Entire Semester's Notes
Entire Semester's Notes Hist 225
Popular in US History
Popular in History
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Date Created: 08/18/16
Maria Perkins 10/07/2014 ▯ Primary Source: firsthand account through eyes of people Reading history forward: look at all options available to people during that time Letter: o Charlottesville, 1852 o Welleducated (for slave)can read and write Illegal in VA at the time o Maria and one of her children going to be sold by owner Son Albert already sold o Wants husband’s master to buy her Drawing on relationships to try to keep family together Financial stake for master in marriage: more children Possibility of Richard (husband) running away to find her if she’s sold farther away o Has way of getting note from Charlottesville to Staunton o Slaves sold at court day (market day) o Regularity of slave sales seen as expendable resources o Must work within law but cant us it to protect her family o Degrees of oppression 1 million slaves sold from upndr S. to lower S. o internal slave trade: 2 Middle Passage o destroyed 1/3 of marriages o separated 1/5 children <14 from their parents Agency: the ability to act o Even with appearing completely powerless ▯ Engraving 1590: Arrival of Christopher Columbus o Not useful primary source for determining what actually happened artist wasn’t there o Says what Europeans were saying about the event a century after it happened o Differences in class/social status through clothing Europeans presenting themselves as more advanced “civilized” o spreading Christianity bringing the true religion to others o Gifts from Indians Stresses friendly interaction Emphasizes cultural differences in advancement Indians with jewelry/agriculture no technology Vs. Europeans with weaponstechnology Using earth vs. abusing earth Most powerful technology ships ▯ Before EuropeansNative Americans “lived unproductive lives” o Pocahontas attacks myth that Indians are savages How will the sycamore grow? If you cut it down then you’ll never know ▯ Groups with empires Diplomacy Built cities Transcontinental trade Neolithic revolution: invention of agriculture o One of the most significant technologies in history Technology: application of knowledge or changing of environment ▯ Agriculture Allows people to settle down Focus on other skills besides hunting/gathering Middle America 8000 BC o Separate agricultural revolutions in Eurasia/Latin America Developing maze (corn) feeding large populations Mayan Civilization One of most advanced Large cities Approx. 50,000 people o 25 square miles o 6,000+ buildings in downtown area Incas: 1400s Machu Pichu Greatest empire on Earth in 1492 o Greater than Ming China ▯ ▯ Aztecs: 1500s1600s 10x people of England capital larger than Paris ▯ ▯ US: Hopewell Culture in MidWest Connected entire territory through trade Cahokia Mississippian cities o Approx. 20,000 people o 1100 AD o size of London large ceremonial mound: larger than Egyptian pyramids o continue to exist today through Mid West ▯ ▯ New England English White settlers o Different view of developing and changing landscape: “improvement” o “desert or wilderness” unsettled o contrasting view of land with Indians o vacuum domicilian empty of habitation used to justify acquisition of land/colonialism moral/legal right to take land to develop if its not being utilized John Colton (1630) Didn’t realize how Indians were re shaping the natural world Culture, agriculture, etc. Controlled burning of Southern NE forest clear out younger trees/undergrowth Better/more productive ecosystem Clearing land in their own way Fires to increase plains in Mid West and create pastures Conflict before settlers arrived o Ever shifting alliances: politics o Tries to shift balance of power o 75 AD: 75100 million in Americas 1020 million in N. America o When Columbus arrived: more people than in Europe ▯ Atlantic: connector of world Atlantic world: system of interactions that led Europe to Africa o Portuguese looking for Asiafound W. African kingdoms Slaves and gold Kingdoms too strong to exploitneeded cooperation Didn’t make it past coast into 1800s W. African rulers: alliance with Portugal: allowed to join trades (intermediary) Preexisting slave trade Increase personal wealth and gain and other resources weaken opposition Identity based on family/clan/kingdom No sense of betrayal to people W. Africans controlled interactions European winning military dominance o Weapon: germs developed by centuries of epidemic disease (most disease came from livestockliving in close proximity) o Native Americans: killed 95% of precontact peoplekilled entire cities Colombian Exchange: transfer of goods, crops, people, germs, animals, back and forth across Atlantic in years after Columbus arrived o Indians receive horses, liquor, guns o Europeans/Africans receive: maze, tobacco, chocolate Maze and potatoes population booms o Large amounts of disease: severe stress to Native American societies Political destabilization, economic crises Weak/vulnerableneed new allies European presence: new challenges and opportunities for Native Americans o Alliances: short term gainlong term disaster: invitations to settle o Disdainful towards each other 1621 Wampanoag Convention o Massasoya supports English settlement Celebrated 1 Thanksgiving at Plymouth People greatly weakened by disease Feared enemies Narraganset (not as affected by disease) Alliance=protection/preservation 1607 Jamestown st o 1 permanent English settlement in N. America o Powatin Indians inhabited area greatly outnumbered English initially attacked then allowed to stay helped them to survive thought they were temporary for trade? Viewed as alliance/resource? Potential to be trade broker between England and inland N. America o Glass beads, copper kettles, metal weapons o English held manufactured goods (textiles, glass beads) Viewed as trinkets emphasized “inferiority” of Natives to them Traded for animal pelts (beaverfor hats) viewed as easily acquired by Natives: “inferiority” o Virginia Company Wanted to create prosperous colony Hoped for precious metals and resources (like Spanish exploitation of Middle/Latin America) o Christianize Natives: (typically viewed as justification not reason) st 1608: 1 Protestant Church in Jamestown large for time/place: largest structure in fort significant enough for resources even though they were necessities 15001620: Population of England doubled o life harder for poorlack of food, jobs, homes make fortune, than return to England Jamestown: bad settlement location environmentally o Powatin knewonly every temporary hunting camp o English though it was far enough in for protection o Brackish/salt water met fresh water Noncirculating body because waters met Any sewage/waste put in, stayed o Mortality rate: 28% 1 few years o Powatin sustained them food and gifts Leadership of John Smith: 1608 o Most leaders had died or returned to England o Selfpromotingauthor of books o 27 o organized work gangs o diplomacy with Powatin o health policies o peace with Natives look possible hosted English in villages would sometimes be kidnapped to be integrated or run away to live with them “white Indians”wanted to integrate infuriated English governors 1612: governors violently executed men who had run away to be “White Indians” for society to survive: needed people to stay emphasize power over settlement continue tradecreate profit for England had knowledge of fortdangerous for warfare Jamestown saved by tobacco o From W. Indies cash crop in large demand by England o Exhausts soil hasty crop; constantly requires new land every few years to maintain output o Settlements near water: transportation, resources, richer soil Driving settlers apartspread out, want their own land o 2 major problems with tobacco cultivation land was already held by Natives occupancy not recognized by England weren’t using it productive vaccuum domiscilian land not being utilized Large labor force required Wealthy cant process and cultivate all crops themselves Attempt to enslave Natives Land knowledgeeasy to runaway Affected by European disease Outnumber Europeans o African slaves not feasible Too expensive Wanted in Caribbean sugar trade o Labor shortage: indentured servitude founded Indentures: agreement between rich man or VA Company and those that cant afford trip 47 years passage paid in exchange for housing, clothing, food providedlaborer prior to American Revolution overpopulated prisons sent criminals to be indentured Chaotic society o Greed, immediate profit, ruled by young men who largely don’t plan to say, make profit and leave as soon as possible o Not established/settled o Few schools/churches o Widespread alcoholism o Newly freed indentured servants: voting rights consolidated to land owners, heavily taxed 1676 Bacon’s Rebellion (failed rebellion) o civil war in VA o Nathaniel Baconprivileged, rebellious Englishmen, related to Governor (William Berkley) Sent to VA by rich father for being kicked out of college 1669 only 1,800 Powatins left, segregated tried to ally/trade with English tobacco prices down, colonists traded more with Natives other Native groups picked off isolated settlersspread out/living apart from each other Bacon announces wants for genocide of Natives Rallies indentured servantswant land Demanded permission to attack from Berkley (refusedwanted to continue trade) Bacon attacked friendly/hostile natives Renounced/imprisoned by Berkley Bacon marched into Jamestown and defeated Berkley’s troops overrun Ruled VA Race War became Class War Bacon died, Berkley reasserts control Bacon welcomed African Americans to cause Not divided by racejust class 1619 1 African captives arrive in VA o servants or slaves? Slaves small fraction of labor o some worked to own property, move, prosper o Anthony Johnson (1621) married Black woman Owned property, owned a slave (black man) 250 acres: E. shore of VA after fire courts helped them o respected, well known, able to use court system o distinguished not discriminated o children also successful 1660s moved to Marylandbought more land mobility some black people able to assert rights, have opportunities, support themselves “Atlantic Creoles” o mixed descent o multiple cultural understandings o more than 1 language o moved between culturesnot all protections After Bacon’s Rebellionfree black status deteriorated o After 1670s closing window of opportunity o More rigid policies/laws o After Anthony Johnson’s death: court granted his land to England because he was a “Negro”; foreign and not entitled “Great Planters”used croptobacco fortunes to get into businessbecome politicians o connected to each other favored family (opportunities, land) o by 1700s: approx. 125 Great Planters o rest on subordinace of lower class Land Grab by Great Planters o Less indenturesprosperity in England o African slaves become more appealing Longer investment, children, work women and men, treat them how they want, agricultural knowledge, house/clothe/feed them more cheaply, harder for them to run away and blend with population than indentures 1698: England ended Royal African Company monopoly on slave tradeeasier to get 16801750: Africans 744% of population o slavery became dominant form of labor economics, social relations, politics all interwoven with slavery o basis for greater equality for Europeans greater oppression for Africans ▯ 1630: Puritans settle in Mass. o Jonathan Fairbanks Home Everything centered: valued family Planned to staysturdy large houses Unlike Chesapeake area o Sudburry Mass. Buildings close together centered around meetinghouse (all Puritan communities) Center of political/religious life Close knit community 15,000 hours of worship in lifetime crop land near rivers layout very planned, organized and centralizedunlike VA commonly held propertyfor everyone to use value individual and communal ownership homes near roads, easy to get to visible to others keep eye on each otherorthodoxy/proper behavior Puritanism o Way of being religiouspractice o Calvinist theology: John Calvin (early 1500s) Way of understanding the Bible Working out implications for every factor of their lives o Church of Rome “whore of Babylon” Pope=antichrist Church of England retained to much Catholicism o Purify Church of Catholicism o Peace under Elizabeth I and James III o Charles I and Laude (head of church): restoring Catholicism Queen openly practice Catholicism 2 options for Puritans: work within church to purify it or separate o Pilgrims settled in New England to escape persecution separatists (Puritans=nonseparatists) 1630 Mass. Bay colony o John Winthrop led Puritans Mass.=refuge from God’s wrath A place they could purify Church of England “a city upon a hill” people that everyone looks up to if they succeed and keep covenant: receive God’s blessing and attract people there Religious/family orientation o Continue religion o Everyone had to live in family under authority of a father o Sustenance agriculture o John Littlalethreatened to be jailed if he didn’t find a family to with Living on onw=temptations o Valued literacy 1636: Harvard established o to educate ministers o 1607 VA established o 1693: William and Mary established New England 1642: 15,000+ colonists o Fishing, lumber, fur, merchants, ships o CT, MA, RI o Began to attract those not on board with John Winthrop’s vision (brotherhood, community, charity) ▯ ▯ Challenges in New England Roger Williams (Quaker)spoke out against view of MA Bay settlement o Banished: formed RI Anne Hutchinsonspoke outdidn’t defer to religious authorities (ends up in RI) (Quaker) Banishment/execution of covenant breakers o Didn’t leave England to found haven for religious liberty Worked against primary goal of religious purity Ministersno public office but significant leaders o Elected officials supposed to enforce Biblical laws and values o Jeremiad sermon: (Jeremiah prophet) Acknowledge strays from covenant urging people to return to purity ▯ ▯ 3 Main Challenges During Late 1600s (2 external, 1 internal) Native Americans (External) o 1600: 125,000 1675: 10,000 disease and attacked by settlers o 16756: 2/3 of Indians living in colonies united behind King Phillip/Medican (son Massasoia)same year as Bacon’s Rebellion fought back against settlers try to end English settlement on his territory in proportion to population: bloodiest US war killed 5% of population almost destroyed NE almost wiped out Indian populations New King William III: New Charter (External) o King to select governors o Voting: church members property holder o Puritans no longer run NE: integrated into Empire o Many Puritans felt their society failed Success of Puritans o Communal values: non reckless/risk taking o Thriftiness/saving and hard work Encouraged economic growth o Capitalist economy of Atlantic world Individualism vs. social harmony Old vision seemed less desirable Sense of its own decline o 1692: Salem Witch Trials everyone involved accepted reality of witches communication from God in natural world Samuel Parris: minister of Salem Greed tearing apart community Everyone worried about maximizing their own profit Salem town: port (large, more wealthy) Accepted Atlantic World trade/commerce Salem village: farm town Poorlost political power as Salem Town developed Economic and moral division Most accused: independent women More outspoken or wealthy Effort to purifyreintegrate community? Everyone who confessed: reintegrated Failed to confess: execution Purifying community race didn’t determine condition (early VA) growth of slave trade (late 1600searly 1700s) trade with England o everyone wanted to increase stake William Bird II o Founded Richmond o Incredibly wealthylarge house on James River o Made money through trade o Secret diary in code starting in 1709 o Very educatedmultiple languages o Wealthy free time participation in politics Colonies more tied to commerce o Become more settledbuilt mansions, luxury goods Announce status Sugar: slaves and trade Race based plantation slavery African slaves: o War prisoners kidnapped o Journey to coast (up to 6 months) Millions died along way o Cargos: could take months to fill one o Fear, anxiety, trauma didn’t understand language/culture o Approx. 12.5 million took Middle Passage to New World o Approx. 10.8 million survived Middle Passage 1/7 chance of dying 57 sq. feet o taken to Brazil/Caribbean (40% to each) <4% taken to America most brought to Charleston to be auctioned Slavery, Social and Political Implications o Drew new dividing line other than class Mercantilism and Commerce o Theory of politics and finance: best way to increase national power=increase exports, minimize imports, broad goal Colonies provide raw materials, sell products back to colonists Closed loop Increased wealth o Display wealth through appearance, manners, large houses in English style Nice hands: no manual labor o Consumer revolution More consumption: more products available to colonists o Quaker community Protest slavery by not buying/using slave produced items o English identity Enlightenment: Age of Reason o Late 1600s and late 1700s o Making sense of the world o Early phase: Reasonable Religion o Religious life: public Difference or dissent political problems/violence o 1690 John Locke essay on human understanding keep it simple existence of rational creator (God) existence of a future state (heaven/hell) anything in Bible that contradicts human reason must not be from God (because he’s rational) people in North: buying/reading philosophy o Jefferson: Bacon, Locke and Newton 3 greatest men (Enlightenment philosophers) contempt for clergy/organized religion denied holy trinity studied bible for holy text and evidence of human corruption cut out parts that seem plausible to make 2 versions of Bible (philosophy of Jesus and Life/Morals of Jesus of Nazareth) religious diversity shouldn’t prevent being neighbors (sharing country) 1706 Ben Franklin born in Boston o very Puritan familywanted him to attend Harvard o believed in moderate religion and useful knowledge for the public good pragmatic form of Deism agree with basic elements of Christianity God created world to run naturally on its own laws of nature o Supported organized religion (churches=good for community) o public morality o studied theology o wanted to shape national character integrity, hard work o inventor: wood burning stove, lightning rod didn’t get patents so they could be widespread o read and travelled courts of Europe international reputation for experiments with electricity Enlightenment: Commitment to Improvement o Selfimprovement o Most important factor in making it acceptable to raise yourself Men of Enlightenment: made race a prevalent topic o Jefferson suggested biological differences based on observations of his own slaves Ministers=cultural elites o Educated with works of Enlightenment Jonathan Edwards o 1703 born in CT o started at Yale at 12 o minister father taught traditional Puritan beliefs o entered ministry, disagreed with Deists o Doctrine of Sovereignty: God’s plan hand on everything o Less trustworthiness of human reason Not clash of religion and science o Humans are sinners: needed churches to be led to salvation 1734: N. Hampton MA revival begins o records by Edwards: travelled to/began to influence England o as he became popular: revival began to die out in his congregation 1739: John Whitefield arrives from England o began Evangelical Protestant Christianity focus on New Birth savings from sins more emotional must share beliefs o preached to huge crowds o published in newspapers o original American celebrity: dynamic speaker st o 7 Revival tours: 1 intercolonial events gave Americans common culture o “Danger of an unconverted ministry” ministers who’d accepted Enlightenment greatest danger to Revival o When denied pulpit in town: would preach “out of doors” controversial Direct challenge to authority of local Preacher New Lights (supported) vs. Old Lights o Revivals became more disruptive (women particularly) o Baptists began to attract converts through revivals 4 Main Effects of Great Awakening o TransAtlantic New bonds between Evangelicals in colonies and England o Evangelicals: large denominations o Reached out to African Americans and some Indians o Developed bonds of unity between colonies: common evangelical views o Leaders can be challenged if they fail to live up to their responsibility o Primed Americans to respond to charismatic leaders o Commerce, Enlightenment and Religion made closer ties to England No thoughts of leaving empire Review of Last Lecture 10/07/2014 ▯ last half of 17 century American colonists becoming more British o building of more English/European looking structuressettling in o wealth increasingthrough trade (British system of mercantilism) theory of national wealth: increasing exports, minimizing imports forming empire through closed colony system o philosophical connections: intellectual life Ben Franklinexpands mind and improves conversation to make himself more interesting to colonial elites Reading British and European literature and publications o Religion: The New Birth Crisis movement in Puritan and Evangelical Rebirth the Great Awakening George Whitefield (English) Came to coloniesgot everyone talking about new evangelical beliefs William Bird II o Display of wealth founder of Richmond Example of growing wealth of colonial elites and merchants Establishing residence/power o Money from transAtlantic trade American slavery vs. American freedom o Not simply contradictory at some level causal o Growth of slavery made it more possible for others to enjoy freedom o Democracy built on presence of slavery o Drew new line through societyformerly a class line Gave formerly incredibly poor whites a new higher status New stake in system Increase in racebased slavery: poor white men given more political privileges Especially in South Consumer Revolution o More goods cheaply available to more Americans 2 Phases of Enlightenment (Age of Reason) Ben Franklin vs. John Edwards o Different roles of church o Human reason o Social rolesaccepting vs. earning social position George Whitefield o New birth acceptable for anyone regardless of race o Preached out of doorsdirect challenge to local religious authority 1700s colonies more closely tied to each other and Britain other nations had interest in North America o France o Spain o Dutch o Sweden Native Americans still strong in interior 1754: Ben Franklin committed to making British empire the greatest empire on earth o didn’t know independence was a possibilityidentified as British o threat of war between Britain and France o traveled to Albanymet with leaders of colonies, Iroquoi Indians and British representatives to form defensive alliance chance against France if united join or die snake: marked like coastline o Albany Planet Union fails colonists can’t see eyetoeye Differences in social, economic, political and religious practices 7 Years War: first global war in history (17541763 in America) (French and Indian War) o happened where colonies of French and British empires stretched o began in midWest o French and Native American allies vs. Britain, their colonists and Native American allies o Britain sent thousands of troop, banded colonists in militias defeated French Took over Canada and US territory o Military victorybeginning of imperial crisis Salutary Neglect o Colonists identified as British o Expected protection and a hands off approach o British officials wanted to change the policy following the war Disgusted with Americansalienated from colonists comrades during war Thought militias were unprofessional and didn’t raise enough people for cause undisciplined Some Americans were still trading with French while British fought for the colonies o Began to notice cultural differences between England and colonies New words – Dutch and Indian roots Saw new culture beginning to formnot English enough Though they were drifting away from England 1756 believed that 1/3 of imports to colonies were smuggled JohnHancocknotorious smuggler Even elites were going around British trade regulations o Wanted to assert more control Large amounts of debt from war French & Indian war doubled debt of England Expected colonists to contribute because they had either profited from it through military contracts, and they gained the most Parliament began to try to tax colonists o Stamp Act: 1765 On every piece of public paper: cards, tax forms, court documents, calendars, almanacs, newspapers etc. Prior to act paid 26% of what English paid in taxes. o Breakdown in communication of their relationship England: parliament supreme over everyone in empire including colonists Colonists believed their own elected assemblies were on par with House of Assemblies (lower house of Parliament) Bound to Britain only by allegiance to King not Parliament because they had no representation there British claimed that colonists were representedvirtually represented Every member of Parliament represents every member of the British Empiredon’t just represent those from same physical location not persuasive to colonists irritated and alienated had developed local systems of direct representation significance of French and Indian War: o decision to end salutary neglect and tax colonists o begin with Stamp Act o bring to light different views of representation that hadn’t been previously discussed or debated 1766: Stamp Act repealed o most colonists believed they would stop o NY commissioned statue to honor King and his role in stopping the Stamp Act o Discussion and definition of rights within empire John Adams: he and other colonists were different after 1765: everyone became more attentive to their liberties and more attentive to defending them o Still didn’t yet advocate independence: more focusing on defining relationship Rights as British subjects Call Congress to protest Stamp Act how to protest to Britain Focus not on natural rights but rights as British subjects Claiming rights as members Colonists disunited o Few wanted war against British o Possible that relationship could have been saved if Parliament had acted more tactfully o Fair number of Moderates who remained completely loyal Imperial Crisis: new efforts to tax colonists o 1767 Townshend Duties: commodities from Britain tea, glass, etc. economic power not to purchase o taxes meant different things to different people o Samuel Adams forms Son of Liberty: attempt at unity o Actions of Parliament to crackdown: began to persuade colonists that their liberty was being threatened Viewed as enslavement of colonies Losing most basic rights o Especially tense in Boston: claimed Parliament was attempting to enslave colonists Boston Massacre: image by Paul Revere to keep rebellion alive Boston colonists are attacked by British soldiers o 1774: The Intolerable Acts began to unite colonists o 1774: first Continental Congress appeals to King to replace Parliament members and help the colonists show continued loyaltyfaith in King many still not on board with revolution/rebellion patriots would sometimes strike against loyalists make shadow government with extra legal committees to lead colonies over British authority Britain believed weapons were being held in Concordmarched to seize them Monarchy begin to be seen as “unreasonable” –Thomas Payne (“Common Sense” publication) Persuading them for new form of governmentruled by the people not by the monarchy NY statue of King George III torn down o 1776: News of Declaration of Independence melt down statue, cut off head and made bullets French interested in the rebellion of the colonists Ideas for French Revolution Continuing differences in perspectives and reactions Summer 1776: Declaration of Independence o Independence declared by US o Odds against them 11 million British 2.5 million Americans 20% of white Americans remained loyal to King through revolutionalong with most Native Americans and many African Americans British had strongest Navy and organized armed forces o George Washington: trying to build unified army of colonists with different outlooks th British arrive with largest English seaborne attack before 20 century in summer of 1776 o Believed it would be a quick fight o Scare colonists back into empire Seemed plausible o Battle of Long Island Colonists barely managed to escapebut weren’t taken prisoners until next morning allowing Washington and his army to escape (Continental Army) o Colonists lost men and weapons; serious talks of replacing Washington as top commander o Battle at Seratoga ▯ The French join the war o Ben Franklin goes to France to persuade them to join colonists o King refused to see him June 1777: British sail through New York to Hudson river o Separate Northern colonies from Southern colonies o Slow movingdifficult unfamiliar terrain o Iroquoi guides abandoned them o Northern New York: meet army of 7,000 Americans led by Benedict Arnold who ambushed them Top commander for George Washington New Englanders defeated Bergoine and his troops October 17, 1777 Battle of Seratoga: New Englanders defeat British o Turning point in Revolution o Signaled that Americans might be able to defeat the British o Caused France to reconsider and meet with Ben Franklin o King decides to make treaty with Americans Fundamentally changed war for British now up against their ancient opponent who are capable of attacking them all over the world 1779: war reaches stalemate o war had expanded: France attacking British colonies all over the world, and considering attack of England o North America just one of the theaters of the war one in a series of running battles between the two countries o War became more costly for British o New strategy: Striking a blow at slavery in the Southslave society (economy depended on it) Trying to disrupt it offered protection/freedom to slaves that ran away from masters to fight with the British General Henry Clinton sailed from NY to Charleston, South Carolina Conquer South and put Loyalists in charge, then conquer the other colonies 1780 took Charleston and all of the Southern army maintenance of slave system became a major goal of patriots fighting for freedom War from African American perspective: o Best opportunity for freedom fighting for Patriots or British Owners offered promised freedom in exchange for them fighting About 5,000 fought for Patriots More fought for British: 9,000 Even greater number ran away to gain freedom: 20,000 o White: war for independence Disengage from British empire but with same hierarchy just different people controlling it o Black: true revolution Renovate the social order Chance to flee bondage and end the slave societywhy more fought for British or fled Most Loyalists recent immigrants o Newfound power in South Used it for retribution against Patriots who hadn’t treated them very well Cycle of violence Attack and loot Patriot plantations Reciprocation Late 1780: occupation of South for 6 months o Countryside torn apart by war between Patriots and Loyalists o General Greenesent by George Washington to try to draw British away from supply routes on coast and into the interior of the South so it would be hard for them to resupply No major victories wild goose chase wasting time of British As British went further in they pillaged and burned plantations and freed slaves Turned more people to support the Patriots Aug. 1781 10,000 soldiers and 5,000 slaves led by Cornwallace to York town to resupply o Substantial French naval force sailing up from Caribbean and was available to George Washington for two weeks Took advantage of French naval power Took control of Cheasapeake Bay and keep Cornwallace from resupplying and advanced slowly toward British created route for 17,000 soldiers British defeated first defeat since Battle of Seratoga British people fed up Elected opposition parties 1783: Treaty of Paris o British finally recognizes US Unexpected Development after Revolution o African Americans use talk of freedom to claim a stake for their own freedom Freedom was intertwined with slavery slavery for some, increasing freedom for others Establishing freedom, independence and speaking of natural rights while holding others in bondage 10/12 first presidents were slaveholders 8 held slaves while in White House Mum Bett: grew up enslaved in W. Massachusetts Heard Patriots talking of natural rights, liberty and freedom Increasingly white Northerners were recognizing the hypocrisy of holding slaves and their newfound freedom Beaten by mistress with a shovelleft scar Refused to return to the house Owner went to courts to try to get her back went to attorney to find out if preamble to new MA constitution applied to her all men free and equal stake a claim to freedom? Attorney sympathetic and argues in court that she’s entitled to same rights as all other human beings Jury agrees she becomes free Worked up to highest court in MA which upheld ruling Ended slavery in MA Took advantage of new philosophical commitments of Patriots to freedom and equality Changed her name to Elizabeth Freeman Greater rights for more groups of people Women made Declaration of Sentiments (1848) for the expansion of their own rights Over 100 Declarations of Independence have been created around world since 1776 More ideals that rippled through societyforced people to apply concepts and ideas more broadly o Americans formed a strong and powerful central government Within a decadeestablished system they never would have thought to create originally George Washington resigned commission from US Army following war to go back to Mount Washington Unexpected because he was incredibly popular and could have held power Turned power back to people to decide for themselves how they were and what they wanted to become Nation was so new struggle over simplest thingsincluding name Building new national identity from scratch Colonists from all different societies trying to unite them all in order to create stability Washington: place national identity ahead of all other identities in order to inspire loyalty States: radically reduced powers of governors Avoid abuse they had experienced under British governors Balance of powers Unable to appoint people to political positionsavoid monopoly or corruption Legislature become most important branch More direct representation More accountable for votes Annual elections for legislators 1784: all states have Bill of Rights in their constitutions no one wanted strong central authority wanted representative government high degrees of accountability for officials concentrations of power: dangerous and corrupting Article of Confederation: 1781 National government could act only on state governmentsnot on individuals National government weak under it No popular outcry for different system Some elites began to believe that the government under it was limited and too weak Unable to raise adequate funds, couldn’t operate effectively in international relations, couldn’t offer protections to settlers in the West, couldn’t uphold law and order Wouldn’t be respected enough by European powers to enter into treaties with them o Necessary for trade o Convince British to leave forts in MidWest Fear they were working with Native Americans to attack weak new nation o Protect ownership of slaves o Allow them to expel Native Americans from their lands Philadelphia Conventions: Summer of 1787 57 delegates met to “revise” Articles scrapped it and made the Constitution instead more conservative than Declaration of Independence with much stronger and powerful central government o delegates had financial stake in country more than half were slaveholders majority had speculations in land more than half had government bonds many of the elites were worried about democratic despotism o thought ordinary people were not enlightened or educated enough to govern themselves o legislators too easily swayed by citizens many had served in continental army, or continental congress greatest innovation: new understanding of federalism o before: understood as group of confederated institutions states that had come together and agreed to unite o new understanding: pioneered view that said state governments can be supreme in some spheres of life while the national government is supreme in other spheres of life against basis of Articles of Confederation new stronger national government could act upon people directly (in certain others) Constitution authorized by delegates, not the states or legislators o Ratified in conventions of the people Congress: o Coin money o Raise army and navy Unclear whether there would be support o Federalists (in favor of ratification) vs. Anti Federalists Federalists: Nationalists AntiFederalists: Localists Thought Constitution went against original ideals of Revolution o Made constitution seem more rational AntiFederalistsironically more traditional view of federalism James Madison: launched public campaign to ensure ratification o Wrote the federalist papers: articles to drum up support o Father of the Constitution o Unlikely leader: shy, not skilled at public speaking, style was not to have one o 1780: seat in Congress How it was ratified o Washington supported Constitution o Bill of Rights added to restrain powers of Congress Avoid another Parliament o Federalists well organized and effective at selling their arguments ▯ 1780s: two political groups (faction)formed o Federalists: different group that formed the Constitution Formed around Alexander Hamilton (Secretary of the Treasury under George Washington) Attract others who share vision of strong federal government that looks more British Use of financial policy to build power of government Many states in debt following revolution: roll all state debts together and adopted by federal government Expected to fund debt and pay interest by selling bonds to the American people and paying dividends not the principal Wanted federal government to be in debt to its own citizens o Ordinary citizens to have stake in growing federal government South didn’t approve: allowed capital to be held in South o Creation of Washington DC o Democratic Republicans: localists: nation of small farmers, more local power Formed under Thomas Jefferson (Secretary of State under George Washington Liked the French model More allegiance to states Neither recognized right of other party to exist Early Republic: no sense that entrenched political parties could exist without destroying the nation o Each believed the other would destroy the views of the Revolution and undermine the Republic o Violent hatred and mistrust between parties 1800 elections: John Adams (Federalist) running for reelection against Thomas Jefferson (Democratic Republican)his current VicePresident o most votes: President o second most votes: Vice President Politics in early Republic: more cut throat and nasty than today o Any length to defeat opponents Did the revolution promote liberty and freedom in North America? Depends on group of people/ perspective Slavery following revolution o Most states outlawed slavery or began process setting up steps to emancipate it o Become stronger in some states French and Indian War o Began to make British think that they needed to crack down harder on colonists o Taxation because of debts from war Protected colonies therefore they should help pay for it Were only paying a fraction of what the British living in Britain were paying in taxes o Disconnect over differing views of representation o Role of Kingplays role in ending Stamp Act Monarchy not reasonable according to Tom Paine Turning points of the Revolution o Battle of Saratoga Ben Franklin in France hate the British but don’t want to be defeated Colonists defeat British led by Benedict Arnold French enter the war changes dynamic Unexpected developments of the Revolution o African Americans took advantage of natural rights, freedom and liberty Used to assert their own rights o Strong centralized government Patronage power Similar to Parliament that had led to their problems Concerning for colonists Writing of new constitutions for states Reducing powers of the executive and increasing the size of the legislature to make it more directly representative Decrease appointing powers of executive Articles too weak didn’t allow government to directly affect its citizens Political conflict arises High politics o 1800 Thomas Jefferson campaigning for President let his henchmen campaign for him by spreading nasty things about John Adams o Gentlemen weren’t supposed to campaign for themselves Unseemly, putting yourself forwardlet others do it for you o Transformation to today’s p
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