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POSC 240 Comparative Politics Notes from Throughout Semester

by: Taylor Comstock

POSC 240 Comparative Politics Notes from Throughout Semester POSC 240

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About this Document

These notes cover Nigeria, Mexico, and Iran which were each covered throughout the semester.
Comparative Politics
Charles Blake
Iran, Politics, Mexico, nigeria, Global Comparative Politics
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This 123 page Bundle was uploaded by Taylor Comstock on Thursday August 18, 2016. The Bundle belongs to POSC 240 at James Madison University taught by Charles Blake in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 5 views. For similar materials see Comparative Politics in Political Science at James Madison University.

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Date Created: 08/18/16
Nigerian Politics in Transition (234­240)  Nigerians overwhelmingly favor democratic government over military rule (70%)  Popular frustration growing: slow pace of reform and continued corruption in  politics Political Challenges and Changing Agendas  Transition to democratic rule: 1985­1999 o Inconclusive: planned and directed from above o Military periodically made promises for democratic transition  Ploy to stabilize and legitimize their governments  1999: Gen. Abubakar hands power to civilians  ensures that military’s interests would be protected   creating overly powerful executive  o reinforces prebendalism and patronage system  o Military’s rapid transition program:  Produced tenuous, conflicted democratic government  Daunting tasks: restoring key institutions, securing social  stability, reforming the economy  Collective identities (religion, ethnicity) > national allegiance  Decline in appeal of military rule o Bad performances by Babangida and Abacha regime­ economic oversight  and governance o Military=incapable of promoting economic and social progress  Since 2003 elections: o Political elite more willing to use extra­systemic measures to forward  interests with election rigging, corruption, and militia­led violence  Need creation of viable, multiethnic opposition party that’s also loyal to playing  by the rules of the system  o Decrease corruption: interest in exposing misconduct of the ruling party,  pressures them to restrain their own behavior o Engage public to win their votes   Basis of the social contract:  o Elites gain privilege of power as long as they use it restrain their own  power   Introduction of large number of new parties since 2002: o Hurt development of viable, loyal opposition  o Diluting opposition­ allowing PDP to govern largely unchecked   Parties of the 4  Republic o Generally don’t represent any particular ethnic interest   Represent interests of their leaders and clients o Ethnic associations/militias: risen to articulate ethnic­based grievances  If ethnic associations captures one of the political parties/joins with the militias  separatism and instability  Privatization of Gov. Parastatals: o Reduce power of presidency over time  No longer able to control all primary sectors of the economy  More decentralized system:   Local problems able to be solved within communities  Enhance accountability of leaders and transparency of gov.  operations  Civil Society Groups o Aggregate and articulate popular interests into policy realm o Provide advocacy for their members o Must be reached through alliance by political groups in order to reflect  more than elite interests and clientelist rule   Foreign Pressure o Supporting civil society and democratization  o W. commitment to development and democracy in Africa: limited by  industrial powers’ addiction to oil   Changes in economic/business sectors o Develop more sophisticated and less corrupt form of capitalist enterprise  o Development of entrepreneurial, especially with middle class interests  Continued problems o Overdependence on oil o Weak infrastructure and institutions  o Heightened socio­political tensions o Irresponsible elite o Expanding mass culture of despondency and rage Nigerian Politics in Comparative Perspective A World of States  2 “worlds” of states o global political economy o within Africa  Remaining secondary player in world of states o 1990s: became notorious for corruption, human rights abuses and failed  governance  o Rising oil prices  some stature restored o Persistent corruption o Economic vulnerability   Determinant of W. Africa o Substantial growth of Nigerian economy buoy economy of W. African  sub­region Governing the Economy  1960 independence: stronger economically than SE Asian counterparts  Today: among poorest countries in the world (per capita income) o Rich endowment of resources: not enough to ensure economic  development   May encourage rent­seeking behaviorundermines more  productive activities  Developing democratic stability and a capable developmental state o Developmentalist ethic and institutional structure to enforce it  Set limits to corrupt behavior, constrain pursuit of short­term  personal gain at expense of national economic growth  Sustainable economic development: sound economic policy required o No export diversificationstrongly affected by price fluctuations of 1 or 2  main products  Stems from overreliance on primary commodity export­oriented  policies started by British colonial regime The Democratic Idea  African societies experienced resurgence of popular pressures for greater  participation in political life/more open forms of gov.  o History of authoritarian, single­party and military rule: record of political  repression, human rights abuses, inequality, deteriorating governance,  failed economies  Post­colonial authoritarian rule: o Contributed to economic stagnation and decline  Today: democracy=greater imperative o Only system that provides mechanisms to limit abuses of power and make  governments accountable Collective Identities  Institutional reforms to contribute to reducing tensions and minimizing conflict o Multiethnic political parties o Decentralization  o Strengthened federal system   Federal character: become a form of ethnic and regional favoritism o Tool for dispensing patronage  The Making of the Modern Chinese State (287­310) Politics in Action:   Late 2010: Nobel Peace Prize won by Liu Xiaobo (writer and polticial activist) o First from PRC to win any kind of Nobel Prize o “for his long and non­violent struggle for fundamental human rights in  China” o in prison, couldn’t attend ceremony o China: insulted because a man whom they said was a criminal was  honored  China remains one of the harshest dictatorships in the world  Remarkable economic progress  Rift between China’s authoritarian political system and its increasingly modern  and globalized society Political Organization Political System Communist party­state; officially, a  socialist state under the people’s  democratic dictatorship Regime History Est. in 1949 after the victory of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) in the Chinese  civil war Administrative Structure Unitary system with 22 provinces, 5  autonomous regions, 4 centrally  administrated municipalities and 2 Special  Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and  Macao) Executive Premier (head of gov.) and president (head  of state) formally elected by legislature, but only with approval of CCP leadership; the  head of the CCP (gen. secretary) is in effect the country’s chief executive, and usually  serves concurrently as president of the PRC Legislature Unicameral National People’s Congress;  about 3,000 delegates elected indirectly  from lower­level people’s congresses for 5  yr terms. Largely a rubber­stamp body for  Communist Party policies, although in  recent years has become somewhat more  assertive Judiciary Nationwide system of people’s courts,  which is constitutionally independent but,  in fact, largely under the control of the  CCOP, a Supreme People’s Court  supervises the country’s judicial system  and is formally responsible to the National  People’s Congress, which also elects the  court’s president Party System One­party system, although in addition to  the ruling Chinese Communist Party there  are 8 politically insignificant “democratic”  parties Geographic Setting:  4  largest country in world (slightly smaller than US)  2 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, 4 centrally administered cities (including  Beijing) and 2 Special Administrative Regions (Hong Kong and Macau) that are  ruled indirectly  Regions: o West:   Sparsely populated  Mostly mountains, deserts, and high plateaus o North:   Similar to US plain states in weather and topography  Wheat­growing area: industrial heartland o South:  Much warmer climate  Semi­tropical in some places  Allows year­round agriculture and intensive rice cultivation  Rich in natural resources (coal and petroleum)  World’s greatest potential for hydroelectric power  Population of 1.3 billion (4 times greater than that of the US) o Less than 15% of its land can be used for agriculture o Precarious balance between people and the land needed to feed them o Nearly 120 cities with population greater than 1 million  Beijing (capital): 19.6 million  Shanghai (economic heart): 23 million o about 55%  (700) million live in rural areas  1997: Hong Kong (former British colony) becomes SAR of PRC o one of world’s great commercial centers  1999: Macau (former Portuguese colony) becomes SAR of PRC o thriving casino economy  SARs: great amount of autonomy from gov., except in foreign relations and  defense  92% of population ethnically Chinese o 8%: more than 50 ethnic minorities  most live in geopolitically sensitive border regions (Tibet) o uneasy/often hostile relationship between minority people and central gov. Critical Junctures:  Traditional Chinese culture o Based on teachings of ancient philosopher Confucius (551­479 BCE) o Emphasizes obedience to authority, respect for superiors/elders,  responsibility of rulers to govern benevolently  st  221 BCE: several small kingdoms unified by 1  emperor  o foundation for empire; lasted more than 20 centuries until being  overthrown in early 20  cent.   extensive geographic expansion­ basic political structure constant  National bureaucracy­ imperial officials appointed by the emperor only after  they’d passes series of difficult exams o Tested mastery of classic teachings of Confucianism   Many large internal rebellions­ new dynasties always kept Confucian­based  imperial political system th th  Late 18 /19  centuries: internal crisis and external challenges o Long spell of peace/prosperity  population explosion  o Population growth  economic stagnation and growing poverty  o Increase in official corruption in bureaucracy and exploitation of peasants  by landlords and gov.   Taiping Rebellion (1850­1864)  o Massive revolt o 20 million deaths o almtht overthrew government  Early 19  century: exploitation by British (increased European industrial/military  development) o Britain exporting silver to China to pay for tea o To balance trade: Britain used superior military power to compel Chinese  to buy opium from colony India   Opium War (1839­1842) o Humiliating defeat by Britain  o Forced to sign series of unequal treaties   Opened borders to foreign merchants, missionaries and diplomats  on terms of Britain/ other W. powers   Lost significant pieces of territory to foreigners (Hong Kong)  important sectors of economy under foreign control   1911­1912: Revolution o toppled ruling dynasty­ended 2,000 year old empire  Warlords, Nationalists, and Communists: 1912­1949  1912: Republic of China est. by Dr. Sun Yat­sen o best known revolutionarybecame president  o couldn’t hold power  conflict: rival military leaders (warlords) ruled  large parts of country  1921: Chinese Communist Party (CCP) founded by intellectuals  o advised by Soviet Union­ joined with Nationalists to fight warlords  1927: alliance with Nationalists ends  o Chiang Kai­shek (military leader, head of Nationalist Party after Sun’s  death in 1925) turned against Communist partners  Bloody suppression nearly wiped out CCP  1927: Chiang had unified Republic of China under personal and increasingly  authoritarian rule  o striking deals with remaining powerful warlords   Communist Party retreated into countryside  o Foundation for Mao Zedong’s rise to power/victory 20 yrs. later o rural base­gain support: Mao gains leadership  Late 1943: CCP surrounded by Chiang Kai­shek’s army  o Long March: year long 6,000 mile journey through most remote parts   October 1935: Communists establish based in impoverished area in NW o Mao consolidated control of CCP  1943: Mao elected CCP party chairman (held until death in 1976)   1937: Japan invades China o start of WWII in Asia o pushed Chiang Kai­shek’s gov. in SW  eliminated Nationalists as active combatant   CCP in NW on front line o Mao/Communists successfully mobilized peasants to use guerilla warfare  to fight invaders   Wartime leadership gained strong following   1945: end of WWII: CCP had vastly expanded membership o controlled much of countryside in N  Japanese surrender Chinese civil war quickly resumed  o Communists win over Nationalists (backed by US)   Chiang Kai­shek and supporters retreat to Taiwan   Oct. 1, 1949: Mao Zedong declared founding of People’s Republic of China  (PRC)  Mao Zedong in Power (1949­1976)  CCP: wave of popular support/considerable legitimacy: reputation as party of  social reformers/patriotic fighters and early successful policies o Nationwide land reform campaign  Redistributed property from rich to poor  Increased agricultural production in countryside o Highly successful drives to eliminate opium addiction and prostitution in  cities o National law to improve legal status of women in family   CCP often used violence: achieve its objectives/silence opponents  1953­1957: implemented centrally planned economy/took decisive steps toward  socialism­advised by Soviet Union  o complete halt of privatization   1958­1960: Great Leap Forward o Mao’s discontent with expansion of gov. bureaucracy and persistence of  inequalities  o Utopian effort to speed up the country’s development o “one of the most extreme, bizarre, and eventually catastrophic episodes in  20  century political history” o depended on labor power/revolutionary enthusiasm of masses  o aiming to propel China into era of true communism with almost complete  economic/social equality   Results of GLF: famine in rural areas(40 million dead)collapse of  agricultureindustrial depression = terrible setback in economic development  Early 1960’s: Mao takes less active role in day­to­day decision making  o Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping (other top leaders) put in charge of  reviving economy  Completely abandoned GLF: used combination of gov. planning  and market oriented policies to stimulate production   Mid 1960s: Chairman Mao concluded the policies of Liu and Deng had led to  resurgence in elitism and inequality despite economic progress  o Threatening his communist goals by aiming towards capitalism  o Broke relations with Soviet Union­ Mao no longer convinced they were  truly revolutionary country  1966­1976: Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution o Mao’s ideological crusade to jolt China back toward vision of communism o Campaign of mass mobilization and utopian idealism  o Main objective: political purification of the nation through struggle against class enemies o Mao Zedong Though: Communist ideology   Supported by coalition of radical party leaders, loyal military  officers, student rebels (Red Guards)­attacked anyone through to  be guilty of betraying the Thought o 1966­1969: Cultural Revolution’s first phase  20+million Red Guards: rampaged across country  o 1969­1971: next phase  Mao used army to restore political order: Red Guards sent to live  and work in countryside o 1972­1976: final phase  insane power struggle over who would succeed Mao as leader of  CCP  Sept. 1976: Mao dies (82) o Oct.: group of moderately leaders arrested radical rivals (Gang of Four­  led by Mao’s wife Jiang Qing) o End of Cultural Revolution: at least 1 million dead & nation brought close  to civil war  Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of Chinese Communism  1978 Deng had become most powerful leader  o never took formal positions of head of either the CCP or Chinese gov. for  himself­appointed younger, loyal men  Deng significantly reduced state control of the economy o Market forces: allowed to play increasingly important role o Private enterprise encouraged o Gov. allowed unprecedented levels of foreign investment   Revitalize Gov.: o Bringing in younger and better educated officials  1980s: high levels of growth in economy after decades of stagnation  o foundation for “one of the greatest economic miracles of the 20  century”  1978 and 1985: Deng named Time Magazine’s Man of the Year o received global recognition for reforms   Spring 1989: large­scale demonstrations in Beijing and other cities o Discontent over inflation and corruption o Desire (esp. among students/intellectuals) for more political freedom  June 4, 1989: Tiananmen Square o Occupied for about 2 months prior by camp of students  o Received lots of international media attentionquestions and attention to  gov. o Leaders ordered army to clear square­still unrevealed death toll  Gov. claims was necessary for interest of national stability o Few years following: intense political crackdown/slowdown in pace of  economic change  Early 1992: bold steps by Deng to accelerate reform of the economy  o Hoped economic progress would avoid collapse of communist system  such as in Soviet Union  From Revolutionaries to Technocrats (1997­Present):  Mid­ 1989: Deng Xiaoping promoted Jiang Zemin (former mayor and Communist Party leader of Shanghai) to head of the CCP o Deng gradually turned over greater authority to Jiang­remained power  behind throne  1993: Jiang became President of PRC  Feb. 1997: Deng Xiaoping died: Jiang secure in position as top leader o Continued economic reform and remarkable growth  PRC become even more integral part of global economy o Enhanced regional and international stature o BUT: widening gaps between rich and poor, environmental degradation,  and pervasive corruption   Jiang era: overall politically stable  o BUT: CCP still repressed any individual/group perceived as challenging  its authority  Nov. 2002 and March 2003: Jiang Zemin is succeeded as Head of CCP and then  PRC President by Hu Jintao  o Remarkably predictable and orderly o First relatively peaceful top­level political succession in 200+ years o Both represented new kind of leadership   Technocrats, had university training, used professional competence and political loyalty to work their way up through the CCP  Oct. 2007 and March 2008: Hu Jintao is re­elected to 2  term as CCP leader and  then PRC President o Project himself as populist leader: greater emphasis on dealing with the  country’s most serious socioeconomic problems  Enormous inequalities between regions and terribly inadequate  public health system o Taken hard line on political dissent/challenges to authority of CCP  2008: top leaders of CCP grooming Xi Jinping to succeed Hu Jintao (retiring as  head of CPC in 2012 and President in 2013) o Xi: educated technocrat o Little reasons to expect political deviation Themes and Implications Historical Junctures and Political Themes: The World of States  1949: PRC established: weak position in international system o centuries of foreign intervention o large mistakes by Mao o BUT: built strong state able to affirm/defend its sovereignty   International stature increasing as economic and military strength have grown  Relatively poor country (per capita) but economic powerhouse  Foreign trade policies have significant effects on many other countries/global  economy  Nuclear power  World’s largest conventional military   Active/influential member of world’s most important international organizations become major player in world of states Governing the Economy  Experimented with several different approaches to economic development o Early 1950s: Soviet­style planning system, radical egalitarianism Maoist  model, market­oriented policies implemented by Deng & successors  Ideological disputes main area of political conflict in CCP during  Mao era o 1970s bold reforms by Deng: hope improved living standards would  improve legitimacy of CCP  Success of recent leaders in governing economy: sustained authority of the CCP,  while most other communist regimes have disappeared The Democratic Idea  mid 1950s: building of one­party communist state/Mao’s unrelenting campaign  against alleged enemies of his revolution  o hope for democracy vanished  Deng Xiaoping era: much greater economic, social and cultural freedom o CCP has continued to halt stirrings of democratic idea  o Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao: loyal disciples of Deng   Jiang & Hu: championed economic reform and ensured CCP retains firm grip on  power The Politics of Collective Identity  Very strong sense of collective national identity o Long history and ancient culture   Humiliations/suffering at hands of foreigners still influence international policies  Faith in communist ideology has weakened as the country embraces capitalist  economic policies   So: CCP leaders have increasingly turned to Nationalism  o Rally Chinese people behind gov.  Cultural and ethnic homogeneity o Spared of widespread communal violence­ exceptions among border  regions (Tibet and Muslim areas in NW) Implications for Comparative Politics  Can be compared to other communist party states o Shared many political/ideological features o Why has it been so successful and durable compared to other failed  Communist states such as the Soviet Union? rd  Part of the 3  world as measured by average standard of living   Record of growth: far exceeded all other developing countries   Educational and health levels of Chinese people are quite good when compared to other countries at a similar level of development   How has China had so much relative success?  How and why has it resisted democratization? Political and Economy and Development State and Economy:  1949: CCP came to power: economy suffering from 100+ years of rebellion,  invasion, civil war and bad government o new communists rulers seized most property o initially allowed some private ownership and many aspects of capitalism  to continue in order to gain support for the gov./revive the economy  early 1950s: CCP set up socialist planned economy based on Soviet model o state owned/controlled most economic resources and drove economic  activity o beginning: impressive results o created huge bureaucracies and new inequalities  Mao and the Great Leap Forward (1958­1961) and Cultural Revolution (1966­ 1976) o Built strong industrial base o People became much healthier and better educated o Maoist economy plagued by: political interference, poor management, ill­ conceived projects o large amounts of wasted resources  Avg. standard of living barely changed from mid 1950s to 1976 (Mao’s death) China Goes To Market:  1962: Deng became one of the principal targets of the Cultural Revolution o criticized CCP: shouldn’t be considered whether a policy was capitalist or  socialist as long as it helped the economy  1976: Deng emerged as foremost leader o sweeping economic reforms   greatly reduced gov. control and increased market forces  individuals encouraged to work harder and more efficiently to  make money rather than “serve the people” (Maoist era)  Today state no longer dictates what to produce and how to produce it in most  sectors of the economy o Prices set by supply and demand (capitalist) rather than by gov.  o Competition > gov. monopolies  o Still many thousands of state owned enterprises with millions of  employees  Dominant critical parts of the economy (steel, petroleum,  telecommunication, transportation)   State­owned sector=drain on country’s banks o Still sometimes required to bail out financially failing SOE’s   CCP now strongly encourages/supports private business  o Private sector= largest and fastest growing part of China’s economy  o Invite owners of private enterprises to join party= “red capitalists”  Planned economy  market economy = fastest growing major economy in the  world for the past 2 decades o Weathered recession of 2009­2010 better than any other major economy  GDP per capita: still very low compared to that of richer countries   Rising incomes  consumer revolution  o Cities: new middle class o Developing class of “super­rich” millionaires and billionaires  Officially PRC says it has a socialist market economy o Allowing some degree of capitalism, national and local bureaucrats  continue to exercise a great deal of control over production/distribution of  goods/resources/services  CCP still determines direction of China’s economy Remaking the Chinese Countryside  1949: land reform o confiscated property of landlords and redistributed as private holdings to  poorer peasants   mid 1950s: state reorganized peasants into collective farms and communes o village owned land: local officials directed all production/labor o collectivized agriculture: one of the weakest links of China’s command  economy: extremely inefficient   1957­1977: per capita agricultural production and rural living standards stagnant  Deng Xiaoping: revival of rural economy=a top priority o Late 1970s: Abolished collective farming and established household  responsibility system­remains in effect today o Agricultural productivity: sharply increased o Hundreds of millions lifted out of extreme poverty in last 2 ½ decades   Economic life in rural areas: transformed by expansion of rural industry and  commerce o Employ 190 million people­absorbing vast labor pool no longer needed in  agriculture Society and Economy  Economic reform  society more diverse and open  o Freer to chose jobs, travel, practice their religious beliefs, join non­ political associations, engage in wide range of other activities prohibited  or severely restricted during Mao era  Economic changeserious social problems o Sharp increase in crime, prostitution and drug use  Economic reform significant changes in basic system of social welfare o Maoist economy: provided almost all workers with iron rice bowl  Guarantees of lifetime employment, income, and basic cradle­to­ grave benefits to most urban and rural workers  o Believed that these guarantees led to poor work motivation and excessive  costs for the gov. and businesses  o Income/employment no longer guaranteed­now directly tied to individual  effort  Estimated 60 million workers have been laid off from SOEs since early 1990s  PRC has very little unemployment insurance or social security for displaced  workers  o Work slowdowns, strikes, lg. scale demonstrations becoming more  frequent (partic. in NE­rust belt)  o Official unemployment rate: approx. 4% of urban labor force­believed to  be 3 to 4 times as high  Life better for vast majority in rural areas o BUT: still poor availability of health care, educational opportunities,  disability pay, retirement funds and social services o Rural protests, sometimes violent, increased significantly in recent years   Angry about high taxes, corrupt local officials pollution, illegal  land seizures by developers and delays in payments for agricultural products purchased by gov.)  Flood of rural migrants to cities because of economic changes  o Agriculture decollectivized in early 1980s­ peasants moved to look for  jobs because of less restrictions o Floating population of about 150 million people: biggest human migration  in history  Migrants increase pressure on urban housing and social services o “urban villages”­ slum­like conditions that breed crime and other social  problems   some cities taken to locking gates of urban villages at night to keep residents from venturing out   market reforms/economic boom have created sharp class differences o inequalities between people and parts of the country: risen significantly  o prosperous coastal areas vs. inland areas  CCP begun to promote development of “harmonious socialist society”  o Emphasizes achieving higher avg. standard of living for the whole  country, and more equitable distribution of income and social services  o More investment being directed to the rural economy o 2006: gov. abolished taxes on agriculture   social status, legal rights, employment opportunities and education of women  have improved enormously since the founding of PRC in 1949 o trend toward market economy hasn’t benefited both genders equally  o China has one of the world’s highest rates of female participation in the  urban workforce o Market reforms have “strengthened and in some cases reconstructed the  sexual division of labor, keeping urban women in a transient, lower­paid,  and subordinate position in the workforce”  Men continue to dominate the rural economy o Even though farm labor is increasingly feminized  Men moving to jobs in rural industry or migrating to cities o Alarming suicide rate among women in villages­ world’s highest  Early 1980s: One Child Policy o Gov. insists without policy economic development would be endangered  Various means to encourage/force couples to have a single child   Large fines and loss of jobs used to punish violators;  positive incentives (more farmland, preferred housing) for  followers  Defiance  forced abortions or sterilization   Slowing population growth: one­child campaign, modernizing economy,  comparatively strong record in improving educational and employment  opportunities for women o Brought growth rate to 0.5% per year  Very low for country with their economic development   PRC gov. praises success of one­child policy o Resistance in rural areas   Family income depends on having more people to work   Belief male children will contribute more economically to  the family: male heir necessary to carry on family line   female infanticide and abandonment, large number of sex­ selective abortions  Unusual gender balance among its young population  o Normal gender ratio 105:100 male­female among newborns o PRC: 120:100 o 30 million more males than females o large number of young unmarried males kidnapping/selling of women o extreme gender imbalance likely to cause rise in: social instability, violent  crime, gang formation  o may become more authoritarian to maintain law, order and military  adventuresome abroad to channel aggressiveness of young frustrated  males  Response to rural resistance/international pressure on population policies o Many rural families able to have 2  child if first is a girl, ethnic minorities may have up to 4 children  Gov. announced that one­child policy will remain basically in  effect until 2015  Economic boom/mixed state­private economy enormous opportunity for  corruption o Officials still control many resources/ retain power over economic  transactions o Gov. launched many well­publicized campaigns against corruption  Harsh punishment/execution for serious offenders  Superfast economic development  consumer product safety problems  Economic growth  severe environmental damage  o Industrial expansion fueled primarily by coal o Air among dirtiest in the world  o Little gov. regulation of garbage/toxic waste dumping o World’s largest source of carbon dioxide emissions (passed US)  Per capita emissions remain lower than most developed countries  PRC critical of other countries that press it or other developing countries to slow  economic growth or invest in pollution controls o Gov. paying more attention to protection of the environment o Sustainable development: becoming key part of emphasis on building  “harmonious socialist society”  o Become leader in development of alternative clean energy (including wind and solar power) China in The Global Economy  1976: end of Maoist era, not deeply involved in global economy o stagnant economy, political instability, heavy­handed bureaucracy=not  attractive to foreign investors   Early 1980s: strategy of using trade as central component of Deng Xiaoping’s  drive for economic development  o Some ways followed model of export­led growth of Japan and newly  industrializing countries­ South Korea, Taiwan o Takes advantage of low­wage domestic labor to produce goods that are in  demand internationally  Become “factory of the world”­because so many countries import their products nd  Now world’s 2  largest trading nation (goods/services) behind US o Projected to surpass US in total trade volume between 2015­2020 o Relatively equal balance between imports and exports  Imports: industrial machinery, high­level technology, scientific equipment, iron  and steel, raw materials o Large domestic petroleum sources/significant untapped reserves o BUT: net importer of oil because of massive energy demands from  economic boom/expanding private automobile market o Potential to increase world prices for some commodities/put added  pressure on un­renewable resources  Foreign investment rapidly increasing o 400+ of world’s 500 top corporations have operations in PRC o vast majority of investors: smaller firms producing electronics, clothing,  footwear, and other consumer goods for export o low cost of labor: major attraction for foreign investors   wages have been increasing and increasing competition from  Vietnam, Bangladesh and other developing countries  o huge domestic market: another foreign investor attractor   Becoming a major in investor in other countries; part of gov.­supported “going  out” strategy to diversify economy  Still relatively poor country in terms of its level of economic and technological  development compared to richer nations  Total output/rapid growth of its economy, expanding trade and investment and  cast resource base (including population)rising economic superpower Making of the Modern Mexican State Politics in Action  June 28, 2010: Rodolfo Torre Cantu-PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party) candidate-and 6 of his aides assassinated o South of border of Texas; response from drug crackdown by Cardenas-began in 2006 following his election o Wave of violence: 35,000 dead in less than five years o Fear that fight against drug cartels could be politically destabilizing  Current challenges: institutional reform, economic development, integration into complex global networks  2000 presidential election brought and to PRI regime o discouraging: recent violence, political stalemate and economic stagnation  July 4, 2010 governor elections o 3 states had coalitions of parties opposed to the PRI win o brought together National Action Party (PAN-right-center) and Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD-left-center)  reflected shared fear of PRI comeback  Need to: o Restore sense of security in society scarred by violence o Establish rule of law/combat impunity while police forces and criminal justice system are undergoing difficult process of reform o Reducing inequality o Creating jobs/opportunities in economy with growing integration into global markets Political Organization Political System Federal republic Regime History Current form of government since 1917 Administrative Structure Federal system with 31 states and a federal district (Mexico City) Executive President, elected by direct election with a 6 yr term of office; reelection not permitted Legislature Bicameral Congress. Senate (upper house) and Chamber of Deputies (lower house); elections held every 3 years. There are 128 senators, 3 from each of the 31 states, 3 from federal (capital) district, and 32 elected national by proportional representation for 6 year terms. The 500 members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected for 3 year terms from 300 electoral districts, 300 by simple majority vote and 200 by proportional representation Judiciary Independent federal and state court system headed by a Supreme Court with 11 justices appointed by the president and approved by the Senate Party System Multiparty system. One-party dominant (Institutional Revolutionary Party) system from 1929 until 2000. Major parties: National Action Party, Institutional Revolutionary Party, and the Party of the Democratic Revolution Geographic Society  Communication and transportation between regions: difficult/expensive  Rich in oil, silver, and other natural resources-long struggled to manage them wisely  2nd largest nation in Latin America (after Brazil)  largest Spanish speaking nation in world  60% of population: mestizo- people of mixed Amerindian and Spanish descent  Largest indigenous groups: Maya (S) and Nahuatl (central regions)- 1+million each  Divisions of race and class issues in society  Became largely urban country in 2 ndhalf of 20 century o Mexico city: one of world’s largest urban areas: 20 million people  Migration has become major issue Critical Junctures Independence and Instability: 1810-1876  1521: Hernan Cortes and small band of Spanish forces topple Aztec Empire o Spain ruled Mexico for 3 centuries  Colonial policy: designed to extract wealth  New Spain (aka Mexico): goals of maintaining commitment to Roman Catholic Church and subordination to Amerindian population st  1810: parish priest Miguel Hidalgo began 1 of wars for independence  1821: independence gained o struggled for decades to create stable/legitimate government  1833-1855: 36 presidents came to power  lost half of territory in disorganization after independence  1846: US declares war on Mexico over Texas border dispute  1848: treaty recognizing loss of Texas to US o gave what would be New Mexico, Utah, Nevada, Arizona, California and part of Colorado for about $18 million o deep resentment for US  Post war: struggle between liberals and conservatives continued: political/economic order and esp. power of Catholic Church  Constitution of 1857: somewhat democratic government, bill of rights, limitations on power of Church  1861: Spain, Great Britain, France: occupied Veracruz to collect debts owed  France took Mexico city: installed European Prince as Emperor Maximilian (1864-1867)  1867: Benito Juarez returned to presidency-defeated/executed Maximilian o hailed as early proponent of more democratic gov The Porfiriato: 1876-1911  1876: Porfirio Diaz took office as president o established Porfiriato: dictatorship- ruled for 34 years o accepted initially: thought to have brought sustained stability o imposed highly authoritarian system: create political order/economic progress o with cientifocs (advisors)- encourage foreign investment/amassed huge personal fortunes  monopolized political power/reserved lucrative economic investments for themselves The Revolution of 1910 and the Sonoran Dynasty: 1810-1934  Rev. 1910: ended Porfiriato-1 great social rev. of the 20 cent.  1910: Diaz had promised open election for president: Francisco I. Madero presented himself as candidate o reform minded o hoped new class of politically ambitious citizenspower o jailed by Diaz to suppress growing opposition o Diaz forced into exile  1911: Mader elected o soon used military to put down revolts by reformers/reactionaries  1913: Madero assassinated during coup d’etat-political order collapsed  peasant revolt while middle class tried to replace Diaz o under Emiliano Zapata; manifesto: the Plan de Ayala- became part of Constitution: radical agrarian reform  1916: US entered Mexico to punish Francisco (Pancho) Villa for an attack on US territority (military maneuvers with banditry, looting and warlordism) o increased public hostility for US  Constitution of 1917 o Formal set of political institutions o Guaranteed citizens range of progressive social/economic rights: agrarian reform, social security, right to organize in unions, min. wage, 8hr work day, profit sharing for workers, universal secular education, adult male suffrage o Right to vote for women: local elections- 1953 and national elections-1958 o Only citizens/gov. could own land/rights to water/other natural resources  Limit power of foreign investors  Plutarco Elias Calles emerged as supreme leader: pres. term- 1924-1928 o Selected/dominated successors 1929-1934 o Consolidation of power/extreme anticlericalismviolent conflict (Cristiada)- gov. vs. devout followers of Catholic Church’s conservative leadership  1929: Calles founds Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) o contenders for power-accommodate each other’s interests o ensured nonviolent conflict resolution among elites/rule of PRI for seven decades  results of revolution: o power of traditional landowners-undercut o influence of Catholic Church strongly curtailed o power of foreign investors severely limited o new political elite consolidated power/agreed to resolve conflict through accommodation/bargaining rather than violence o new constitution/new party laid basis for strong central gov. that could assert its power over agricultural, industrial and social development Lazaro Cardenas, Agrarian Reform, and the Workers: 1934- 1940  1934: Lazara Cardenas handpicked as official candidate for pres. by Plutarco Elias Calles o anticipated Cardenas would abide by his behind-the-scenes management- he definitely didn’t o Cardenas: mobilized peasants/workers: pursue more radical goals of 1910 revolution o Redistributed 49 million acres of land: nearly 2x as much as all other pres. combined o Encouraged workers to form unions/demand higher wages/better working conditions  1938: took petroleum industry from foreign investors and put it under gov. control  Cardernas years: bulk of pop. incorporated into political system o Expansion of role of state as gov. o Encouraged investment in industrialization o Provided credit to agriculture o Created infrastructure Politics of Rapid Development: 1940-1982  Cardenas’s successors: used institutions he created to counteract his reforms  PRI developed huge patronage-clientelism  Development oriented away from egalitarian social goals of 1930s toward development strategy where state actively encouraged industrialization/accumulation of wealth  High economic growth rates: 1940s, 1950s, 1960s  1970s: industrial development policies no longer generating rapid growth o deep economic crises by mid 1970s  discovery of oil: rapid economic growth again  international petroleum prices plunged in early 1980s deep economic crises Crisis and Reform: 1982-2000  Pres: Miguel de la Madrid (1982-1988) and Carlos Salinas (1988- 1994) o Introduced 1 major reversal of developmental strategy since 1940s o Barriers to limit gov.’s economic role o Reduce barriers to international trade  1993: Salinas signed NFTA  economic reforms of ‘80s and ‘90s: turning point: future development would be closely tied to international economic conditions  2008: deeply affected by economic crises in US  Jan. 1 1994: guerrilla movement Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) seized 4 towns made demands-gov. criticized for inaction  March 23, 1994: assassination of PRI’s pres. candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio in Tijuana o Possible conspiracy with party and law enforcement and drug cartels  Aug. 1994: replacement candidate Ernesto Zedillo-PRI remained in power  1997: PRI lost absolute majority in Chamber of Deputies (lower house) for the 1 time in modern history  Congress showing increasing dynamism as counterbalance to presidency Since 2000: Mexico as a Multi-Party Democracy  Dec. 2000 Vicente Fox elected-1 non PRI pres. in 7 decades (PAN) o Found it difficult to make promised changes o Reform proposals defeated  Post 9/11: US shifted attention away from Mexico and Latin America towards Middle East o Strengthened border security-lost chance for agreements/close relationship  2006: Felipe Calderon Hinojosa (PAN)- National Action Party candidate elected- won by small margin o main opponent Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador (PRD)-Party of the Democratic Revolution; accused Calderon of favoring rich at expense of poor o Calderon said Obrador had authoritarian tendencies o Obrador’s defiant response: divided opposition-allowed Calderon to consolidate his power o Viewed as more competent/politically savvy than Fox admin.  Greatest challenge: increasing cost of fighting war on drugs/organized crime o Calderon relied on army/federal police to launch military offensives against drug cartels o Triggered ongoing/unexpectedly intense wave of violence  Killed tens of thousands  Damaged country’s image abroad  Undermined confidence of citizens in ability of gov. to maintain order/assure their safety Themes and Implications Historical Junctures and Political Themes  Previously prided on being ideologically independent-abandoned during 1980s in favor or rapid integration into global economy  Conflict between market-oriented development strategy and philosophical tradition of strong/protective state  Corporatist state-increased state power in relation to civil society  PRI: essential channel for material goods, jobs, distribution of land and allocation of development projects o Increase popular support/buy off opposition  Scope for challenging gov. very limited traditionally  State did not become openly repressive except when directly challenged  1980s: loss of capacity for PRI to control political activities o civic groups insisted on their right to remain independent  future stability: depends on how well a more democratic gov. can accommodate conflicting interests while at the same time providing better economic opportunities to its very large number of poor citizens Implications for Comparative Politics  PRI established enduring institutions of governance/conditions for political stability o Alliance between dominant party and strong development oriented state  Currently transforming from corporatist state to democracy o Struggles to resolve conflicts of development through integration with N. American neighbors  Oil rich: ready source of revenue/foreign exchange o Economy extremely vulnerable  Upper-middle-income developing country o Higher than most developing countries: per capita income: $13,200 Political Economy and Development State and Economy  Too attractive to foreign investors during Porfiriato (1876-1911) o Large industries controlled by foreign investors  Petroleum, railroad network, mining wealth, railroad network o Nationalist reaction  Nationalism combined with sense of social justice inspired by revolutionary leaders (like Zapata)  Adopted developmental strategy of state capitalism o Relied heavily on gov. actions to encourage private investment/reduce risks for private entrepreneurs o Should it manufacture more rather than importing? Import Substitution and Its Consequences  1940-1982: pursued form of state capitalism and import substitution industrialization (ISI) o gov. promoted development of industries to supply domestic market by encouraging domestic/international investment o By 1960s-70s: producing consumer durables, intermediate goods and capital goods  Massive agrarian reform of the 1930sejido became important structure in rural economy o After Cardenas; moved away from economic development of ejido  Rising business elite-more gov. protections for domestic entrepreneurs o Protected businessespowerful players in national politics  Workers became more important players o Unionization after Constitution of 1917 o Policy change 1940s: unions more dependent on gov. for benefits/protection o Labor leaders: privileged access to country’s political leadership and benefited personally from control over jobs/contracts/working conditions  Able to veto gov. efforts to cut back on their benefits/lobbied for even more advantages  Farmers primarily benefited from gov. policies/services in agriculture o By 1950s: groups of large commercially oriented farmers had emerged to dominate the agricultural economy  Gov. policies eventually limited potential for further growth  Urban poor grew steadily partic. from 1960s on  Developed large informal sector  Farming in ejido communities partic. difficult  Increasing disparities in rural and urban incomes and high population growth ratesemergence of rural guerilla movements and student protests in mid-late 1960s o Domestic market limited by poverty  By late 1960s: no longer able to met domestic demand for basic foodstuffs o Forced to import increasingly large quantities of food  Cost gov. foreign exchange Sowing the Oil and Reaping a Crisis  Early 1970s: threat of social crises from rural poverty, chaotic urbanization, high population growth, questioning of political legitimacy o Gov. response: increasing investment in infrastructure/public industries, regulating the flow of foreign capital, increasing social spending  Public internal debt grew rapidly-required heavy borrowing abroad  1978-1982: became major oil exporter o fortune rose with oil prices; vice versa o Pres. Jose Lopez Portillo (1976-1982)  “sow the oil” policy: vast investment projects in virtually all sectors, major new initiatives to reduce poverty and deal with declining agricul


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