Political Science 111 Comparitive Politics UMass Amherst
Political Science 111 Comparitive Politics UMass Amherst 111
Popular in Comparative Politics
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
verified elite notetaker
This 31 page Bundle was uploaded by Ashley Gratton on Wednesday August 17, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 111 at University of Massachusetts taught by Ahmel Ahmed in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at University of Massachusetts.
Reviews for Political Science 111 Comparitive Politics UMass Amherst
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 08/17/16
March 7, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics The Third World and the Impact of Colonial Rule Part II: Will focus on the Spread of the Modern Industrial NationState State ? Nation Market What is the Third World? The ‘third way’ o Bandung Conference 1955 Trying to resist the influence of the first and second worlds and their dominant pulls at the time Significant Category? o Common history of colonization and decolonization o Similar challenges Permanent Category? o Are countries in the third world always in the third world? Or do they ever move out of this category? What is Colonialism? Common primary motivation: Economics o Extracting Resources o Opening markets These are the two primary goals European Context o Link to industrialization o Competition among European Powers However, a lot of ways to understand colonialism, economics as a motivation is just one of them Two Models of Colonialism British Model o Nativeauthorities o Divideandrule French Model o Assimilation and integration as part of French ‘nation’ o Much more extensive settlement o (Saw an example in the Battle of Algiers movie from last week) The Japanese Model: A Third? The Battle of Algiers Film: 1966 Portrays Algerian Decolonization: 19541962 FLN (Front de Libération Nationale) o Algerian National Liberation Front Decolonization: Struggle over the State Not Just a military struggle… o Political Institutions Competing laws Trying to demonstrate strength, authority, and legitimacy; who would the people listen to? o Economic Realm Strike o Social Control Wedding Weddings often conducted in secrecy as to not need the state to officiate marriages Role of Violence For the colonizer o Colonel Mattieu For the colonized o “Weapons of the weak” – Jim Scott (famous political scientist) One of the ways you can fight back even though outnumbered o Gandhi v. FLN Decolonization: India v. Algeria India o British Model Struggle for independence less violent More social tension post independence o Partition – 1947 Algeria o French Model Struggle for independence more violent Pattern continues post independence Common Colonial Legacies: Impact on Building Blocks Weak states Lack of national unification Economic underdevelopment Colonial Legacies: What Accounts for Differences? Systems of Colonial Organization Timing/Purpose of Colonization o Regional Patterns of Colonialism 1500s1950s Latin America South Asia Middle East Africa East Asia March 9, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics The Third World and the Impact of Colonial Rule (Continued) Colonialism Working definition o A period of occupation aimed at the extraction of resources and opening markets Sometimes, but not always, accompanied by a political/military presence Regional Patterns of Colonialism: 1500s1950s Latin America South Asia Middle East Africa East Asia Latin America: Late 1500searly 1800s Colonizer: Spain/Portugal Preindustrial colonialism o What was being extracted was generally pure raw materials Settlement and Mixing o In the early stages, saw a lot of settlement, because there were not preexisting centralized authorities Early independence South Asia: 1757mid 1900s Colonizer: Britain Linked to industrialization o British East India Company (1612) India o Special Case o “Jewel in the crown” India was the prize of the British Empire, as a result, they received a lot of benefits that other areas did not, such as investment in education and infrastructural development Middle East: 1880sWWII Colonizer: Britain and France o Significance of Ottoman Empire Settlement/“Civilizing” Efforts o Missionary Work Some SemiIndependent Regions o Egypt and Turkey Africa: 1880s195060s Colonizer: Britain, France, Germany, Belgium, and Italy o Berlin Conference (18841885) Late Independence Settlement in some areas East Asia (Manchuria, Korea, Taiwan): 1890sWWII Colonizer: Japan Highest Level of education and industry o Linked to “Greater East Asian CoProsperity Sphere” More Cohesive national identity Outliers: Iran, China Not fully Colonized o Multiple colonial powers, no one power able to control o Very valuable, European Colonizers fought each other for control over these regions Ambiguity of independence Colonial Legacies: What Accounts for Differences? Systems of Colonial Organization o Native Authorities vs. Settlement o Missionary Work Timing/Purpose of Colonization o PreColonial conditions o Colonizer’s intent o Colonization is not the same everywhere. It has a lot to do with the strategies and timing of colonization. Systems of Colonial Administration ItalianshGerman Dutch French Model Model Native Settlements Authorities Timing/Purpose of Colonization PreIndustrial Post Industrial 1500 1700 1960 Latin America South Asia Middle East Africa East Asia March 21, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Third World Political Development – State Building and Nation Building Colonial Legacies What accounts for differences? o Systems of colonial organization Native authorities vs. settlement Missionary work o Timing/Purpose of colonization Precolonial conditions Colonizers intent Common Challenges of PostColonial Development Colonial Legacies o Weak states o Weak national identity o Weak economic capability Compressed time frame o Speed introduces complications o Trying to catch up but needs to be done (have to industrialize) What is a Weak State? Lacks autonomy Lacks capacity (have resources to implement) State has to implement policy regardless of social issues and opposition Government State Public Policy Enforcemen Comply/Reject Why Weak State in Third World? State formation o Compare Europe vs. Third World (War) Paradox of postcolonial states o State apparatus is poorly developed o Greater demands placed on the state Most still keep borders set by the colonizers Impact of Colonization “A human community that successfully claims the monopoly of legitimate use of physical force within a given territory” (Max Weber) Territory – arbitrary borders Organization – weak bureaucracy Authority – competing claims on power Legitimacy – lacks popular recognition of the rulers right to rule (timing) o Cannot start over Sources of Legitimacy Nation o Ideological legitimacy Market o Distributive Legitimacy The Nation “An imagined political community – and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign” (Benedict Anderson) Evolutionary process in European contract o Print capitalism and Protestant Reformation Neglect/Exacerbation of identity divisions under colonialism (Berlin Conference) Challenge of Nation Building in the Third World Lack of common sense of identity Only shared history is colonial history Often no common language o Hinders “Imagined Community” March 23, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Third World Political Development – State Building and Nation Building (Continued) Strategies of NationBuilding Different approaches to national unification Modernist Syncretist Nativist India: Nehru Gandhi Cape Verde: Cabral Turkey: Atatune Egypt: AlBonnq Rudra Sil o Syncretism – an approach to nativebuilding which combines elements of foreign/modern and native/traditional values More natural Wouldn’t allow to reject things that were already there Common Problems of Weak (Nation) States Corruption Violence Corruption “Corruption is the behavior of public officials which deviates from accepted norms in order to serve private ends” (Huntington, Page 59) Examples: o Theft (Public officials gaining rein) o Patronage Politics (Use public office to serve certain groups) o Common bribes (Fee for doing their job, under pay, very frequent) Corruption: A Modern Phenomenon? Public/Private dichotomy Speed of modernization Systematic and unproblematic State too weak to collect tax revenue, functions on info Violence Coup Revolution Civil War Terrorism Explanations of Instability Economic (Modernization Theory) o Poverty leads to political instability Social (Sil) o Foreign institutions lack the legitimacy needed for mass acceptance Huntington: Gap Hypothesis Source of Instability o Speed of industrialization Gap between economic development and political development produces instability “Rapid social change and rapid mobilization of new groups into politics coupled with the slow development of political institutions” (Page 4) Modernization is the goal, but also the problem “It is not the absence of modernity but the efforts to achieve it which produce political disorder” (Page 41) Development produces stability, the path to development produces instability Pathologies of Patterns of Political Development Comparing at similar developmental stages o Iran and France o Nigeria and US o Compare at different times during economic development March 25, 2016 Discussion Notes – Polisci 111 – 2:303:20 Class Economic/Political Development in the Third World Industrialize in a different time Huntington development and democracy o Stability vs. instability o Gap between economic and political development speed, one is happening faster than the other o US supported dictatorships US government and foreign policy Sil: modernist, syncretist, nativist Guatemala PreColonial o Three Mayan groups o Fought off Aztecs o Topographical diversity Conquest o Spanish (Pedro de Alvarado) 1520s o Conquest takes over ten years o Many small kingdoms o Disease came before arrival o Worse conditions than Mexico Colonialism o Conflict between Spain and colonial elites Encomienda – tax Repartamiento – forced labor Reducción – indigenous resettlement o Main exports: Cacao and Indigo o Elites don’t want to pay Spain o 1821 independence (300 years) Colonial Legacy o Continued export economy Coffee Produce o Civil war 19601996 guerilla v. state o 2% of population = 20% of durable land o 60% depend on land o 50% of children under five suffer from malnutrition o Arbenz wants society like US, FDR Overthrown by produce company o State does not own ports State and Nation Building o The Guatemalan Nation Language, Geography, Education o The Guatemala State Civil war, recent protests, outside forces Conclusion o Modernization o Growth unstable, little to no growth o Underdeveloped nation o 60 globally weak state o 3 in western hemisphere March 28, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Economic Development in the Third World Violence Coup Revolution Civil War Terrorism Coup Military displaces weak civilian government o Both permanent and watchdog coups (Brazil 1964, Chile 1973, Egypt 2013) o Mechanism of policy change o Military vs. Civilian rule o Military is direct hold on means of violence Revolution Social groups overthrow old order, very rare o Seek new institutions o New vision for society Classbased (Mexico 1911 > Diaz, Cuba 1958 Castro > Batista) Religious/ethnic mobilization (Iran 1979 Khomeini > Shah) Iran Ambiguous colonial history o Shah modernist Western orientation Concession (oil to western countries) Mossadeq incident 1953 White revolution Introduced foreign social and political institutions Islamic revolution Civil War Results from: o Division of population and military o Secession or incomplete coup/revolution Incomplete revolution (Angolan, Libya) o Case of Secession Nigeria Nigeria British Colonial Rule o Three distinct communities Igbo (Christian) – 20% (Oil reserves in East) Yoruba – 30% HausaFalari (Muslim) – 50% o Biatara Wars Secession of resource high, Igbo dominated region Terrorism Use of violence to trigger anxiety, expedite, political objectives Violence does not same immediate political/military objective o Depends on means and ends of violence (Al Qaeda vs. PLO vs. US in Japan vs. FLN) Pathologies of Patterns of Political Development? Comparing of similar developmental stages o Iran and France 1776 o 1867 Nigeria and United States 1867 Neocolonialism Three theories o Rostow – Spontaneous Growth o Myrdal – Cumulative Caused o Frank – Dependent Development W. Rostow Five stages of economic growth o Third world countries in an early stage Example of eco liberalism o Adam Smith for the third world belief in free, self regulating markets Laissezfaire approach o No state intervention needed March 30, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Neocolonialism? Economic Development in the Third World Three Theories Rostow – Spontaneous Growth Myrdal – Cumulative Causation Frank – Dependent Development Gunnar Myrdal – Circular Cumulative Causation Critique of economic liberalism “Misguided belief in equilibrium” o “… in the normal case, there is no such tendency toward automatic self stabilization in the social system. The system by itself is not moving toward any sort of balance…” (Page 13) Multiplying effects of economic weaknesses o One weakness doesn’t stand on its own; it produces other weaknesses, which produce other weaknesses. The strong will become stronger and the weak weaker. Dynamics of Circular Cumulative Causation Upward Spiral and Downward Spiral o “Virtuous Cycles” and “Vicious Cycles” o Why downward spiral? Backwash effects > Spread effects Applies to regions, groups, and countries o International vs. Domestic context Andre GunderFrank – Dependency Theory NEOcolonialism o Same logic of exploitation continues Extracting resources Opening markets o Uneven trade replaces force Dynamics of Dependency Underdevelopment o Structure of domestic economy in satellite o The closer the ties, the worse the fate of the satellite Uneven terms of trade o Bananas for Televisions Development of Underdevelopment All countries in the same stage o Development of the West depends on the underdevelopment of the Third World. o Relationship between Metropole and Satellite Metropole = West Satellite = Third World Remedy for Dependency Isolation o Withdrawal from the International Economy Examples: Brazil, U.S., maybe China Problem with isolation o Is selfsufficiency realistic in all cases? Applications of Dependency Theory SouthSouth Cooperation o International o Regional o Commodity Based Domestic Strategy o Import Substitution Industrialization International Cooperation Examples o UNCTAD, 1964 o NIEO, 1974 Main Goal o Change Principles of International Economy “Fairness Over Free Markets Main Problem o Enforcement Conflicting interests Regional Cooperation Examples o ASEAN, 1967 Indonesia, Philippines, Singapore, Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Australia o Andean Pact, 1969 Chile, Peru, Venezuela, Bolivia, Ecuador Main Goals o Regional trade barriers o Joint industrial ventures Main problem o Competing interests Commodity Cooperation Examples o OPEC o International Tin Council o International Coffee Agreement Main Goal o Pricesetting o Production Management Main Problem o Success depends on value of commodity Domestic Strategy Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) o Investment in domestic industry o High barriers to trade Main Goal o Use domestic consumption to support international production Main problem o Source of funding April 1, 2016 Discussion Notes – Polisci 111 – 2:303:20 Class Class began with a quiz, the term is: “Metropole” The Third World and Economic Development Myrdal Circular Cumulative Causation – vicious cycle, rich get richer, poor get poorer. Money perpetuates more money, lack of money perpetuates lack of money Key argument is inertia GunderFrank Relationship between development of the Western world and the underdevelopment of the third world Main term is underdevelopment o In contrast to development and undevelopment Metropole is colonizer, satellites are colonized Discussion about Metropoles and Satellites Example: NAFTA o Watched two videos about NAFTA and their effect on USMexico trade relations and economic conditions Video discussion: o NAFTA removed one of the major barriers to the flow of resources from satellites to metropoles o GunderFrank’s solution was isolationsism, called this autarky = no trade. Many countries adopted this method o BRICS countries have now come up with their own bank April 4, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Models of Development for the Third World – Structural Adjustment and the East Asian Alternative Domestic Strategy Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI) o Investment in domestic industry o High barriers to trade Main Goal o Use domestic consumption to support international production Improve quality of production Main problem o Source of funding Developmental (Statist) Model: 1950s1970s Import Substitution Industrialization o Domestic consumption supports international production State ownership of industry o Need for Capital and Coordination Heavy spending on social services o Helps population cope with economic transformation Achilles Heal of the Developmental Model Foreign Debt o Countries used commercial banks to fund industry o Compare to Credit Mobilier (France) and Universal Banks (Germany) Commercial Banks vs. Industrial Banks Short Term Loans Long Term Loans Floating Interest Rates Fixed Interest Rates Oil Shock OPEC Oil Embargo o Rise in oil prices Between November ‘73 and April ‘74, prices quadrupled Shock of oil prices greater for Third World Cost of loans rises with oil prices Debt Crisis 19791982: rising interest rates o Countries default on loans International involvement o World Bank and International Monetary Fund o Provide longterm, fixed interest loans Many strings attached Structural Adjustment Programs Economic Liberalization Liberal (Capitalist) Model: 1980sToday Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPS) o Imposed by World Bank and IMF Key Features o Fiscal Austerity Decrease state spending o Privatization Reduce state ownership o Trade Liberalization Lower tariffs and other barriers to imports Debate Over Economic Liberalization Main Controversy o ‘Washington Consensus’ (US, IMF, WB) Implementation Success? o Short vs. long term Results? o Macroeconomic results good (Growth) o Problems at the domestic level (Distribution) Brazil Intense ISI 1950s1970s o Rapid growth (7%) and diversification Debt Crisis o Economic liberalization implemented Economic Liberalization (1980s ) o Steady growth (3%) o Sociopolitical instability Economic Liberalization and Political Stability Goal of SAPs o Loan repayment o Increase GDP SocioPolitical Consequences o Lower standard of living Decline in social services Uneven distribution of wealth o Conflict between groups Role of the State Early Developers o England Speenhamland Scale Middle Developers o Germany Universal Banks Liberal model prevails in these countries today, but developmental model made it possible April 6, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Models of Development for the Third World – Structural Adjustment and the East Asian Alternative Problems with Earlier Models Developmental (Statist) Model o Stagnation o Inefficiency o Shortage of Capital Liberal (Capitalist) Model o Decline in social services o Uneven distribution of wealth o Undermines state strength New Models of Development “Guided Capitalism” – minimal interference o East Asian Tigers Japan, Korea, Taiwan Combines features of liberal and developmental model o Avoids both dependency and stagnation Chalmers Johnson – ‘Capitalist Developmental State’ (CDS) Economic Dimension o Open markets (along with some ISI) o ‘GovernmentBusiness’ Nexus Active Private Sector Provides information, expertise Active State Actors Private coordination, limit competition, more efficient Social Dimension o “Zaibatsu” in Japan o “Chaebol” in South Korea Large firms provide source of social stability Job security, profitsharing, welfare Privatized social welfare program Political Dimension o ‘Soft Authoritarianism’ Usually incorporates elections… but divorces authority from accountability Goal is to protect economic growth from social demands o Labor Suppression Cheap labor helps attract FDI Possible Reasons to Limit Application of the CDS Model Historical and Social Conditions o Japanese colonialism and its legacies are different Ethnic and linguistic homogeneity Higher level of infrastructure Stronger states External Factors o U.S. role Military defense, open markets Unique nature of GovernmentBusiness Nexus Peter Evans – Predatory and Developmental States Developmental States: East Asian Tigers o “… are able to foster longterm entrepreneurial perspectives among private elites by increasing incentives to engage in transformative investments and lowering the risks involves in such investments.” (Page 5623) Predatory States: Zaire o “… extract such large amounts of otherwise investible surplus and provide so litter in the way of ‘collective goods’ in return that they do indeed impede economic transformation.” (Page 562) Dangers of “Soft Authoritarianism” Embedded Autonomy o The key to successful state intervention Combines capacity with intervention Depends on cultural and institutional dynamics Cooperation and organization A Newer Model? Ireland The Celtic Tiger Guided Capitalism Successful Despite: o Heterogeneous society o Colonial history o Democratic institutions Social Pacts Take Home Exam Choose two out of the three essays posted Posted on Moodle Due before class Wednesday 4/20 o Submit electronically to Moodle Grading Rubric: Essays Thesis Statement (20 percent) o Clarity of statement: Thesis should be clearly stated in introductory paragraph o Clarity of Argument: Argument should respond to the question Analysis (30 percent) o Logic of analysis o Consideration of competing evidence Evidence (30 percent) o Requirement: At least 3 authors o Quality of evidence: appropriate choice of cases and authors o Citations from the readings Organization and Language (20 percent) o Structure o Grammar, syntax, and style April 8, 2016 Discussion Notes – Polisci 111 – 2:303:20 Class Handed out a chart to better help organize information from the course thus far: Developmental Statist Model Time Period o 1950s1970s What characterizes this model? o ISI – Import substitution industrialization o State involvement Tariffs Government creates industry Social spending Problems o Shortage of capital – not enough wealth o Foreign debt Examples o Brazil (pre1980) o Turkey Liberal Capitalist Model (Neoliberalism) Time Period o 1980spresent What characterizes this model? o Low state involvement o Privatization o Industrialization of trade o Austerity All of these things are part of Structural Adjustment Programs (SAPs) Problems o Hard for the country to get on its feet o Undermines strength of the state o Widens class gap (increases inequality) Example o Brazil (post1980) Capitalist Developmental Model Time period o 1905spresent What characterizes this model? o Statesanctioned monopolies o Open markets and ISI Problems o Soft authoritarianism Examples o “EastAsian Tigers” Predatory State Time period o 1960present What characterizes this model? o Corruption Problems o Money stays at the top with the rich Examples o Zaire Watched a quick video on Neoliberalism Neoliberalism Which author would agree with neoliberalism? o Adam Smith – Liked free and open markets Marketplace will adjust itself and eventually reach equilibrium Infrastructure and education, government should be responsible for that, neoliberalism AGAINST this o Douglas North – Market can’t exist without the state North wouldn’t like neoliberalism, would have chaos without the state o Polanyi Role of violence? State regulating transactions April 11 & April 13, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Watched a movie in class this week while the take home exam is underway. April 15, 2016 Discussion Notes – Polisci 111 – 2:303:20 Class Our Brand in Crisis Article: Czeni was trying to take indigenous rights away o Oil to US for cheap price o Bill Clinton, Hillary – campaign program Bolivia: o Predatory state and Neoliberal “Gas Wars, Water Wars” Bolivia Under Evo Morales New Constitution 35 21% of poverty Social Projects Hydrocarbon increase, natural gas Increase minimum wage Decline of hunger More indigenous voice Industrialization in energy and trans production New model of development: Developmental? o Industrializing o Hybrid: Commodity base Social Movement president April 20, 2016 Class Notes – Polisci 111 – Comparative Politics Democratization and Democratic Stability – Challenges and Prospects for Democracy Today Final Exam th Thursday, May 5 3:305:30 10 IDs – 30% (3 points each) o Choose from a list of 15 o Define, identify Source (Author or Film), give significance 2 Essays – 70% (35 points each) o Chose between two questions for each essay o Linking parts one and two of the class “Cheat Sheet” o One page of notes o Double sided – handwritten or typed, however you want o No “sharing” Democracy’s Third Wave “Between 1974 and 1990, at least 30 countries made transitions to democracy, just about doubling the number of democratic governments in the world.” Huntington (Page 12) Huntington’s Thesis Democracystpreads ithwaves o 1 : Late 19 century o 2 : Post WWII o 3 : Mid70s onward Consists mostly of Third World countries Each wave is accompanied by reversals Review: Democratization Political Culture Hypothesis Modernization Hypothesis MacroHistorical Hypothesis Political Culture Hypothesis Alexis de Tocqueville “Democracy in America” o Democracy and Isolation o Role of Voluntary Associations Civil Society Problem with Civil Society Explanation Weak relationship between Civil Society and Democratization o Eastern Europe Democratization despite relatively weak civil society o Africa Civil society in the absence of strong parties undermines democracy Modernization Hypothesis Seymour Martin Lipset o Some Social Requisites of Democracy Economic development increases the likelihood that democracy will emerge and enhances the stability of the democracy once it has emerged Economic Development = Urbanization + Education + Communication + Wealth Problem with Modernization Explanation Weak relationship between Economic Development and Democratization o Some of the worlds poorest countries have democratized Ex: Bolivia, Nigeria o Many wealthy countries remain authoritarian Ex: Gulf States, China Social Alliances Hypothesis Barrington Moore o Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy Indirect relationship between Economic Development and Political Outcome Social Alliances produce political outcomes o Middle and the working class alliance leads to democracy Problem with Social Alliances Hypothesis Economic development may not produce middle class (or working class) Democracy without traditional social alliances Samuel Huntington Different factors affect each “wave” of democratization Factors influencing democratization today o Increasing popularity of democracy o External pressure o End of Cold War US hegemony No viable alternatives to democracy “Transitions” Approach The “Legitimation Problem” o Alters Patterns of Democratization Focus on the Process of Transition o Breakdown of dictatorship o Establishing democratic order Focus on stabilizing democracy Adam Przeworski – Democracy and the Market Democratization involves two stages o Liberalization of Authoritarian Regimes Split in authoritarian regime creates opening for democracy o Transition to democracy Success of democratization is not predictable o Depends on interaction of main actors o Democratization is essentially an accidental outcome
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'