BIO 182 Exam Study Guides 1-4
BIO 182 Exam Study Guides 1-4 BIO 182
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Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE Lecture 2: Science as a process: 1. What are the steps of the scientific method? a. Observe-Observation: Exploration of the natural world. b. Ask-Casual Question: Ask how and why? c. Suggest- Hypothesis: Testable explanation. d. Predict- Prediction: Framed with experiment and connects hypothesis to outcomes. e. Compare- Results: Compare actual vs. expected f. Answer- Conclusion: Related data to hypothesis and brings experiment to perspective. 2. What is the difference between correlation and causation? a. Something may be correlated but may not be the cause… b. Independent Variable: factor that is manipulated. c. Dependent variable: factor that changes. 3. What are the general principles of the scientific method? a. Observation(data) used in: i. Catalogue natural world ii. Testing ideas iii. Utility of data- how they connect to those ideas(support/refute) Lecture 3: Biodiversity 4. What is the hypothetico-deductive method? a. Test a null hypothesis Ho and falsify it. b. Ho states that there is no difference. c. If Ho is rejected, it adds support to the alternative H1. 5. Why do scientists never prove anything? a. Ho can never be proven. A set of data can either reject or fail to reject the null. 6. What is a hypothesis? a. A testable assertion of cause and effect. 7. What is a null hypothesis? a. A null hypothesis usually states that there is no difference. 8. What is a theory? a. A collection of accepted knowledge that has been built up through repeated observations and statistical testing of hypotheses. 9. What defines life? a. Energy: Metabolism- manage use of energy and matter. i. Acquire nutrients from their environment ii. Convert molecules into new biological molecules. b. Cells: All living organisms consist of 1 or more cells. c. Information: DNA- contains genetic information i. Homeostasis: acquire information from the environment and respond to it. d. Replication: Reproduction using genetic information e. Evolution: All living organisms have evolved and are genetically related. 1 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 10. What are the two different types of cells? a. Prokaryote b. Eukaryote 11. List the domains of life. a. Domain I: Archaea i. Single-celled organisms without nucleus (prokaryotic) ii. Live in extreme environments b. Domain II: Bacteria i. Most common single-celled prokaryotes ii. Responsible for many human diseases c. Domain III: Eukarya i. Any organism with nucleated cells (eukaryotes) ii. May be unicellular or multicellular. 12. What are the kingdoms? a. Eukarya Kingdom I Protista: i. Unicellular and simple multicellular eukaryotes. b. Eukarya Kingdom II Plantae: i. Multicellular automorphic eukaryotes ii. Make their own food (photosynthesis) using chlorophylls a&b iii. Have cells made of cellulose(polysaccharide) c. Eukarya Kingdom III Fungi: i. Mostly unicellular heterotrophic eukaryotes ii. Decompose (externally digest) food and absorb it. iii. Have cell walls made of chitin (polysaccharide). d. Eukarya Kingdom IV Animalia: i. Cells always lack cell walls ii. Multicellular eukaryotes iii. Must ingest food (heterotrophic) 13. What is taxonomy? a. It is how organisms are classified. 14. What is binomial nomenclature? a. Two name naming system developed by Carl Linnaeus in 1758 i. Classification based on similarity in morphology ii. Universal species names 15. What is the taxonomic hierarchy? a. Domain b. Kingdom c. Phylum d. Class e. Order f. Family g. Genus h. Species 2 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 16. What are the methods behind phylogeny construction? a. Begins with morphology and genomicshow similar or divergent? b. Determines historical relationship evolutionary framework c. Traces evolutionary pathways (phylogeny) common ancestors 17. Why is taxonomy still a relevant question? a. It shows the relation of existing species and helps classify new species. 18. What is the difference between a heterotroph and an autotroph? a. Heterotroph-must ingest food from the outside. b. Autotroph- makes own food 19. Taxonomy of Upupa epops. 20. What is the biological species concept? a. A species is a group of actually or potentially interbreeding natural populations that are reproductively isolated from other such groups. b. There are also other definitions of a species (e.g. lineage species concept and morphological species concept) Lecture 5: How do eukaryotes evolve? 21. How are eukaryotes different from prokaryotes? 22. Describe the structure and function of organelles. 23. What theories were developed of how eukaryotes evolve? a. Membrane enfolding: Nucleus, Golgi Apparatus, and Endoplasmic Reticulum b. Endosymbiosis: Mitochondria and Chloroplasts. 24. List properties of the Kingdom Protista. a. Unicellular and simple multi-cellular eukaryotes b. Domain III Eukarya Kingdom I: Protista 25. What is endosymbiosis? a. When one organism lives inside another organism. 26. When was the first mass extinction? a. Cambrian explosion 27. When was the massive diversification of life? a. After the first mass extinction 28. What had to happen before eukaryotes could evolve? a. Flexible cell surface b. Cytokinesis c. Nuclear envelope d. Appearance of digestive vacuoles e. Appearance of some organelles by endosymbiosis 29. Why was a flexible cell surface important? a. Cells can grow larger b. Membrane enfolding can occur c. Allows endosymbiosis 30. Why is surface-volume ratio important? 3 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE a. More surface area to absorb more nutrients, but it doesn’t have as much to provide energy for. 31. What is membrane enfolding? 32. What is the evidence supporting each hypothesis? a. Endosymbiosis i. Mitochondria: 1. have their own membranes 2. DNA simple and circular genome 3. Reproduction using binary fission b. Membrane enfolding i. Some organelles are extensions of cell membrane 1. Endoplasmic Reticulum ribosomes 2. Golgi Apparatus protein package 3. Nucleus Chromosomes 33. Contrast animal cells vs. plant cells 34. Protista are a paraphyletic group of ______? a. Eukaryotes 35. Endosymbiosis occurs when…? a. Organisms of one species live inside another. 36. How do mitochondria reproduce? a. Binary Fission Lecture 6: Evolution of Multicellularity 37. What mechanisms of multicellularity did aquatic organisms have? a. Products of cell division failing i. Rigid cell wall ii. Animal cells had sticky cell surface to facilitate endosymbiosis, but ended up sticking to each other. 38. What mechanism of multicellularity did terrestrial organisms have? a. Involve some sort of motile aggregation of cell nuclei in a multinucleate syncytium. i. Microorganisms needed a small layer of water ii. Spores needed to be transported thru air. iii. Cells aggregate to disperse these spores 39. What are the origins of multicellularity? a. Myxobacteria i. Reproduce close to each other and form a swarm ii. Under right conditions they form cysts or microspores lifted up into the sir on a stalk. b. Actinomycetes i. Form thread like filaments c. Fungi i. Probably evolved from a unicellular protest with a flagellum 4 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE ii. Body is myceliumtubular filaments (hyphae) cell walls have chitin d. Green algae and green plants i. Cells remained glued together after division ii. Divided cells held together by jelly iii. Divided cells remain within the mother cell e. Animals i. Sponges bring water into their bodies by beating flagella of specialized cells called choanocytes similar to choanoflagellate protists ii. Huge knowledge gap between sponges and first ancestral single cells. 40. What are the advantages of multicellularity? a. Size Related i. Avoid predators until predators got bigger ii. Size gives a competitive advantage in overgrowth conditions iii. Provides storage reserves when food is limiting iv. Expand feeing opportunity v. Generate an internal environment protected by internal layer of cells. vi. Allows drifting colony to stick to the surface, in a favorable location vii. Enhance motility for dispersal b. Functional specialization and division of labor i. Unicells can divide labor only one time ii. Multicellular organisms do many tasks simultaneously 41. What is the Cambrian explosion? a. The first mass extinction 42. In which groups do we find multicellular organisms? a. Eukaryotes 43. What are different hypotheses for how cells have failed to separate? a. Membrane enfolding b. endosymbiosis 44. Why is there such a big variety of green algae and green plants? Lecture 7: Mitosis and the Cell Cycle 45. What is the purpose of cell division? a. Four events must occur for cell division: i. Reproductive signal initiate cell division ii. Replication of DNA iii. Segregation distribution of DNA into 2 new cells iv. Cytokinesis separation of 2 new cells. 46. What does a prokaryotic genome look like? a. 1 chromosome, a single DNA usually circular 47. What is binary fission? a. In prokaryotes produces 2 new cells b. Reproductive signals: i. Nutrient concentration ii. Environmental condition 5 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 48. What are the steps to binary fission? a. Cellular DNA replicates b. The cell grown c. Daughter DNAs are segregated d. Cytokinesis (cell separation) follows 49. Why can’t eukaryotes use binary fission? a. Eukaryotes have more complex cells and thus require more complicated processes to replicate themselves. 50. What does a eukaryotic chromosome look like, and what is its purpose? a. Sister chromatids connected at the centromere. It is hyper condensed to store more information, fit in the cell, and organize 51. What is DNA coiled around? a. Chromatin is densely coiled DNA and proteins. It consists of nucleosomes which are DNA wrapped around 8 histones. 52. What is the difference between chromosome and chromatin? a. Chromosome is coiled DNA b. Chromatin is uncoiled DNA 53. What is a stretch of DNA that codes for a protein called? a. gene 54. What are the eukaryotic DNA states? a. Uncoiled chromatin: for transcription and protein synthesis b. Coiled chromosomes: condensed for cell division 55. What is the goal of mitosis? a. Move identical genetic information from parent to offspring cells before cell division. 56. What are the phases of the cell cycle? a. G1 Protein synthesis i. Normal cell functions require protein synthesis ii. DNA codes for those proteins iii. DNA must be accessible for this to happen chromatin structure (uncoiled DNA) b. S Phase: DNA is copied before cell division i. Also requires DNA to be accessible ii. Centrosomes also replicated iii. DNA uncoiled c. DNA Replication i. Making 2 identical copies of a chromosome d. G2 Preparation for mitosis i. Additional proteins made for mitosis ii. Centrosomes begin migrating to poles 57. What are the steps of mitosis? a. Prophase i. Spindle fibers spread from centrosomes 6 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE ii. The chromatin coils and supercoils, become compact, condensing into visible chromosomes iii. Chromosomes consist of identical b. Prometaphase i. Nuclear envelope breaks down ii. Kinetochore microbules appear and connect the kinetochores to the poles iii. Spindle fibers attach, one to each chromatid iv. Attach at centromere. c. Metaphase i. Chromosomes line up individually along the equatorial plate d. Anaphase i. Paired sister chromatids separate ii. Separated daughter chromosomes migrate to opposite sides of the cell. e. Telophase i. Daughter chromosomes reach poles ii. Nuclear envelopes and nuclei re-form iii. Chromatin become diffuse iv. Cell again enters interphase f. Cytokinesis i. Division of cytoplasm differs between animal and plant cells 58. Where does mitosis take place? a. Somatic cells: cells of the body) 59. What role does mitosis have in the cell cycle? a. Cell growth and tissue renewal b. Some unicellular eukaryotes use mitosis as asexual reproductionoffspring are genetically identical clones. 60. What is a karyotype? a. The number, shape, and size of chromosomes in a cell. b. Individual chromosomes can be recognized by length, position of the centromere, and banding pattern. i. One chromosome from each parent ii. Both homologous carry genes which code for the same inherited characteristics. 61. What is ploidy? a. The number of homologous sets of chromosomes in a cell. 62. What is a diploid? a. One set of chromosomes from each parent. 2 copies of the genome. 63. What is a haploid? a. The number of chromosomes in a gamete (sperm/egg cell) Only 1 copy of the genome. 64. What is a homologous chromosome? a. Have the same genes in the same locations 65. What is the role of microtubules in mitosis? a. Coil DNA 66. What are the molecules that make up a chromosome? a. DNA and protein 7 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 67. What about mitosis is true? a. Two genetically identical daughter cells. Lecture 8: Meiosis 68. What is meiosis? a. From 2 homologous of each chromosome to one (of each chromosome) b. From haploid to diploid c. Formation of haploid (1n) daughter cells from diploid cells (2n) d. Occurs in the gonads (ovaries and testes) e. Produces gametes egg/sperm f. Meiosis consists of 2 nuclear divisions but DNA is replicated only once. 69. What is the purpose of meiosis? 70. What are the stages of meiosis? a. Meiosis I =Reduction Division 1. Pair up/line up homologous chromosomes 2. Separate homologs from each other 3. Divide the cell ii. Prophase/prometaphase I 1. Homologous pairs line up with each other synapsis 2. Spindled attach to each chromosome (NOT each chromatid) 3. The 4 chromatids of each homologous pair form a tetrad or bivalent a. Crossing over in prophase I i. Homologous sets form tetrads and exchange sections with each other. ii. Exchange of genetic material occurs at the chiasmata crossing over. iii. Crossing over results in recombinant chromatids and increases genetic variability of the products. iii. Metaphase I 1. Chromosomes are at the equatorial plate 2. Homologous pairs are held together at chiasmata. 3. Independent assortment iv. Anaphase I 1. Homologous chromosomes separate disjunction 2. Daughter nuclei contain only 1 set of chromosomes. 3. Each chromosome consists of 2 chromatids v. Telophase I 1. Occurs in some organisms 2. Nuclear envelope re-aggregates, followed by an interphase called interkinesis. 3. In other organisms, meiosis II begins immediately. vi. At the end of Meiosis I 1. Each daughter cell has 1 chromosome per homologous pair haploid *reduction division 8 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE 2. Each chromosome still has 2 chromatids but the chromatids now have DIFFERENT genetic information from each other. b. Meiosis II 1. Line up individual chromosomes 2. Pull chromatids apart 3. Divide cell ii. Prophase/prometaphase II 1. The chromosomes condense again 2. DNA has not been replicated (as opposed to mitosis) iii. Metaphase II 1. Centromeres of paired chromatids line up across the equatorial plate pf each cell iv. Anaphase II 1. Chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite poles disjunction 2. They are now chromosomes 3. Each is genetically different v. Telophase II 1. Chromosomes loosen up 2. Nuclear membranes surround DNA 3. Cells divide vi. End Product 1. Four genetically different gametes 71. Contrast the differences between mitosis and meiosis. a. DNA does not replicate prior to meiosis II b. In meiosis II the sister chromatids may not be identical because crossing-over. c. The number of chromosomes at the equatorial plate in meiosis 2 is half. 72. What is gametogenesis? a. The production of sperm and egg cells 73. How does fertilization occur in terms of ploidy? a. Paring haploid gametes to produce diploid zygote. 74. Why do we need meiosis? a. In order to reproduce successfully 75. What is reduction division? a. Meiosis I: Meiotic division reduces number of chromosomes. 76. What is crossing over? 77. How are sperm and egg cells produced in humans? a. gametogenesis 78. How does human gametogenesis differ from general meiosis? a. Cells undergo mitosis and then go directly into meiosis. 79. What happens if something goes wrong in meiosis? a. Non-disjunction i. Gametes with too few or too many chromosomes aneuploidy 80. What is non-disjunction? a. Meiosis I starts normally. Bivalents line up in the middle of the cell 9 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE b. Non-disjunction occurs with one set of homologs c. Meiosis II occurs normally d. Aneuploidy results All gametes have too many or too few chromosomes. 81. Chromatin condenses at what phase? a. Prophase 82. What is downs syndrome? a. Trisomy at chromosome 21 non-disjunction 83. Dna replication occurs when? a. S phase 84. Mature nerve cells are incapable of cell division most likely in a. G1 phase 85. Exchange of genetic material between chromosomes on homologous chromosomes occurs during…? a. Prophase 86. Gregor Mendel’s new hypothesis of inheritance is called? a. Particulate Inheritance Lecture 9: Mendel and meiosis 87. How are traits inherited from parents to offspring by homologous chromosomes? 88. What is Inheritance or Heredity? a. The transmission of traits from one generation to the next. 89. What is variation? a. Offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings. 90. What are genetics? a. The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation. 91. What is Mendel’s law of segregation? a. Alternative versions(alleles) of genes account for variation in inherited traits b. For each trait, an organism inherits 2 alleles (one from each parent) c. If the alleles differ, the dominant allele will determine the phenotype for that trait. d. The two alleles for each trait segregate during gamete formation. 92. What is a locus? a. Location of alleles on chromosome. 93. What is an allele? a. Genes come in different forms and each form is called an allele. One allele for dark eyes or one allele for light eyes, whichever id dominant is visible. 94. What does dominant mean? 95. What does recessive mean? 96. What is homozygous? a. If an individual has the same alleles at a particular locus 97. What is heterozygous? a. If an individual has different alleles at a particular locus 98. What is a genotype? a. The genetic makeup of an organism 99. What is a phenotype? 10 Alexandra Gibson EXAM 1 STUDY GUIDE a. The total physical appearance of the organism (but can include things that are not so obvious, like blood type, behavior, metabolic processes etc.) 100. What are 3 sources of genetic variation? a. Independent assortment b. Random mating c. Crossing over 101. How does each source contribute to variation? a. Independent assortment: i. b. Random mating: i. 8 mil female combinations + 8mil male combinations ii. = 64 trillion possibilities c. Crossing over i. Homologous chromosomes exchange parts ii. Gives additional recombinant chromosomes iii. Resulting in over infinity possibilities 102. What is independent assortment? 103. Is mating ever random? 104. What does true breeding mean? a. True breeding is when an organism is a pure breed. 105. What does hybridization mean? a. Crossing over of 2 “true breeding” varieties 106. What was Mendel’s first experiment? a. Pea pods faster growth b. Didn’t want crossing over to be random c. Took true breeding pea plants and crossed them over. 107. What is the F1 generation a. Generation that came from hybridization of white and purple plants 108. What is the F2 generation? a. Hybrid crossed flowers with hybrid flowers always 3:1 ratio. 109. What is a monohybrid cross? 110. What are the probabilities of different outcomes? 111. What is the 3-1 ratio? a. The phenomenon of the F2 generation. 112. What is the mechanism of inheritance? a. It is “particulate” b. Parents pass on discrete units to children—genes c. Your collection of genes is more like a deck of cards rather than a can pf paint. i. Ex: Widow’s peak ii. Attached/free earlobe 11 Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson Exam 2 Study Guide Lecture 9: Mendel and meiosis 1. How are traits inherited from parents to offspring by homologous chromosomes? 2. What is Inheritance or Heredity? a. The transmission of traits from one generation to the next. 3. What is variation? a. Offspring differ somewhat in appearance from parents and siblings. 4. What are genetics? a. The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation. 5. What is Mendel’s law of segregation? a. Alternative versions(alleles) of genes account for variation in inherited traits b. For each trait, an organism inherits 2 alleles (one from each parent) c. If the alleles differ, the dominant allele will determine the phenotype for that trait. d. The two alleles for each trait segregate during gamete formation. 6. What is a locus? a. Location of alleles on chromosome. 7. What is an allele? a. Genes come in different forms and each form is called an allele. One allele for dark eyes or one allele for light eyes, whichever id dominant is visible. 8. What is homozygous? a. If an individual has the same alleles at a particular locus 9. What is heterozygous? a. If an individual has different alleles at a particular locus 10. What is a genotype? a. The genetic makeup of an organism 11. What is a phenotype? a. The total physical appearance of the organism (but can include things that are not so obvious, like blood type, behavior, metabolic processes etc.) 12. What are 3 sources of genetic variation? a. Independent assortment b. Random mating c. Crossing over 13. How does each source contribute to variation? a. Independent assortment: i. b. Random mating: i. 8 mil female combinations + 8mil male combinations ii. = 64 trillion possibilities c. Crossing over i. Homologous chromosomes exchange parts ii. Gives additional recombinant chromosomes iii. Resulting in over infinity possibilities 14. What is independent assortment? 15. Is mating ever random? Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson 16. What does true breeding mean? a. True breeding is when an organism is a pure breed. 17. What does hybridization mean? a. Crossing over of 2 “true breeding” varieties 18. What was Mendel’s first experiment? a. Pea pods faster growth b. Didn’t want crossing over to be random c. Took true breeding pea plants and crossed them over. 19. What is the F1 generation a. Generation that came from hybridization of white and purple plants 20. What is the F2 generation? a. Hybrid crossed flowers with hybrid flowers always 3:1 ratio. 21. What is a monohybrid cross? a. Cross between heterozygotes. 22. What are the probabilities of different outcomes? 23. What is the 3-1 ratio? a. The phenomenon of the F2 generation. 24. What is the mechanism of inheritance? a. It is “particulate” b. Parents pass on discrete units to children—genes c. Your collection of genes is more like a deck of cards rather than a can pf paint. i. Ex: Widow’s peak ii. Attached/free earlobe Lecture 10: Mendelian Genetics 25. Use the Punnett square to find probabilities of outcomes in monohybrid and dihybrid crosses 26. Explain the law of independent assortment a. It is important to understand two mechanisms of obtaining independent assortment: One is when the genes are on different chromosomes, and the other is through crossing over in prophase 27. Use Mendel’s laws to predict outcomes in simple crosses 28. Describe genetic disorders using Mendel’s laws of inheritance 29. What are genetic disorders? a. Downs Syndrome- Trisomy at Chromosome 21 b. Klienfelter syndrome- XXY c. Turners Syndrome- X 30. How do mammals become “female” a. Need 1X chromosome b. Default to develop to female c. XX develop functional uterus d. Then 1X shuts down (barr body) 31. How do mammals become “male” Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson a. Need 1X chromosome b. Y chromosome-androgen (testosterone) production for male development. c. Cells must be sensitive to testosterone, or else it becomes female (AIS) d. Y chromosome is NOT vital. 32. What is an Autosomal dominant genetic disorder? a. Dwarfism- achondroplasia (sporadic mutation0 inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic disorder. 33. Why do you get independent Assortment? a. Genes are on different chromosomes, which mix during crossing over. Likely that genes that are far from each other will link. 34. What is dependent assortment? a. Pairs of alleles DO NOT sort out independent of their pairs. Likely that genes will link with ones that are close to each other. 35. What is the purpose of a test-cross? a. To find genetic info for unknown parent. 36. The students should also be familiar with other examples of sex determination, just so we don’t think that all animals determine sex the same as humans. a. Ground Agama (XX can become male if reared at a low temp, thus males may be XX||XY) b. Coral Fish are born female, but the largest individual becomes physiologically male. When removed, the next largest female becomes male. c. Orthoptera- females(XX) males (X0) 37. Think about how TSD can affect species in the context of global warming. a. Temperature dependent Sex Determination i. Crocodiles ii. Turtles iii. Turkey –Australian Bush (sex ratio) iv. Dinosaurs? Lecture 11: Genetics of Multiple Traits 38. Interpret pedigrees a. Genetics collect information about a family’s history for a particular trait and assembles this information into a family tree describing the interrelationships of parents and children across generations. b. method for non-invasive genetic analyses 39. What are the pedigree symbols? a. Circle-homozygous recessive woman b. Dark Circle-Heterozygous or Homozygous Dominant Woman c. Square- Homozygous Recessive Male d. Dark Square- Heterozygous or Homozygous Dominant Male 40. Solve basic problems of probability the Multiplications rule? a. If 2 random events are independent, then the probability that each one happens alone. 41. Describe how alleles interact in determining phenotypes? 42. What is autosomal dominant inheritance? Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson a. Dominant allele is located on one of the autosomes (chromosome 1-22 in humans) b. Males and females equally likely to inherit the trait. c. “Dominant” means that having the allele in just one of the two copies of a particular gene is all it takes for a person to have the trait. d. When a person has a dominant trait, there is a 50% probability that any child he/she has will inherit the trait. 43. What are the key features of the above pedigree? a. Every affected person had an affected parent. b. ½ of the children of the affected parent are affected. c. Occurs equally among sexes d. May be expressed in each generation. 44. What is autosomal recessive inheritance? a. The recessive allele is location on one of the autosomes. b. Males and females equally affected. c. “Recessive” means that both copies of the gene have the same allele in order for a person to have the trait i.e. 1 copy from each parent. d. A person with 1 recessive allele is called a “carrier” for the trait, but does not express it. e. Most people do not know that they carry a recessive allele until they have a child with the trait/disease. f. Probability of having a child with trait of both parents are carriers = 1/4 45. What are key features of the above pedigree? a. Affected people usually have 2 parents that are not affected. b. About ¼ of children of unaffected parents are affected c. Occurs equally among sexes. d. Trait may not be expressed in many generations. 46. How do “bad alleles” happen? a. An allele can mutate and become different alleles b. Mutations are changes in genetic sequence. c. Mutations can: i. Have no effect ii. Create a different product. iii. Prevent the gene from functioning. d. Not all mutations are bad Humans are the product of a range of successful mutations. 47. What are somatic mutations? a. are not transferred to offspring b. If mutations occur in cells that become gametes (in meiosis), the allele can be passed to the next generation c. Mutations can be caused by, for example, radiation, viruses, chemicals, or errors during meiosis or DNA replication d. Cancer-mutations is somatic cells 48. What are Mendel’s three test-crosses? a. Homozygous parent with different traits- phenotypically dominant X recessive b. Crossed F1XF2 c. Crossed F1 back to recessive parental backcross Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson 49. What are the results for the major cross of one trait? a. AA X aa all Aa b. Aa X aa ½ Aa ½ aa c. Aa X Aa ¼ AA ½ Aa ¼ aa 50. What are the genetics of 2 traits? a. Crossing parental plants: Smooth Yellow (SSYY) X Wrinkled Green (wwgg) b. F1: All SwYg 51. What were Mendel’s results? a. 9 smooth yellow – Homozygous Dominant (SSYY) b. 3 smooth green-Heterozygous (SwYg) c. 3 wrinkled yellow- Heterozygous(SwYg) d. 1 wrinkled green- Homozygous recessive (wwgg) Lecture 13: Genotype to Phenotype 52. What is co-dominance? a. The two alleles both affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways both are visible at the same time. 53. What are the genotypes for the different blood types? a. IAIAA b. IBIBB c. IAIBAB d. iiO 54. What do the cells from each blood type look like? a. ARound with triangle proteins b. B Round with round proteins c. AB Round with both triangle and round proteins d. ORound with no proteins 55. How do blood types work? a. A- Type A glycoprotein is on blood cell b. B- Type B glycoprotein is on blood cell. c. AB-Both the A and B glycoproteins on blood cell. d. O- no recognizable glycoprotein group on blood cell 56. What is a glycoprotein? a. Antigens: if you don’t normally have it, and you get blood with it, your body’s own antibodies will attack it as foreign. 57. What can each blood type donate to and receive from? a. ODonate to: O,A,B,ABReceive from O b. ADonate to: A, ABReceive fromO,A c. BDonate to: B,ABReceive from: O,B d. ABDonate to: ABReceive from: O,A,B,AB 58. What is incomplete dominance? 59. What about traits that seem continuous? 60. What is polygenic inheritance? Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson a. Occurs when one characteristic is controlled by two or more genes. Often the genes are large in quantity but small in effect. i. Ex in Humans: height, skin color, eye color, and weight. 61. Describe and recognize deviations from Mendelian genetics 62. Explain how recombinant frequencies can be used to create genetic maps 63. Go through how Morgan calculated the first gene maps by recombination crosses 64. The students must know how to calculate genetic distance 65. Deviations from Mendel’s standard crosses: a. Codominance: The two alleles bot affect the phenotype in separate, distinguishable ways both are visible at the same time b. Incomplete dominance c. Quantitative traitspolygenic inheritance d. Pleiotropism: Describes the genetic effect of a single gene on multiple phenotypic traits. i. Ex: Allele for coloration pattern in Siamese cats; the same allele results in crossed eyes—both result from the same pattern. e. Environment vs. Genotype: light, temperature, nutrition, etc. Can affect expression of genotype. i. Ex: In Siamese cats and certain rabbits, enzyme that produces dark fur is inactive at higher temperatures. Lecture 14: Individuals to Populations 66. Apply simple genetic rules on populations 67. How are alleles distributed into gametes? a. Randomly distributed within individuals. 68. What is a population? a. A group of individuals that can interbreed, living in the same place at the same time. 69. What are population genetics? a. Provides foundation for studying evolution b. Genes are the smallest units of evolution 70. What is the gene pool? a. All the alleles at the gene loci in all individuals in a population. b. Genes enter and leave the gene pool c. By chance, the genetic makeup changes over generations. 71. At this scale, what is evolution? a. The change in genetic makeup of a population from generation to generation. 72. Do individuals evolve? a. NO! b. Because evolution is “in the genes,” changes in an individual’s phenotype are NOT passed to offspring. 73. What is the genotype frequency? a. # of individuals with certain genotype/total # of individuals Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson 74. What is a phenotype frequency? a. # of individuals of the same alleles for a gene/ total number of alleles for that gene 75. What is the genetic definition of evolution? a. Evolution is a result of changes in allele frequencies in a population over time. b. If population is not evolving, allele frequency doesn’t change, and you get HWE. 76. What is the HWE Theorem? a. “The frequency of alleles and genotypes in a population’s gene pool remain constant from generation to generation.” i. Explains how genetic variation is preserved ii. Provides a benchmark to compare to other populations. iii. Outlines exactly what processes are essential to prevent evolution, and therefore shows us how evolution can happen. iv. If any of the 5 conditions are NOT met, the evolution must be occurring. 77. What are the assumptions of HWE? a. No mutations b. No gene flow c. Population must be very large d. Survival is random e. Reproduction is random 78. What happens in real life? a. Mutations occur at a slow and steady rate in all known populations b. Many organisms enter and leave the gene pool c. Most populations are not large enough to be unaffected by random changes in allele frequencies. d. Survival is virtually never random e. Reproduction in organisms that can choose their mate is also virtually never random. 79. Is evolution occurring virtually in every population? a. YES! b. “Evolution is ubiquitous and as inescapable as gravity” 80. Hardy-Weinberg Equation a. P+q=1 b. P^2+2pq+q^2=1 c. P=Dominant allele d. q=recessive allele e. p^2=Homozygous Dominant f. q^2=Homozygous Recessive g. 2pq=Heterozygous 81. What are deviations from HWE? Mechanisms of evolution? a. Migration b. Mutation c. Stochastic events d. Genetic Drift e. Natural Selection 82. Calculate genotype and allele frequencies for populations Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson 83. Explain when microevolution occurs a. The important issue is what happens when any of these assumptions are violated: The population is no longer in HW-equilibrium, and we have micro-evolution. Lecture 15: How Does Selection Work? 84. How people used to think about nature? a. Earth was young (only a few thousand years old) b. All creatures were unchanging and created in their current forms 85. Who is Charles Darwin, and what is he known for? a. Natural Selection The Origin of Species 86. Why were Plato and Aristotle a profound influence in Western philosophy? a. Two Worlds: i. An ideal world where organisms were unchanging and perfect ii. Illusionary world where imperfections are seen only because we perceive them so. b. Aristotle suggested that all things were organized in the “Scale of Nature.” Organized by complexity. 87. What is Natural Theology? a. “God has formed all species just as they appear; no genealogical relationship exists among them.” b. Adaptations were evidence that God had created creature for specific purposes. c. Classifying organisms revealed the steps in the scale of life that God had created. 88. Why is Carl Linnaeus relevant? a. Sought to discover diversity of life only “for the greater glory of God.” b. Implied evolutionary kin-ship among his groups c. Taxonomic system would become the center of Darwin’s ideas on evolution. 89. Why are fossils and geology relevant? a. Layers that show succession of organisms have populated Earth throughout time. 90. Why was the idea of a very old Earth profound? -->What is the proof? a. Living animals can be classified by similarities b. Fossil animals look different than living animals c. Small changes add to big changes 91. Why is Jean Baptiste…Lamark, and what were his ideas? a. Created a comprehensive model of hoe life had evolved as environments changed. b. Mechanisms: i. Individuals lose characteristics they don’t use and develop characteristics that are useful (acquired trait idea) ii. Characteristics acquired or lost during an organism’s lifetime through the use or disuse can be passed on. iii. A systematic theoretical framework for understanding evolution: 1. “Evolution is the best explanation for the fossil record and the diversity of life, especially in its emphasis on adaptation and the great age of the Earth.” Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson 92. Who is Thomas Malthus, and what were his ideas? a. Among the first to compare human populations with animal populations. (Giraffes) b. Human populations increased faster than resources are produced suffering is the result. 93. Explain Darwin’s Voyage i.e. what did he do? a. 1831 5 year voyage on the H.M.S. Beagle. b. Collected thousands of specimens c. Examined many fossils (south American) d. Made notes of innumerable diverse habitats e. Spent much time collecting and observing on Galapagos. 94. What happened after he returned from his voyage? a. 1836 Galapagos finches turned out to be endemic to certain islands and showed unique adaptations to their particular islands. b. It appeared that the finches from the mainland (South America) had colonized the islands and adapted to each island environment. 95. Who is Alfred Russel Wallace? a. Wrote a Manuscript about Natural Selection, before Darwin wrote The Origin of Species. Both his paper and Darwin’s work were presented to the Linnaean Society of London by Charles Lyell. 96. What is “The Origin of Species”, and what are the 2 main points? a. In 1859, Darwin published his book: The Origin Of Species i. Evolution (descent with modification) explains the unity and diversity of life. ii. Natural Selection is the face behind adaptation to local conditions. 97. How is life unified and diverse? a. The history of life is like a tree, arising from a common trunk and branching to the tips. b. At the forks are ancestors common to all forms arising from that ancestor. 98. How does Natural Selection work? a. Individuals with traits that enhance survival and reproduction will leave more offspring, who will inherit these traits. These traits will gradually become more common over the generations. b. Mutation creates variation i. Members of the population vary ii. This variation is inheritable iii. Not all individuals survive iv. Survival depends on inherited trait v. Survivors reproduce. 99. What is evidence for natural selection? List some examples. i. Artificial Selection: Selecting individuals to breed can result in dramatic modifications over generations. ii. Camouflage: evolve to blend in. iii. Biogeography: 1. Unrelated organisms evolved similar adaptive solutions to the same problem. 2. Related organisms tend to be found in the same geographic area. Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson iv. Homologous Structures: The forelimbs of all mammals consist of the same skeletal elements. 100. What is the Theory of Natural Selection? i. Individuals in a population vary phenotypically ii. Some variants for better into their (current) environment than others iii. Those variants produce more offspring iv. If there is genetic basis to the variation v. Those alleles will increase in population over time = Evolution 101. How are selection and evolution related? i. Selection acts only if the trait has genetic basis ii. Selection acts only if there is variation present iii. Selection does not create new genes or alleles, nor does it create variation iv. Selection does produce adaptation. 102. What is an adaptation? i. A trait that fits an organism well to its environment (better than alt.) and has evolved for its current function. ii. Adaptation is also the evolutionary process whereby an organism becomes better able to live in its habitat. 103. Explain Genetic diversity, and hidden genetic variations. i. With many loci and additive effects 1. Selection can result in new allele combinations that previously would be rare. I.e. AABBCCDDEE may produce an extreme phenotype, but very unlikely. 2. Selection that reduces other alleles (a,b,c,d,e) makes it more possible ii. Genetic Diversity 104. Which principle of Darwin’s theory was guided by his reading of the Economist Thomas Malthus? a. There must be some control of survival and reproduction in nature, or else the world would become overcrowded. 105. Which are adaptations? a. The lion’s speed, which enables him to capture his prey. b. The process by which a lion’s speed increases over many generations. Lecture16: Selection and Evolution 106. What is Natural Selection? i. Removes individuals that are less suites for living in the current environment. ii. Amplifies the presence of favorable traits in the population. iii. Requires genetic variation and time. iv. Stimulates adaptation Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson 107. Explain the Types of selection i. Directional Selection 1. Selection moves the average phenotype in one direction or the other, depending what the actual effect is. 2. Genetic variation is reduced. ii. Disruptive Selection 1. Selection favors variants at each extreme 2. Genetic variation is increased iii. Stabilizing Selection 1. Over generations there will be fewer of one phenotype than the other, but the average stays the same. 2. Removes extreme variants from the population. 3. Reduced phenotypic variation 4. Genetic variation is reduced. iv. Balancing Selection 1. No single phenotype is favored in all populations of a species at all times. 2. Genetic variation is maintained. 108. What are Constraints on evolution i. Lack of genetic variation can prevent evolution of potentially favorable traits. 1. If the allele for a given trait does not exist in a population, then that trait cannot evolve, even if it would be favored by natural selection. 2. If it is lost from the population once, it is unlikely that it will appear again. ii. Evolution must work within the boundaries of universal constraints, such as: 1. Cell size, constrained by surface area-to-volume ratios. 2. Protein folding, constrained by types of bonding that can occur. 3. Laws of thermodynamics that constrain energy transfers. iii. Developmental processes also constrain evolution 1. All evolutionary innovations are modifications of previously existing structures. iv. Adaptations involve both fitness costs and benefits. 1. Benefits must outweigh the costs if adaptation is to evolve. 109. Maintenance of genetic variation 110. Think about what are selective forces Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson 111. Describe and explain mechanisms of evolution i. Gene Flow 1. Migration of individuals between populations 2. May add new genes to the gene pool 3. Or change frequencies of alleles already present. 4. HWE assumes no gene flow ii. Genetic Drift 1. Random changes in allele frequencies from one generation to the next, may over time result in large changes in frequencies. 2. Bottleneck Effect a. Population is dramatically reduced in size due to an external cause, and it is random which alleles survive. 3. Founder Effect a. A sample of the population colonize a new region, and it is random which alleles followed the colonizers. 112. Explain how genetic variation arises and why it is essential for natural selection 113. What is Sexual Dimorphism? i. Dramatic differences between sexes. Lecture 17: Complexity and Selection 114. Describe some of the more advanced concepts in evolution and natural selections, such as sexual selection, group selection, and kin selection. 115. Explain the term ‘inclusive fitness’ 116. Explain why eusociality is an extreme case in evolution, and perhaps the only way to understand the evolution of it is through inclusive fitness. 117. Become familiar with Hamilton’s rule from the textbook and be able to use it. 118. What is sexual selection? i. Natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex. 119. What is the Trade-off? i. Cost may be high, however, the benefits outweigh the costs. 120. Brief history of complexity. th i. 19 century scientists believe that nature had an innate striving to become more complex. ii. All creation gradually evolved to a higher, more perfect state. iii. Very hard to define/measure 121. Examples of complexity: i. Shapes in nature ii. The human eye 122. What are Transitional forms, and why are they important in understanding evolution or complexity? a. Complex organisms can be produces by simple ones. b. “New” characters are modifications of pre-existing characters built in earlier versions of that trait. c. This is why scientists look for missing links or transitional forms. Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson 123. What is complexity? i. Multi-cellular ii. Many different cell types iii. Many different structures iv. Internal specialization v. Number of functions vi. Must have genetic basis vii. Has evolved. 124. How is complexity selected? 125. Explain why Evolution is non-directional. i. There is no reason why evolution cannot move towards simplicity of that makes an organism better suited to its environment. 126. Explain the role of evolution in shaping complex organisms. i. Evolution of the Human eye 1. “It seems absurd in the highest possible degree” that the complex structures of the eye have been formed through natural selection. – Charles Darwin. 2. Complexity of photoreceptors- from small, light sensitive cells to complex strictures capable of registering precise images. 127. What are the advantages of being complex? i. If you are small enough, you can get oxygen to your cells through diffusion. ii. If you are larger, a specialized respiratory system is needed. 1. Can eat larger things 2. Harder to kill 3. Able to exploit new niches. 128. What is considered to be a transitional form in seahorses? a. Pipefish 129. What advantage led to cup formed eye? a. Detect the direction of light. 130. What are Vestigal characters? a. Traits from original form, are no longer needed by organism and no longer selected for. 131. Is complexity the ultimate goal for Evolution? a. NO! b. Stress that evolution does not have any sense of direction or goal. Lecture 18: Macroevolution and Speciation 132. Describe and explain different species concepts a. Biological Species Concept i. A species is a population or group if populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring. ii. Stresses separateness (species are separated by reproductive isolation) b. Ecological Species concept i. Defines a species in terms of its ecological niche. Exam 2 Study Guide | Alexandra Gibson ii. A species’ niche depends on its unique adaptations to its role in the biological community. c. Genealogical species concept i. Defines a species as a set of organisms with unique genetic history. d. Morphological species concept i. Defines a species in terms of its unique structural features. 133. Describe and explain processes behind speciation a. Two populations become so different that they are considered different species. b. A population becomes so different from its ancestral state that it is considered another species. 134. What defines a species? 135. What are their strengths and weaknesses? 136. Define anagenesis and cladogenesis a. Anagenesis: accumulation of changes with the transformation of one species or another. i. Processes can lead to change within a population or species, but no increase in the number of species. b. Cladogenesis: Branching off one or more new species from a parent species that continues to exist. i. Increases number of species increase in biological diversity. 137. How can three flightless bird species that look suspiciously similar be present on three different continents? Are they related? If so, how did they end up apart? a. Yes, they share a common ancestor. They diverged with separation of the continents. 138. Allopatric speciation –explain and demonstrate with examples. a. Population splits into two geographically isolated groups. b. Genetic changes accumulate c. Cumulative differences prevent breeding between individuals of the two populations. d. Two species have evolved. 139. What is reproductive isolation, and can you get that without being physically separated? a. The key to speciation b. You can get reproductive isolation without complete geographic isolation in a heterogeneous environment or when genetics helps isolate individuals. i. That would lead to sympatric speciation –explain and give examples 1. When populations are in the same physical area, but become genetically isolated by genetic events, or behavioral or other isolating mechanism. 140. What is parapatric speciation? i. Contiguous populations ii. But individuals more likely to mate with local neighbors gene flow limited iii. Helped by heterogeneous environment and disruptive selection. 141. http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evo_40 142. What is polyploi
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