Essay Questions Exam #2
Essay Questions Exam #2 Hist 2110
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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Sydney Wilson on Friday August 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Hist 2110 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Conner in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.
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Date Created: 08/19/16
Why do white southerners support slavery? Economic/social benefits? White southerners support slavery because it was needed. Owning slaves helped southerners become more productive and have a better path to wealth and success. Slaves on the farms would do all of the work to help with the constant running of cotton production thus making money for themselves and the economy. The social benefits of supporting slavery are their gender. The masters would be over everyone in the house (slaves, wife, kids) The masters would have total authority over everyone. Even men who did not own slaves were masters over their own household. There was even racial superiority for poor white men over Africans. What are proslavery arguments? Proslavery arguments included slavery has a “necessary evil” and a “positive good.” Thomas Jefferson stated that slavery was bad, but needed in order to sustain the economy. John C. Calhoun stated that slavery was a “safe and stable basis for free institutions of the world.” George Fitzhugh argued that “slavery is good for Africans.” He claimed that they were civilizing them and protecting them from their “childlike” intensions. He also claimed that slaves can’t compare in society and will be overwhelmed, their masters are good Christian guardians to them. He also defends slavery by attacking free labor. What is experienced of slavery like for slaves? The experience of slavery for slaves was harsh. Slaves were beaten, separated, and forced over many different things. They tried to resist control of their masters through many aspects. They focused on passages of scripture freeing slaves from captivity. They would fulfill their domestic house chores. Slaves would run away to see their families that they had been separated from. Women would make quilts that the whites wanted this displayed a skill they had learned on their own. Some mothers would try and save their children from beatings. They tried their best to create their own identity despite being put down by their masters. What factors contribute to the market revolution? The causes of the market revolution were improvements in factories, new inventions, and transportation among the US. New ways of transportation such as steamboats, railroads, and canals helped people become more connected with one another through the countryside and the city. These things opened up regions of the country to new cities and shorten travel time. These transportation and manufacturing improvements helped cause several things. Some being an expansion of a web of economic connections, production for external markets, and a growth of urban cities. New inventions such as the JD plow, reaper, and the cotton gin created a lot more crops for farmers and they were able to be more productive with their work. When the crops would come in faster, the North was able to ship them out quickly to other countries like Great Britain and France. This helped markets connect faster and more sufficiently throughout the world. Why do women go to work in factories? What are some advantages/disadvantages for them? One of the main reasons why women go to work in factories is because men have no desire to work in textiles. Women begin going to work in factories for money and independence. Some of the advantages of working in the factories is that women learn new skills they could potentially use outside of work. They also have the ability to go out and have social interactions that can help them possibly find a husband. Last, working in the factories helps them with financial and emotional independence from their families. Some disadvantages include harsh working conditions that include long hours and health conditions (breathing in cotton). Another major disadvantage is older women bringing their children to work. This deprives them of an education and puts them in danger working at a young age. The long hours and domestic chores after work would leave them no leisure time. The company would also set rules for the women leaving them with very little freedom & independence. What economic & social effects occur due to the market revolution? In urban/rural communities? In workplace? Family? The social and economic effects changed the traditional bond between master craftsmen and their workers. There was a common perspective that changed during the market revolution. Before master craftsmen and their workers would live, work, and hangout together. Then there became a separation of product from retail. The master craftsmen became more discipline and no longer shared the same outlook as producers. Masters then separated themselves from the workers, putting them in different homes. The market revolution also changes the roles of men and women. A man’s place was the world, he was supposed to be the breadwinner in the family and provide economic and social stability. Women’s place was their homes. They were supposed to resist from the immoral world and fulfill the domestic house chores. One important role they had was to establish and ensure the morals for the family. What are common characteristics/beliefs of reform movements? The common characteristics of the majority of the reform movements is the belief in human agency and not predestination. Every person was equal in God’s eyes and there is a belief that the millennium is imminent and that people and societies can strive to be perfect. The aspects of the Utopian reform is that the world is a mainstream society and too corrupt, people must break away. They have ideas of perfection, equality among everyone, and communalism. Examples of these reformers include Mormons, the shakers, the Oneida. Last you have Graham’s health reform that consisted of purifying your health through dieting. It teaches selfcontrol and it is about what you eat and how much you use your body (ex do not have too much sex). What are reformers goals/tactics? The goals/tactics of the reformers were to change people’s lives through religion and health. People would gather to hear reformers speak on religion that appeals to the heart. They would make it an emotional and intense experience that would offer an explanation to the way society is at that time. They would start their speeches on evil then move to repentance so those can be overcome by guilt. One way a reformer, Noyes, went about fulfilling his goal was creating The Oneida Community in upsate NY. This was a radical group that rejected mainstream ideas on gender, class, and property. The would reject exclusive attachments to one another and practiced complex marriages. What roles do women play in reform efforts? Why? The roles women played in the temperance movement was standing outside bars and trying to shame men to stop drinking. This was considered a respected action among society. The reason they did this was that they had the obligation to protect societies morals. What advantages did each side believe it had? North: larger population, contained 90% of manufacturing (iron & Coal), more railroads, contained 60% of livestock, 72% of food production, factories South: thought it would be a quick war, thought they would defend their borders, home field advantage, cotton diplomacy (international support from British), thought it would be a defensive war, better generals, too larger to conquer their territory. What were soldiers fighting for? North: Believed in the American Revolution. Wanted liberty and to preserve the union. The also wanted to keep a republic. South: Believed in the American Revolution. Wanted liberty, the power of freedom to do as they please. Fought for freedom yet they want slavery. How did slavery contribute to crises of morale on both sides? North: The union did not have slavery, they had men fighting for them later on when Emancipation Proclamation became effective. They were originally fighting to preserve the union but changed when they had to fight for slaves. Upset because they were putting their lives on the line. They felt betrayed (NYC Draft Riots 1863). South: Emancipation Proclamation was passed it pissed them off. The slaves began to rebel and join the union army. The south began to lose their property. Twenty Negro law: if a master has over 20 slaves they would not have to serve in the army. “Rich Man’s war Poor Man’s fight”. The wealthy did not have to go and fight. Eman Pro draws slaves out the south/caused chaos. .. took south’s labor source. How are war experiences & motivations different for black soldiers? Wanted to be men. Know they were doing good for their families, revenge, prove equality. What do free people value about freedom? Political liberties, education, respect, money, religion, able to move around, vote, property rights. What are different approaches to recon? (Presidential vs. Congressional) Presidential: Lincoln: 10% plan. 10% of state’s population must take a loyalty oath, accept federal policies on eman proc (conservative) . Andrew Johnson accepts end of slavery wanted white supremacy and failed to protest the southern black codes. He basically let the south do what they wanted regarding laws on blacks. Congress: They establish a military role in the south, they felt the union fought for nothing, they put in new state constitutions to guarantee black suffrage kicked the Confed states out and informed a punishment, must accept 14 and later 15 amendment. Invalidates state gov’t under presidential reconstruction. Write a new state constitution, state must approve it then congress. What does reconstruction fail? Hayes pulls troops out of South that helped defend black suffrage. How does status of blacks in the postreconstruction on south change over time? Black Codes, Gpa Clause, Poll Tac, Literacy test, Plessy v. Ferg, Jim Crow Laws, Compromise of 1877.
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