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Essay Questions Exam #2

by: Sydney Wilson

Essay Questions Exam #2 Hist 2110

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Hist 2110 > Essay Questions Exam 2
Sydney Wilson

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These Essay questions WILL be on the test
Survey of United States History
Dr. Conner
Essay, questions, history, conner, History2110
75 ?




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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Sydney Wilson on Friday August 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Hist 2110 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Conner in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.


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Date Created: 08/19/16
Why do white southerners support slavery? Economic/social benefits? White southerners support slavery because it was needed. Owning slaves helped southerners become more  productive and have a better path to wealth and success. Slaves on the farms would do all of the work to help with  the constant running of cotton production thus making money for themselves and the economy. The social benefits  of supporting slavery are their gender. The masters would be over everyone in the house (slaves, wife, kids) The  masters would have total authority over everyone. Even men who did not own slaves were masters over their own  household. There was even racial superiority for poor white men over Africans.  What are proslavery arguments? Proslavery arguments included slavery has a “necessary evil” and a “positive good.” Thomas Jefferson  stated that slavery was bad, but needed in order to sustain the economy. John C. Calhoun stated that slavery was a  “safe and stable basis for free institutions of the world.” George Fitzhugh argued that “slavery is good for Africans.” He claimed that they were civilizing them and protecting them from their “child­like” intensions. He also claimed  that slaves can’t compare in society and will be overwhelmed, their masters are good Christian guardians to them.  He also defends slavery by attacking free labor.  What is experienced of slavery like for slaves? The experience of slavery for slaves was harsh. Slaves were beaten, separated, and forced over many  different things. They tried to resist control of their masters through many aspects. They focused on passages of  scripture freeing slaves from captivity. They would fulfill their domestic house chores. Slaves would run away to  see their families that they had been separated from. Women would make quilts that the whites wanted this  displayed a skill they had learned on their own. Some mothers would try and save their children from beatings. They tried their best to create their own identity despite being put down by their masters.  What factors contribute to the market revolution? The causes of the market revolution were improvements in factories, new inventions, and transportation  among the US. New ways of transportation such as steamboats, railroads, and canals helped people become more  connected with one another through the countryside and the city. These things opened up regions of the country to  new cities and shorten travel time. These transportation and manufacturing improvements helped cause several  things. Some being an expansion of a web of economic connections, production for external markets, and a growth  of urban cities. New inventions such as the JD plow, reaper, and the cotton gin created a lot more crops for farmers  and they were able to be more productive with their work. When the crops would come in faster, the North was able  to ship them out quickly to other countries like Great Britain and France. This helped markets connect faster and  more sufficiently throughout the world.  Why do women go to work in factories? What are some advantages/disadvantages for them? One of the main reasons why women go to work in factories is because men have no desire to work in  textiles. Women begin going to work in factories for money and independence. Some of the advantages of working  in the factories is that women learn new skills they could potentially use outside of work. They also have the ability  to go out and have social interactions that can help them possibly find a husband.  Last, working in the factories  helps them with financial and emotional independence from their families. Some disadvantages include harsh  working conditions that include long hours and health conditions (breathing in cotton). Another major disadvantage  is older women bringing their children to work. This deprives them of an education and puts them in danger working at a young age. The long hours and domestic chores after work would leave them no leisure time. The company  would also set rules for the women leaving them with very little freedom & independence.  What economic & social effects occur due to the market revolution? In urban/rural communities? In  workplace? Family? The social and economic effects changed the traditional bond between master craftsmen and their workers.  There was a common perspective that changed during the market revolution. Before master craftsmen and their  workers would live, work, and hangout together. Then there became a separation of product from retail. The master  craftsmen became more discipline and no longer shared the same outlook as producers. Masters then separated  themselves from the workers, putting them in different homes. The market revolution also changes the roles of men  and women. A man’s place was the world, he was supposed to be the breadwinner in the family and provide  economic and social stability. Women’s place was their homes. They were supposed to resist from the immoral  world and fulfill the domestic house chores. One important role they had was to establish and ensure the morals for  the family.  What are common characteristics/beliefs of reform movements? The common characteristics of the majority of the reform movements is the belief in human agency and not predestination. Every person was equal in God’s eyes and there is a belief that the millennium is imminent and that  people and societies can strive to be perfect. The aspects of the Utopian reform is that the world is a mainstream  society and too corrupt, people must break away. They have ideas of perfection, equality among everyone, and  communalism. Examples of these reformers include Mormons, the shakers, the Oneida. Last you have Graham’s  health reform that consisted of purifying your health through dieting. It teaches self­control and it is about what you  eat and how much you use your body (ex do not have too much sex). What are reformers goals/tactics? The goals/tactics of the reformers were to change people’s lives through religion and health. People would  gather to hear reformers speak on religion that appeals to the heart. They would make it an emotional and intense  experience that would offer an explanation to the way society is at that time. They would start their speeches on evil  then move to repentance so those can be overcome by guilt. One way a reformer, Noyes, went about fulfilling his  goal was creating The Oneida Community in up­sate NY. This was a radical group that rejected mainstream ideas  on gender, class, and property. The would reject exclusive attachments to one another and practiced complex  marriages.  What roles do women play in reform efforts? Why? The roles women played in the temperance movement was standing outside bars and trying to shame men  to stop drinking. This was considered a respected action among society. The reason they did this was that they had  the obligation to protect societies morals.  What advantages did each side believe it had? North: larger population, contained 90% of manufacturing (iron & Coal), more railroads, contained 60% of  livestock, 72% of food production, factories South: thought it would be a quick war, thought they would defend their borders, home field advantage,  cotton diplomacy (international support from British), thought it would be a defensive war, better generals, too  larger to conquer their territory. What were soldiers fighting for? North: Believed in the American Revolution. Wanted liberty and to preserve the union. The also wanted to  keep a republic. South: Believed in the American Revolution. Wanted liberty, the power of freedom to do as they please.  Fought for freedom yet they want slavery.  How did slavery contribute to crises of morale on both sides? North: The union did not have slavery, they had men fighting for them later on when Emancipation  Proclamation became effective. They were originally fighting to preserve the union but changed when they had to  fight for slaves. Upset because they were putting their lives on the line.  They felt betrayed (NYC Draft Riots 1863).  South: Emancipation Proclamation was passed it pissed them off. The slaves began to rebel and join the  union army. The south began to lose their property. Twenty Negro law: if a master has over 20 slaves they would  not have to serve in the army. “Rich Man’s war Poor Man’s fight”. The wealthy did not have to go and fight. Eman  Pro draws slaves out the south/caused chaos. .. took south’s labor source. How are war experiences & motivations different for black soldiers? Wanted to be men. Know they were doing good for their families, revenge, prove equality.  What do free people value about freedom? Political liberties, education, respect, money, religion, able to move around, vote, property rights. What are different approaches to recon? (Presidential vs. Congressional) Presidential: Lincoln: 10% plan. 10% of state’s population must take a loyalty oath, accept federal policies  on eman proc (conservative) .  Andrew Johnson accepts end of slavery wanted white supremacy and failed to protest the southern black codes. He basically let the south do what they wanted regarding laws on blacks.  Congress: They establish a military role in the south, they felt the union fought for nothing, they put in new state constitutions to guarantee black suffrage kicked the Confed states out and informed a punishment, must accept  14 and later 15  amendment. Invalidates state gov’t under presidential reconstruction. Write a new state  constitution, state must approve it then congress.  What does reconstruction fail? Hayes pulls troops out of South that helped defend black suffrage. How does status of blacks in the post­reconstruction on south change over time? Black Codes, Gpa Clause, Poll Tac, Literacy test, Plessy v. Ferg, Jim Crow Laws, Compromise of 1877. 


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