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Music in America Notes and Study Guides

by: Taylor Comstock

Music in America Notes and Study Guides GMUS

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Includes note outlines all filled out from entire semester. Most are numbered so you can tell the order. Also includes study guides for exams 1, 2 and 3.
Music in America
Dr. Andrew Connell
Music, american, Music History
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Date Created: 08/18/16
GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture 1: Introduction Readings associated with this lecture: Crawford & Hamberlin text, Introduction (pgs. 1-17) People Making Music MUSIC CULTURE  A shared set of musical beliefs and practices that defines a group of people What is Culture?  Shared set of beliefs and practices that define a group of people What is Music?  Humanly organized sound (organized by both performer and listener) o Participatory  Several cultures don’t have a word for music (Navajos)- or divided up (instrumental, oral, etc.) Related Cultural Terms Enculturation  The process by which infants learn their culture Acculturation  Cultural change that occurs in response to extended firsthand contact between two or more previously autonomous groups o Rarely equally- usually a dominant, but still an exchange o Accelerating over past 50 years Appropriation  To take a trait or practice from another individual or cultural group and make it your own Cultural Change and Exchange Intra-cultural-exchange within same culture Inter-cultural-exchange between cultures Eurocentric biases Instruments Organology  Study of instruments Classification of instruments  How the sound is made Aerophones  Vibrating column of air 1 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture 1: Introduction  Any kind of wind Chordophones  strings Membranophones  any kind of drum with a head Idiophones  percussion instrument-naturally sonorous material Mechanical & Electronic instruments Music as Sound Physical Perceptual Frequency Pitch Amplitude Loudness (volume) Spectrum Timbre (Quality) Music Fundamentals: Rhythm  carries music through time  a series of oral events through which we hear some sort of patterned time Polyrhythm  multiple rhythms Meter Duple (2,4,8) Triple Compound meter Polymeter Non-metered (rubato)  movement without steady beat Music Fundamentals: Melody  series of notes Scale Pentatonic (5 notes) –most common Heptatonic (7 notes) -most common Chromatic Microtonal (12+)  smaller intervals, more divided 7 + or -2 2 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture 1: Introduction Contour  shape-space between notes (large or small) Inflection  how melody is interpreted  ornamentation  syllabic or mellismatic (vocal music) o one note per syllable vs. more than one note per syllable o most music uses both Ornamentation Syllabic  one note per syllable Mellismatic  vocal music  more than one note per syllable -most music mixes both syllabic and mellismatic Music Fundamentals: Harmony Harmony  2 or more notes sounding at the same time o what plays underneath Interval  1 and 3 Chord  1, 3, 5 Music Fundamentals: Texture Monophony  single melodic line-no harmony Heterophony  differences in performances Polyphony  different lines o form greater sound (most music) Music Fundamentals: Form Examples of musical form: 12-bar blues 32-bar AABA Sonata form 3 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture 1: Introduction Verse-chorus 4 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: American Indian Music Readings: Chapters 9 (pgs. 205-215), 21 (pgs. 514-518) Brief History: 50,000­8,000 B.C. ­ Asian Hunters cross the Bering land bridge When Europeans arrived: 1. 2­18 million inhabitants (estimates vary widely)  2.  over 1000 tribal groups 3. 60 different language families (incredible cultural and linguistic diversity) ­primarily nomadic­ hunters and fisherman  ­BUT: often with sophisticated political, social and religious systems  Max Yamane Demo: Native American Men’s Fancy Dance Dennis Roughface (Ponca)   Early 1900s   Thunderstorm on great plains,  a great stallion in a corral became agitated and was moving around  At the time­only straight dance (warrior dance)  Developed bustles and whipsticks; outfit   Began mimicking the horse o Originally disapproved of by elders o Called the crazy dance  Style began to be adopted­modern style  Most common at modern Pow Wows  Continuously evolving  Pow Wow competitions  Straight Songs  Continuous beat/rhythm throughout the song Honor Beats  3 beats in the middle of the song   giving honor to mother earth 1 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: American Indian Music o bowing to ground  fancy dance: more contemporary­ do whatever you want during  honor beats but many incorporate the bowing  more traditional dances: still incorporate the bowing and honor  Dance Movements  Nothing’s choreographed­made up on the spot  o most dancers have their own set of dance moves  Men’s “one­two” step   Basic step   Two foot taps with each foot Women’s “one” step Spins and Footwork   Northern o Higher singing  o Becoming faster o Lots of movements and lots of spinning   Southern o More and faster turns o Lower more traditional singing o Not as much foot work “Pose” on the last beat.   Depends on style of dancer  Most tend to do splits  Cant dance past end beat of song in a competition or you’re disqualified  o Live music­ have to pay attention to patterns and beat of song to know  when it’s ending  Dance Songs: “Fancy Dance Song” “War Cry”  2 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: American Indian Music Fancy Dance Regalia   common throughout fancy dance  no one will look alike o each dancer has regalia specific to them and their people   modern style­ bling and embellishment  older style: “straight dance” from southern plains­ warrior or war dance  bustle: wear two­ top and bottom; flagging tape hanging off of them Difficulties of studying pre­contact American Indian music: • Oral culture o no written traditions o passed down between generations • War and disease o brought new diseases they weren’t used to  o attempts to control them  o violence between tribes and between Europeans and Natives • Evangelism 3 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: American Indian Music o attempt to culture Natives and spread European religion • Pan­Indian movements o uniting culture  • Western ways o allure o many assimilated into mainstream American life leaving traditions behind  • Eurocentric biases o accounts from the time period were through a European perspective o seen as savages or good, pure and unbiased o viewed in a stereotypical way  Scholarly Study of Native Americans Begins in late 19  century and relies on: 1. Material culture 2. Oral culture 3. Historical accounts­be wary of Eurocentric bias and other biases 4. Extrapolating backwards­inference based on contemporary practices  Listen: “A Buffalo Said to Me” (in textbook) The Role of Music in Native Cultures: •  Inextricably linked with ceremonial ritual o Traditional culture­always associated with ceremony • Compositions o Songs are thought to have always existed o Given to individuals by God, spirits o Delivered by spirit­ hallucinogenic experience  o Thought to be property of the individual or the tribe o Songs only available by gift or by sale • Spiritual properties o Not so important that it sounds beautiful, but should carry out the ritual function  of the ceremony  o Music has power o Music links humans to spiritual qualities  … Efficacy­ its effect is more important than its aesthetics   General Musical Characteristics • Predominantly vocal  o With drumming  • Monophonic  4 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: American Indian Music o Not typically harmonies Songs use: • vocables o Sounds; no linguistic meaning­ may have had meaning at one time but it has been  forgotten  o Not just nonsense syllables­certain syllables associated with certain songs  • Short, repeating melodies ­ Repetition with subtle variation  ­ Scales of 3­6 notes predominate Musical Instruments Membranophones & Idiophones ­ drums and rattles ­always used to accompany songs (vocals); rarely pieces with drums alone  Aerophones Few aerophones ­ Courting flute ­whistles   ­revival in the past few decades of flute use  ­ LISTEN: “The Photograph” ­ Kevin Locke (Lacota) No Chordophones (in traditional music)  ­brought by Europeans, diffused by popular culture Used today by American Indian: ­ Singer/songwriters ­ Country bands ­ Rock and roll bands Select Native American Culture Areas: 1. Plains (Oklahoma)  Intertribal performance  male singers, central bass drum, leg bells  Tense, pulsing voices  Downward, terraced contour  “Honor beats” signal end of sections 5 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: American Indian Music  Ululation by female singers (2nd repetition)  Represents “powwow” style 2. Southwest (Pueblo) LISTEN: “Round Dance Song”  Melodic contour features wide leaps to high accented pitch  Angular, undulating phrases  Rhythmic pattern: long­short  No harmony­just drums and voice (typical of a lot of Native American music) 3. Northwest Coast Video: Whale Dance / Cedar Bark Ceremony  Kwákwakyawakw (or Kwakiutl) tribe Performed by Native American Dance Theater  Song Ownership o Reinforces social hierarchy o Marker of social status o Strict rules of performance, transfer, etc.  o Most important owned by chief and elders o Certain songs associated with certain ranks/statuses  Potlatch ceremony o Celebrate birth, weddings, deaths, transfers of power o Involve feasts, gifts, songs and dances o Outlawed 1880­1950s in the US and Canada   Carried out in secret  Plank drums, rattles o Usually made from wood­carved out logs o Rattles carved in shapes of animals  Musical characteristics: o Begun by leader—answered by chorus o Complex rhythm patters­ often change throughout song o Sectional songs o More relaxed and open voice style  Rounder and darker  o Mix of vernacular and vocables  PAN­INDIAN MOVEMENTS ­break down differences between different areas The Trail of Tears (1830­42) 6 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: American Indian Music  Congress passes Indian Removal Act (1830)  Relocates Native Americans West into Oklahoma territories  Many transported in chains, many died o Cherokees from Florida o About 4,000 people; lost about 20%  All relocated together­ groups mixed The Ghost Dance Movement th  Grew end of 19  century  During eclipse of sun someone suffering from high fever saw a vision where all  white men would disappear and all dead indians would return and bring with them the old way of life  Had to renounce alcohol and farming to participate  No fast steps and loud drumming like plains style  Slow shuffling movements­going around in circle; following the sun  Usually no drumming­ singing and shuffling and chanting  Both men and women could participate  Could last 4­5 days  US gov. saw as threatening war dance and tried to outlaw/prevent it LISTEN: “Ghost Dance Song” Wokova Massacre at Wounded Knee 1890  Prevention attempts by US gov.  Attacked women and children­ killed by US cavalrymen Peyote Cult (The Native American Church)  Spread throughout plains region­ mid 20th cent. All throughout US  Blended with Christianity  Not associated with single tribe or group  Consumption of Peyote buds during ceremony  20­30 hours of singing, ceremony, ritual etc. in a teepee LISTEN “Peyote Song” (Sioux) ­use of water drum; water inside, changes sound as you tip it ­spells out JESUS ONLY ­literal/direct connections rather than implied Pow­Wow 7 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: American Indian Music  Pan Indian gatherings o Arts, dance, music, food  Way of holding on to traditional culture o Way of preserving Indian culture­ passing it on/keeping it going  Video: Pow Wow  8 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: African-American Musical Roots Quiz 2! Friday through Tuesday! Password: pow_wow Readings: Chapter 4 THE SLAVE TRADE First slaves brought to America 1619 Estimated 10 million slaves taken to new world  Triumph of economics over morals  Sugar and tobacco trade  About half a million taken to US  Largest group: 3-5 million taken to Brazil ROUTES OF THE SLAVE TRADE  Worldwide-not just to the Americas  Throughout Africa- ending up as far away as Japan  Worldwide crime  Majority slaves from West Africa PROBLEMS WITH RESEARCHING BLACK MUSIC  Oral culture  Lack of early texts o Hard to study or account for lives during colonial period  Euro-American written accounts o Have to be relied on primarily o Have to account for bias  Slaves brought to America o Stripped of material culture-left with ideas  Music=ideas  Attitude towards creating sound  Africa: continent not country with 3000+ ethnic groups and 1000+ languages AFRICAN MUSICAL TRAITS Percussion  polyrhythms o Multiple rhythms on top of each other  Interlocking parts 1 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: African-American Musical Roots o Cyclical variations  Primary element  Emphasis on a marked steady beat-very distinct Call and Response  Lead singer and chorus  Lead drummer and other drums  Usually response repeated over and over again while lead improvises- most common kind  Way for universal participation  Participatory musical cultures o Some cultures: no difference between musicians and non musicians  Everyone considered musical Heterogeneous sound ideal  Preference for different kinds of sounds  Variety of instruments and vocal sounds Dance  Another way of universal participation  Rarely have music without dance Music integrated into daily life  Everybody participating  No specific time for music making- all times/anytime  Music: vehicle that brings together sacred and secular VIDEO: AFRICAN MUSIC/DANCE Things to note in video:  Drums and percussion- one horn o Rattles attached to drums  Dance- young boys dancing  Call and response-lead drummer AFRICAN RETENTIONS IN THE AMERICAS MUSIC IN THE AFRICAN DIASPORA  Brought to Americas-stripped of their culture o Had to rebuild their culture-music as a vehicle CUBA –Santeria (religion), rumba (style of music) -vehicle to unite sacred and secular 2 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: African-American Musical Roots Listen: “Song for Elegua” HAITI  Voudoun (religion), rara (style of music-street music)  percussion and tin horns (horns being used as percussion instruments)  polyrhythms-different parts  vehicle to unite sacred and secular Listen: “Rara Instrumental Music” BRAZIL  Candomblé, samba (popular music)  most slaves- most African culture retention Listen: Alvorada (samba)  variety of instruments all layered in o polyrhythms slowly built up SLAVES IN THE NEW WORLD  Forced acculturation; forced to adjust to: o Separation …  From both material culture and homeland o Trauma …  Violence, little control of life o Adapting …  No teaching  Basic survival level: adapt  New food, language, culture, etc.  Expected to work REGIONAL DIFFERENCES Northern States  Urban o NYC: 7,000 people o Boston: 12,000 o Smaller numbers of black people o Slavery outlawed in N (except New Jersey) in 1786 o Slaves less isolated-closer together  More interaction with masters and society 3 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: African-American Musical Roots  Much more assimilation into European-American culture  Less retention of African American culture  Greater acculturation SOUTHERN MUSICAL ACTIVITIES The South  More rural o Charleston: largest with 3,500 people o Large plantations o Mostly tobacco  Majority black populations-but way more isolated o Much less interaction between blacks and whites  Less acculturation and more retention of African American culture  Holidays allowed for African festivals o Christmas o Election Days o Pinkster o Use of banjo (originally African instrument), fiddle  Mixing instruments, rebuilding and recreating-adapting to Europeans but mixing with African influences/cultures AFRICAN AMERICAN MUSICAL ACTIVITIES  Period accounts o More participation  Professional dance musicians o “rented” out by owners- performed publicly  Advertisements o Education, character, appearance, and musical talents: all selling points o Learning skills by observation and teaching themselves to create selling points WORK SONGS, CRIES, & HOLLERS  Music in daily life o Field Hollers o Passed time while working o Music can happen anytime: part of life 4 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: African-American Musical Roots –LISTEN: “I Don’t Mind the Weather”  Work Songs –LISTEN: “Long John” o Keeping time of work actions o Call and response RELIGIOUS MUSIC & EVANGELISM  North: Methodists o o First Methodist church: Trinity Church in New York  Began accepting converted African Americans  Sometimes integrated, but usually in separate sections/wings  South: Baptist  Controversy over conversion  The Church: o Concern for their souls and lives o Baptism: making slaves a human being (if they’re a human being why are they enslaved?)  Law in Virginia: baptism didn’t equal freedom from bondage  Opponents feared conversion o Would baptism elevate them? Make them human beings? o Fear of them becoming too “uppity”, educated, or empowered THE GREAT AWAKENINGS 1730-1740s & 1780-1830  Evangelical revivals o Large festivals, travelled to, stayed in tents  Primarily Protestant o Lower/working class- all in similar societal position o Blacks and whites worship together  Separated but treated as potential Christians  Upheld for their musical abilities: rhythmic and very attractive to many people 5 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: African-American Musical Roots  African retentions applied to European hymns- developed black spirituals o Influence on white worshippers  Criticized by conservative Methodists RICHARD ALLEN (1760-1831)  1784, Appointed preacher in Philadelphia o Old St. Georgia’s Methodist Church  First licensed black preacher in U.S.  Black congregation grew- so racism and segregation grew AFRICAN METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH (AME)  Founded by Allen in 1794 o Wanted more control over worship  A Collection of Spiritual Songs and Hymns Selected from Various Authors by Richard Allen, African Minister (1801) o songs and hymns popular in African American congregations o also included some of his own songs/texts o mostly psalm meter- no music, mostly words o introduced his own innovation: wandering refrains  “Wandering refrains” o 2 long phrases at end of song o extending and intensifying the song o use of call and response and repetition o emotional expression o opportunity for improvisation LISTEN: “Am I a Soldier of the Cross?” (Listening outline, pg. 93)  Legacy of the AME The Ring Shout and the Spiritual  All African American music  Georgia Sea Island Singers o Barrier islands o Most isolated African American communities o Most cultural retention o Some music that survived hundreds of years intact- remained extremely close to those in Africa 6 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: African-American Musical Roots  Shout-Step o Kick your feet off the ground o Moving in a circle o Instrument: usually some sort of stick like a broom handle- no formal instruments besides tambourine o Limited resources, but a lot of expression o Foot stamping in rhythm  Aesthetic transformation o European —> African o Hymn —> African American Spiritual VIDEO: “Adam in the Garden” The Georgia Sea Island Singers CLOAKED MEANINGS IN THE AFRICAN-AMERICAN SPIRITUAL  Use Biblical imagery to describe: o Wretchedness of slavery o Hope for escape from bondage/this life  Symbolism: telling underlying story o Israelites = slaves o Pharaoh = slave owner o Chariot = Underground Railroad o Canaan = the North (Canada, Northern states, wherever represented freedom)  Music: creates a world unto itself- way of coping and linking to the larger world o Spiritual and physical sense AFRICAN RETENTIONS REVISITED  Vocal style o Rougher sound o Improvisation, ornamentation  Polyrhythms o Hand claps, foot stomps, voices  Call-and-response o Music universal  Improvisation  Continuity of sacred and secular worlds  Integration of music into the social fabric 7 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: African-American Musical Roots o Communal yet individualistic  Looseness to it 8 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Early Sacred Traditions Readings: chapters 1, 3, 7 (173­175) THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION Challenged key Catholic beliefs ­problems with central hierarchy of Catholicism ­wanted more individual control over their congregations Martin Luther (1483­1546) John Calvin (1509­1564) ­ Calvinists   ANGLO SETTLERS TO THE U.S. BROUGHT: An aversion to: 1. State Religion 2.Church Hierarchy  Plainsong ­simplified song meter ­usually no harmony EARLY PSALMBOOKS Reverend Henry Ainsworth ­ The Book of Psalmes: Englished Both in Prose and Metre The Bay Psalm Book ­ Simplified meters PSALM METER Based on number of syllables per line ­ Long meter ­ Common meter ­ Short meter; least common  Music as vehicle for words ­followed meter of text  1 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Early Sacred Traditions ­music less important than the message it’s trying to get across  LISTEN: “Macedonia” ­ Common meter (  Not from the dust afflictions grow (8) Nor troubles rise by chance (6) But we are born to cares and woe (8) A sad inheritance (6) As Sparks break out from Burning Coals (8) And Still are upwards born (6) So grief is rooted in our souls (8) And man grows up to mourn (6) Yet with my God I leave my cause (8) And trust his promis’d grace (6) He rules me by his well­known laws (8) Of love and righteousness (6) LINING OUT The “Usual Way”  Song leader speaks lines or verses­feeds it to congregation and they sing it back   Poor or illiterate­ way of getting around inability to read or inability to get books  Slows down the song  Lot of variation on how a song is sung from congregation to congregation  o Completely different melodies  LISTEN: “Guide Me, O Thou Great Jehovah”  (Listening Guide, pg. 30)  Criticized as “praising God by piece­meal” o More conservative clergymen disapproved of the variation and  informality­ but it was a way to get around limitations and be inclusive  SINGING SCHOOL TRADITION “Singing masters”  Usually from New England  Travelled and people would come 2­3 times a week for series of classes 2 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Early Sacred Traditions o How to read music, voice training, how to sing harmonies ­ “Regular Singing”  New separation of choirs and congregations  New wants for new music/more complex arrangements, etc.  WILLIAM BILLINGS (1746­1800) The “first American composer worthy of note” ­ Described as “a singular man of . . . uncommon negligence of person” ­ music still being performed today  ­ spoke and sang in an intelligent way ­fine musician ­ self­taught ­ patriot­ friends with number of revolutionary leaders/patriorts ­ The New England Psalm­Singer (1770) ­first published book of musical work entirely of an American composer ­ about 130 songs ­all his own music and lyrics ­waited a year so he could have it published on American made paper  ­ The Singing Master’s Assistant (1778) Subscription Sales ­did pre­sales­ enough pre­sales=enough money to print ­basically publishing yourself ­birth of American music industry  LISTEN: “Chester” (Listening guide pg. 37) ­ Popular revolutionary­era song ­ No copyright in the US yet­ by 1780 everyone was copying/ripping off his work ­died poverty stricken  TWO DIVERGENT STREAMS “Praise”  Direct praise  No intermediary between individual and higher power  Associated with rural Northern and rural Southern congregations “Edification”  Intellectual, moral, and spiritual improvement 3 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Early Sacred Traditions  Delight of the sense­ individual raising up SHAPE NOTE SINGING  Popular in the South and rural parts of North and parts of rural NE  Fa­sol­la­mi­syllables used o Different­shaped note­head to each syllable   Considered easier way to read music o Learn quickly­sing different parts in not a lot of time/preparation o Easier to train people   More medieval sounding   general style: o open harmonies o melody in middle voice o no separation between congregations in songs o open style The Sacred Harp (1844) ­ Shape note hymnbook VIDEO: Contemporary Sacred Harp Singing BLACK SACRED HARP SINGING Cross­cultural black and white interactions  congregations coming from same marginalized existence/social classes The Colored Sacred Harp (1934) ­ African American composers ­companion­ first Black shape note publication “OF, FOR, AND BY THE PEOPLE”  Democratic music making o for everyone­anyone can sing  o audience is higher power: doesn’t care about performance style or quality  but more about energy/message o experience o by/for the people: not to impress with performance quality   Sacred Harp denounced by critics 4 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Early Sacred Traditions  “dunce notes”  “Scientific” vsth“un­scientific” music o early 19  cent.: scientific music­ methodical way of putting notes  together   opposite of singing school tradition EDIFICATION: “CORRECT SINGING” Ancient music and reform  Centered in New England  Singing/music should be pleasant  Rekindle “a genuine religious spirit”  Politics of representation o What kind of music represents who we are  LOWELL MASON (1792­1872)  Born into the singing school tradition o Travelled and taught at them o Seen as ranger for religious music   Boston Handel and Haydn Society Collection of Church Music (1821) o Eventually sells 50,000 copies o Split profits 50/50­negotiated excellent royalties   Made immense amount of money for time o Music still sung today   Charismatic, very well known choir leader o Founder of music education  LISTEN: “Olivet” (listening guide pg. 82)  Austere, sober kind of hymn MASON AND MUSIC EDUCATION  Children’s singing schools (1830) o 1500 students in first year o Goal of universal literacy in the US  Some musical knowledge, be able to read music   Never been done before  Now taken for granted in US­ doesn’t happen in many countries in  the world  5 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Early Sacred Traditions  Music enters Boston school curriculum in 1838 o Approached Board of Education in Boston­ services free for a year  o Manual of the Boston Academy of Music  Bought by students o franchises his music program: books, network of teachers  becomes highest paid musician in US LOWELL MASON’S SYSTEM 1.) Teach singing before notation  begin by singing instead of learning to read music or learning technical things 2.) Active learning  learning by doing 3.) Teach one element at a time  really concentrating energies on one thing 4.) Master each step before moving on 5.) Theory and principal follow practice  after active learning and practicing, technical learning begins  ECONOMICS OF MUSIC–MAKING Types of musical work:  performing  teaching  manufacturing instruments  production (modern)  composing  publishing Mason combined: Integrated and operated on multiple levels Negotiated favorable royalties 19TH CENTURY URBAN GOSPEL Urban Revivalism  Influenced by Camp revivals  Dwight L. Moody (1837­1899) and Ira Sankey (1840­1908) 6 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Early Sacred Traditions o Moody­preacher, Sankey­his musical composer o New style of gospel  Mass revivals­ new kinds of music   Much more reliance on pop music  Gospel Hymns  Verse­chorus form o Pop form  Listen: “In the Sweet By­and­By” (listening guide, pg. 175)  made popular by Moody and Sankey  verse­chorus form  7 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: Minstrelsy and Parlor songs Readings: Chapter 6 Origins of the Popular Style DEVELOPMENT OF POPULAR CULTURE  Europe: two­tier system of culture o Folk Culture­ core working class, uneducated, urban working class, rural  communities  Simpler forms musically; generally non­commerical; part of their daily  lives/profession o High Culture­elites, upper class  More complicated musically  Trained performers  Seen as superior form of culture  Interaction between performers and audience  A third category: Popular culture o Draws from both highthnd folk cultures o Develops during 19  century  o Audience had a lot of choices­ spectating or performing­ by mid century o Audience and performers very interactive­participatory culture CATEGORIES OF POPULAR MUSIC IN 19TH CENTURY AMERICA  Minstrelsy  Parlor songs  Military band music  Musical theater  Opera o Popular culture during 19  century  o Attended by all classes  MINSTRELSY  Traveling “blackface” variety shows  o Dating back to Europe (England)  Stereotype o Caricatures 1 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: Minstrelsy and Parlor songs o Portrayals of all types of marginalized people, but especially African Americans,  for comic relief  Exotic, Jewish, Irish   Increased awareness of o African American customs­ folk song and dance  Most popular form of entertainment  Part of the fragmentation o Complex history  Some African American performers  o Separation of popular culture and elitist culture  High brow and low brow PRECURSORS  18th Century English Comic Theater o 1  black face stage performer: Shakespeare’s Othello  Black man portrayed as tragic or pitiful figure o Expressed through songs  But 19th century portrayals were far less sympathetic THE ORIGIN STORY GOES…  Thomas “Daddy” Rice o Becomes obsessed with an African performer  Observes the performer  Rice appropriates character Jim Crow  He “blacks up”; paints his face  Doesn’t refer to himself as a minstrel  Uses southern black dialect  Performs act as character between performances   Character becomes staple of minstrel shows  High brow topics from a different view JIM CROW “Weel about and turn about, And do jis’ so Ev’ry time I weel about and jump Jim Crow” 2 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: Minstrelsy and Parlor songs ZIP COON  Urban Northerner o Other popular character  “Zip a duden duden..” o Zip a dee do dah tune used by Disney  THE MINSTREL SHOW  1843 Virginia Minstrels o actually from New York o all Irish Americans­ a lot of early performers were  lower class, poor, marginalized  success through caricturizing African Americans  raising their own status through minimizing another more marginalized  group   only way the could mark society­ through performing arts  Dan Emmett o Composer­ some music still used today  o I Wish I Was in Dixie Land  Became popular during Civil War­ not happy about it being a Northerner o Established template for early Minstrel shows  4 performers  4 instruments:  Fiddle  Banjo  Tambourine  Bones­similar to spoons  multicultural fusion­ origins of instruments, style, etc.: African­ but  probably sounded more similar to their Irish roots despite caricaturization  of African Americans during performance     LISTEN: “De Boatman’s Dance” (Listening guide, pg. 138­39) MINSTREL ENSEMBLES  trying to create idea of African Americans o portraying them as silly, not serious o fantasy of vision of slavery   exaggerated features 3 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: Minstrelsy and Parlor songs  crazy look  primarily male o often female impersonators o women didn’t become involved until late   widespread image of Jim Crow MINSTREL SOURCES  Minstrel performers visit South and plantations o Listening to Black music, interaction, etc.  o Critiques: how authentic was the portrayal?  Northern whites accept the images presented by minstrel shows as being accurate o Less interaction with African Americans o Some even thought performers were black   MINSTREL SHOW STRUCTURE ­precursor to vaudeville, or variety shows  First Section: Minstrel Line o Troop seated in circle o  Mr. Interlocuter o Often in white face o host o Banter back and forth with performers o Imitate/make fun of upper class whites  Second Section: Olio o Specialized numbers  Third Section: “Walk Around Finale” o Often one act skit or play portraying an aspect of plantation life o The Cakewalk  Strutting around stage  Often a contest  Thought to be invented by African Americans parodying their masters  during balls, etc.   Complex parody of a parody   Influenced coon songs­ began at start of next century LISTEN: “The Cake Walk”  Recorded in 1902 by the Victor Minstrels IMAGES OF MINSTRELSY 4 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: Minstrelsy and Parlor songs BLACK MINSTREL PERFORMERS • Signor Cornmeali o Vendor in New Orleans o Sang Ethiopian tunes­ influenced many other performers • William Henry Lane: “Master Juba” o Charles Dickinson: greatest dancer he had ever seen o Toured England  5 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: Minstrelsy and Parlor songs Post–Emancipation  1865 ­ First permanent black troupes o Georgia Minstrels  15 performers  many types of instruments  toured throughout US and England   If African American, why participate? o Only real way to participate in the performing arts  Minstrelsy was what everyone was going to see  Every town and city had a minstrel theater  Performed in White House and for Kings and Queens  All best performers were in Minstrelsy o Way to make money as performer   Way to make a living  Overpowering economic reasons o Way to reclaim it­ add their own spin/change it JAMES BLAND (1854­1911)  Wrote 700 compositions  Toured as a minstrel starting 1875 o Only for a few years   1881 began solo career o singer, songwriter, composer  very very popular  LISTEN: “Carry me Back to Old Virginny”  Virginia state song 1940­1997  Probably his most popular song   Romanticized idea of slavery  o Retired as state song when no good replacement for lyrics was found  Carry me back to old Virginny, There's where the cotton and the corn and ‘tatoes grow, There's where the birds warble sweet in the springtime, There's where the old darke'ys heart am long'd to go, There's where I labored so hard for old massa, Day after day in the field of yellow corn, No place on earth do I love more sincerely Than old Virginny, the state where I was born 6 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: Minstrelsy and Parlor songs IRONY OF BLACK MINSTRELSY  White minstrels adapted African American song and taste to the taste of America  Black minstrels started reworking same songs to reclaim them   Adapting them to Black America o Parody of a parody of a parody­ circular  THE LEGACY OF MINSTRELSY  America coming to terms with being a multicultural society  Exposure to different cultures  White attraction to different type of culture  New styles of music dance and theater BUT . . .  Derogatory caricatures  Persistent stereotypes  o Many still prevalent today o Influenced vaudeville and variety shows o A minstrel show in England lasted into the 60’s o Continued into television and other medias   o Echoes in musical theater, tv programs  Variety show structure o Attitudes about race  VIDEO: Minstrel legacy montage  From Spike Lee’s Bamboozled PARLOR SONGS  Stephen Foster (1826­1864) st o 1  American to mthe his living solely on popular songs o most famous 19  century American composers o from Pittsburgh, born on July 4th o Irish o Published first composition in 1841  Early success “Oh Susanna” o Royalty of 2 cents a copy (they only cost about 5 cents)­ rather than selling it  outright   Allowed him to make his living just as a composer 7 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: Minstrelsy and Parlor songs  Wrote both parlor songs...  o Sheet music with simple accompaniment o Usually based on old English ballads o Things you can sing while accompanying yourself or in the parlor with friends o Verse­chorus form LISTEN: “I Dream of Jeanie with the Light Brown Hair” (listening guide, pg. 149­50)  … and Minstrel songs o greatest success from Minstrel songs o Northerner­ sympathetic to African Americans  But really enjoyed minstrel shows­ but was uncomfortable with the  minstrelsy itself  Put on some with his friends  Romanticizing plantation life in songs­ nostalgia was popular  “plantation songs”  licensed his songs to George Christie for him to perform over his name  collecting royalties, but his name isn’t there because he’s  uncomfortable publishing minstrelsy under his own name  eventually wanted them back because of their popularity and  economic benefit o legal back and forth  o eventually published under Foster’s name o fame and money overcame objections to minstrelsy  LISTEN: “Oh Susanna” (Listening guide, pg. 140­41) LISTEN: “Old Folks at Home” aka Swanee River  Paul Robeson version: ‘20’s  Louis Armstrong and Mills Brothers version o Disconvincing from romanticized plantation life  Political statement POPULAR SONG AND SOCIAL CHANGE  The Hutchison Family o group still exist today­descendants o originally 3 brothers o music needs purpose 8 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture outline: Minstrelsy and Parlor songs o good at playing on audience’s emotions   seen as very genuine authentic o Anti­drinking crusade  1830: 3x amount of alcohol consumption as today   but: only way to sanitize liquid­ hard to find clean water until mid  19  century   1845: level of drinking had decreased o Supported abolition  Staunch abolitionists  Cause taken up after cause of anti­drinking campaign LISTEN: “Get Off the Track” (Listening guide, pg. 154­55) 9 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Ballads and Folk Music Readings: Chapters 2, 9 (215­224), 14 (349­359), & 17 (431­439) EUROPEAN COLONIZATION  French o Fur trade, colonization  Spanish o conquest  English o Religious freedom THE BALLAD TRADITION    Popular narrative song  Stanzas o Sections, 4 or 5 lines  Strophic  o Short musical melody or phrases, repeated throughout song o Can allow a song to be very very long  Oral tradition o Not written down o Passed down o Human mind: conservator, human voice: publisher  BALLAD TYPES  From U.S. perspective: o Imported  In same form they existed in in British Isles­same tune o Naturalized  European origins but new text is created o Native  Newly composed  Staple of folk revivals in 20  century and Revolution  “BARBARA ALLEN”: SCOTTISH ROOTS  Based on a 17th­century Scottish ballad  1 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Ballads and Folk Music o Emotional core­remains the same despite variation in performance and  passing on   Revolve around one moral story  o Mocks hated mistress of King Charles II (Barbara) o Many variations  Barbara Allen:  Imported versions and variants  1962: Library of Congress had 243 versions  LISTEN: H. J. Beeker version  With guitar accompaniment  Straightforward version  LISTEN: May Kennedy McCord version  Solo voice o Acapella  LISTEN: Pete Seeger version  Popular folk singer  Twas in the merry month of May  When green buds all were swelling,  Oh mother, oh mother go dig my grave  Sweet William on his death bed lay  Make it both long and narrow,  For love of Barbara Allen. Sweet William died of love for me  And I will die of sorrow. He sent his servant to the town  To the place where she was dwelling,  And father, oh father, go dig my grave  Saying you must come, to my master dear  Make it both long and narrow,  If your name be Barbara Allen. Sweet William died on yesterday  And I will die tomorrow.  So slowly, slowly she got up  And slowly she drew nigh him,  Barbara Allen was buried in the old churchyard  And the only words to him did say  Sweet William was buried beside her,  Young man I think you're dying.  Out of sweet William's heart, there grew a rose  Out of Barbara Allen's a briar.  He turned his face unto the wall  And death was in him welling,  They grew and grew in the old churchyard  Good­bye, good­bye, to my friends all  Till they could grow no higher  Be good to Barbara Allen. At the end they formed, a true lover's knot  And the rose grew round the briar. When he was dead and laid in grave  She heard the death bells knelling  And every stroke to her did say  Hard hearted Barbara Allen.  2 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Ballads and Folk Music NATIVE BALLADS  Broadside Ballads o Used as social protests during Civil War Period o Hastily written to keep up with current events o Usually just words o First commercial pop music in US  o Often used humor, satire, political/social criticism, propaganda, sexual  innuendo, etc.  LISTEN “The Liberty Song”  (Listening guide, pg. 47)  Verse­chorus form  “In Freedom we're born and in Freedom we'll live. Our purses are ready. Steady, friends, steady; Not as slaves, but as Freemen our money we'll give” MURDER BALLADS  Often based on real life events  Date back to medieval times  Murdered could be hero of story or it could end in justice  Varying perspectives  Could be made up  Often involved supernatural elements Listen: Ommie Wise   Classic performance  1927 I'll tell you all a story about Ommie Wise  How she was deluded by John Louis' lies.  He told her to meet him at Adams's Springs; He'd bring her some money and some other fine things. He brought her no money nor no other fine things, But, "Get up behind me, Ommie, to Squire Ellett's we'll go."  3 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Ballads and Folk Music She got up behind him, "So caref'llie we'll go." They rode 'till they came where deep waters did flow. John Lewis, he concluded to tell her his mind; John Lewis, he concluded to leave her behind.  She threw her arms around him, "John, spare me my life, And I'll go distracted and never be your wife."  He threw her arms from round him, and into the water she plunged. John Lewis, he turned 'round and rode back to Adams's Hall. He went, enquired for Ommie, but, "Ommie, she is not here. She's gone to some neighbour's house and won't be gone very long."  John Lewis was took a pris'ner and locked up in the jail, Was locked up in the jail around, was there to remain a while. John Lewis, he stayed there for six months or maybe more Until he broke jail; into the army he did go. OTHER COLONIAL MUSICAL ACTIVITIES  Dance Music o A Moral Dilemma  Body movements­erotic undertones  Dance: associated with class, wealth and race  Not for all groups  Some movements seen as more primitive than refined  o Found in a lot of difference classes in US  Different meanings to different groups VIDEO: Step Dancing, Contradance  Musical accompaniment ­ fiddle  Steady beat/rhythm  Melodic phrases usually repeated  Emphasis on keeping people moving  Percussion sometimes supplied by dancers  Amateur Music Making o Amare: latin for love: doing something because you love it o Thomas Jefferson, Frances Hopkinson­many well known people were  amatteur musicians  o Music industry  Lessons, sheet music, etc.  4 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Ballads and Folk Music  Music was widespread FOLK MUSIC RESEARCH  Really began in 19  century  James Francis Child (1825­1896) o Travelled around British Isles o The English and Scottish Popular Ballads   (5 volumes, 1883­1898) o Child Ballads  Collected 305+ ballads  Just the text and variations­no music o Thought ballad was more about message: meaning>words o Ballads = representation of culture­ says something about us   Cecil Sharp & Olive Campbell o Travelled mostly in Appalachians, recording and discussing songs o Folk Songs of the Southern Appalachians (1917)  a lot of ballads in Child Ballads still being sung­ may be  naturalized o Believed ballad constantly changing  Valuable: worthy of preservation because of increasing  urbanization  Continually evolving   Archive of American Folk Song  o Founded in 1928  John & Alan Lomax o Folk researcher as social activist o Directors of Archive of American Folk Song o Travelled throughout South  Prison music, folk music, blues, etc.  o Saw folk music as being for the common man o During Great Depression  Express the views and ideals of people that are marginalized;  obtaining and preserving their music   Folk researcher: duty to speak as an advocate of the common man;  voice for the voiceless URBAN FOLK­SONG MOVEMENT  1930s: stemmed from work/beliefs of John and Alan Lomax  Folk Song as an instrument of advocacy o Rallying people to a cause 5 GMUS 203: Music in America Dr. Andrew Connell Lecture Outline: Ballads and Folk Music o Music: power to change peoples minds and lives   Began with working coal miners in Kentucky; working on organizing into unions o Songs as rallying cry; travelled and became popular in urban areas Listen: “I Am a Union Woman”  Authentic/field recording­ real worker  o Cough in the middle of performance o Deliberately l


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