying to take indigenous rights away o Oil to US for cheap price o Bill Clinton, Hillary – campaign program  Bolivia: o Predatory state and Neoliberal  “Gas Wars, Water Wars” Bolivia Under Evo Morales  New Constitution  35  21% of poverty  Social Projects  Hydrocarbon increase, natural gas  Increase minimum wage  Decline of hunger  More indigenous voice  Industrialization in energy and trans production  New model of development: Developmental? o Industrializing o Hybrid: Commodity base  Social Movement president April 20, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Democratization and Democratic Stability – Challenges and Prospects for Democracy Today Final Exam th  Thursday, May 5  3:30­5:30  10 IDs – 30% (3 points each) o Choose from a list of 15 o Define, identify Source (Author or Film), give significance  2 Essays – 70% (35 points each) o Chose between two questions for each essay o Linking parts one and two of the class  “Cheat Sheet” o One page of notes o Double sided – handwritten or typed, however you want o No “sharing” Democracy’s Third Wave  “Between 1974 and 1990, at least 30 countries made transitions to democracy, just about  doubling the number of democratic governments in the world.” Huntington (Page 12) Huntington’s Thesis  Democracystpreads ithwaves o  1  : Late 19  century o  2  : Post WWII o  3  : Mid­70s onward  Consists mostly of Third World countries  Each wave is accompanied by reversals Review: Democratization  Political Culture Hypothesis  Modernization Hypothesis  Macro­Historical Hypothesis Political Culture Hypothesis  Alexis de Tocqueville “Democracy in America” o Democracy and Isolation o Role of Voluntary Associations  Civil Society Problem with Civil Society Explanation  Weak relationship between Civil Society and Democratization o Eastern Europe  Democratization despite relatively weak civil society o Africa  Civil society in the absence of strong parties undermines democracy Modernization Hypothesis  Seymour Martin Lipset o Some Social Requisites of Democracy  Economic development increases the likelihood that democracy will  emerge and enhances the stability of the democracy once it has emerged  Economic Development = Urbanization + Education + Communication + Wealth Problem with Modernization Explanation  Weak relationship between Economic Development and Democratization o Some of the worlds poorest countries have democratized  Ex: Bolivia, Nigeria o Many wealthy countries remain authoritarian  Ex: Gulf States, China Social Alliances Hypothesis  Barrington Moore o Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy  Indirect relationship between Economic Development and Political  Outcome  Social Alliances produce political outcomes o Middle and the working class alliance leads to democracy Problem with Social Alliances Hypothesis  Economic development may not produce middle class (or working class)  Democracy without traditional social alliances Samuel Huntington  Different factors affect each “wave” of democratization  Factors influencing democratization today o Increasing popularity of democracy o External pressure o End of Cold War  US hegemony  No viable alternatives to democracy “Transitions” Approach  The “Legitimation Problem” o Alters Patterns of Democratization  Focus on the Process of Transition o Breakdown of dictatorship o Establishing democratic order  Focus on stabilizing democracy  Adam Przeworski –  Democracy and the Market  Democratization involves two stages o Liberalization of Authoritarian Regimes  Split in authoritarian regime creates opening for democracy o Transition to democracy  Success of democratization is not predictable o Depends on interaction of main actors o Democratization is essentially an accidental outcome


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