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These notes covered the entire class. Pt 2 covers the midterm-last day of classes. Additionally, the other document covers the beginning of the semester-midterm.
Women and Politics
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This 27 page Bundle was uploaded by cedechamp1 on Friday August 19, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 372 at Coastal Carolina University taught by Sidorsky in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Women and Politics in Political Science at Coastal Carolina University.


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Date Created: 08/19/16
Poli 372-Women in Politics 2/10/16 Effects of Family Life  As discussed on Monday there is an assumption that because women take on more family/home responsibilities that they will have less time.  Yet there was no evidence to support that men and women had different levels of free time.  However the authors split up the men and women in their sample by those who are employed and those who stay at home.  Women who are at home, regardless if they are married or have children are the least politically active. Why? (solely at home, they are less likely to have an effect in public. Politics can also be considered dirty, and they don’t want to associate their children with the negativity of politics. Don’t have children to inform them of what is happening as much if they don’t have children at home. Women have a lot of stress and burdens in their life, not exposed to enhancing their civil skills at the workplace.)  What question are they trying to answer? What are the effects of household inequalities on political participation?  The study is different in terms of the perspective it takes---Women are disadvantaged, this article is saying that men are more effected. Considers the effects of household inequalities on males as well as females.  We don’t want to know about just the income the household brings in, we want to focus more on the individual resources. Considers how much each partner contributes (i.e. not simply family income, but individual income). Assumes that most of the income comes from males, whereas if you look at both partners it’s a nuance.  The article does not simply focus on one type of resource, but many: Financial resources, time resources, and psychological resources-respect.  What do the authors find in terms of the differences in male and female resources: women have less income, which means they are less likely to work for pay and volunteer. Women also contribute more time to house work. Additionally, Men say they make more of the financial decisions. Furthermore, Husbands and Wives generally respect each other. Widespread belief in equality at home.  When political interest, education, and income increases women have higher participation rates.  How does respect from husbands affect women’s participation? When women feel they are more respected by their spouse, they’re more likely to participate in politics. If you aren’t feeling efficacy at home, how are you going to feel that you will have a voice to a politician?  Men who exercise greater control over their money and their time they will participate more.  Why do you think it is the husbands and not the wives who are most affected by resources in the relationship? When men have more freedom over their time, they can choose to participate more. If the husband is more likely to participate more outside of the home, there is a socialized answer as to why they are more likely to participate and make these decisions for their family.  We know that there are inequalities in the household, evidence has shown otherwise, but these inequalities have been directed more so towards men. Does this mean more so than wives tend to be in more control of the finances and their free time?  People are waiting to get married a lot later now. Women today are more likely to have financial independence, because they are beginning to establish themselves. Women are coming more into marriages with more independence.  This article studies the effects of resources in a resource in a marriage on political participation, did they miss anything? Longer relationship spans. The couples have more time to learn respect.  Take away our own experiences, and the article needs to be attacked scientifically. 2/17/16 Women and Political Parties  Why are distinct efforts still needed to effect women’s empowerment and political parity, especially when female candidates in contemporary elections are just as seasoned and professional campaigners as men and run sophisticated fundraising operations?  If women are talking about politics at home, and are socialized to believe that they have a place in politics then they will in turn participate more.  Politics is dirty, and potentially women do not have a place in politics, and we tend not to like it when women are aggressive in politics.  Women are not being as recruited, but even when they are, they are turning it down.  Party Leader’s Agenda- How has presidential campaigns, presidential agendas, and appts. Of women shaped the party image?  What two kinds of speeches does Sanbonmatsu study? State of the Union Address, Presidential Nominee speeches  Do you think she is missing other opportunities for the parties to set the agenda on women’s issues?  Campaign trails, transcripts of debates, town hall meetings, political advertisements  What were her two hypotheses?  Party leaders have taken distinct and opposing positions on gender issues  Gender issues have been central to the campaigns and policy agendas of the parties.  Findings?  On which issue are the parties very distinct-abortion  On what other issues do they also tend to have opposing views-ERA, Family Leave, Affirmative Action  Leaders from which party tended to reference women’s issues more and state more pledges-Democratic Party, Clinton did this the most  In general, party leaders do not put women’s issues at the forefront.  Framing is the process by which a communication source defines and constructs a political issue or controversy  Sanbonmatsu finds that both parties do not frame family leave and childcare policies as women’s issues, but instead frame it as an issue for workers.  Do you think this matters-Framing this as only a women’s issue won’t see any progress towards changing this. Look at demographics. Additionally, party leaders if given the personal issues such as being raised by a single mother, etc. Then potentially maybe the issue would be more important.  Danger for political campaign in describing childcare a women’s issue-we don’t see as strongly because it’s not so clear from constituents that we want to see women work outside the home. This could devalue her role as wife, and mother. The benefits are not so clear amongst the candidate if they believe in traditional family roles.  Why are the parties so much further a part on the conflict about abortion than on the conflict of changing role of women itself  Sanbonmatsu notes that abortion is not often frames as being about women’s role in society, although many prochoice groups frame it this way.  Because abortion has different meanings for different people, it leaves the space for political actors to control how to frame it.  Hypotheses and findings:  Nature of issue itself matters  Abortion is a moral issue versus more general questions about a woman’s place in society.  But both abortion and the role of women in society are easy to grasp issues  Role of relevant interest groups  Single issue groups tend to take more of an electoral position.  These interest groups provide useful resources  Public Opinion and Voting Bheavior  There is a clear bloc of single issue voters that shows Republicans the benefits of taking a strong stance on abortion  For both parties there is less certainty about how to use women’s roles in a way than wins votes.  Should the candidate’s make women in combat a central issue of their political campaigns based upon the findings from the readings?  Ex. Women in combat-the status of women in society is questioned. This questions whether women belong in combat, or even if men in combat should be in the same areas of women. 2/22/16: Women and Running for Elected Office Women in Congress: By the numbers  Fox: How Women get to Congress  First Wave: 1916-1964: By becoming widows o Mae Ella Nolan: first women to succeeded her husband after he passes away, served in two Congresses (4 years)  Second Wave: 1960s-70s: By being civic volunteers o Edna Flannery  Third Wave: 1980s-today: Decreased party power + Growing media influence=less rigid path to office o Men start at local, state legislature, making their way to Congress. Characterized you don’t have to have a dead husband, rise of women taking the “traditional” path like men have. o Marsha Blackburn  What four areas did Fox discuss as potential reasons for women being less likely to be in the House?  Gender Bias  State/Regional Variation?  Party Problems  Political Ambition  Have experiments uncovered voter bias against women: Yes  Have studies that focus on actual voter total find voter bias: No  Why do you think there is a difference: Social, you cannot do the same exact experiment that happens in real life. Move now to natural experiments- get party to vote for someone particular and see how it affects the whole. Methodological problem.  State and Regional Variation  NH first state to have all female congressional delegation  DE, IA, MS, VT have never sent a women to Congress  West continues to show clear gains in female representation o Why?  Political Culture  Women Friendly Districts-urban, higher educated, racially diverse  Why does it matter that few incumbent races are competitive?  Because the majority of incumbents are male, making it difficult for women to gain seats.  What were the differences in the kids of seats Democratic women were running for versus Republican women?  Democratic women are running in all types of races at a much higher rate o For example, in 2010 Democrats nominated almost 4x as many open seat candidates as Republicans.  Parties are a crucial part of candidate recruitment  Parties are male dominated  In the 70s/80s the parties would recruit women to unwinnable seats.  Today there is little overt bias, but gatekeeper’s networks are male, which is where they were recruit from.  Why do you think this has changed?  A decrease in gender bias. Also, women are changing because they have more financial achievement, Contemporary Women’s Movement, and outliving men.  Parties of the past and today operate under a masculinized ethos:  The privileging of masculinity by legislatures, parties, newspapers, religions, entertainment, business, and courts that derive from the presumption that what it masculine is most deserving of reward, promotion, admiration, and emulation. 2/24/16 Political Ambition  Candidate Emergence Process  Pool of eligible candidates-come from certain traits (political activism, business, law, education) most likely to end up in political office  Leads to Stage 1: Proportion of eligible candidates who considered running for office  Leads to Stage 2: Proportion of eligible candidates who sought public office  Held Public Office  We need to think about the people who are considering it, and not the people that already held office.  Gendered Psyche- A deeply embedded imprint, created and sustained from traditional gender role expectations and the masculinized ethos, that propels men into politics, but relegates women to the electoral arena’s periphery.  Lawless and Fox argue that it is the gendered psyche that contributes to women feeling they are less qualified to run or hold public office.  Politics is not for me  Women in the candidate eligibility pool were just as qualified as men.  Both prior studies have shown that both as children and adults women are more likely to undervalue their skills  While men are more likely to seek out competitive environments.  How might these findings affect women’s ambition?  The Influence of Self-Perceived Qualifications  Men were nearly twice as likely as women to consider themselves “very qualified” to seek elected office.  Men’s likelihood of considering a run for office increases by 32% as they move from “not all qualified” to “very qualified”  Women’s likelihood of considering running for office increases by 53%  For both men and women, the way you feel about the job you can do matters.  Women are even more affected by this, they are affected about how they feel about their qualifications. Their deep feeling about they don’t belong in politics  Men were also more likely to think they were qualified to do the job of an elected official.  Women were less likely to think they could win an electoral race.  Why is There a Gender Gap in Self-Perceived Qualifications  Due to the three elements of the gendered psyche:  Sexist environment: Some women did experience bias in some way. Gender bias is not present in voters. Women in the pools, have stated that they have experienced this.  Why is perception more important than reality? o It’s something we live every day. The view from which we see something. Even though it may not happen, perception becomes your reality.  Gender differences in defining political qualifications o Women were more likely to consider their professional and political experiences when evaluating suitability to public office.  Why are women more likely to feel politics “wasn’t for them” despite their qualifications?  Different yardsticks for gauging political qualifications o Women had higher standards for what a politician should be  Could this increase women’s negative perception of politics? o If women are holding such high standards, when politicians don’t live up to that high standard women will be disappointed. And most likely it is a negative environment, and more negative than what men perceive it as.  Actually running o The costs:  Loss of privacy  Scrutiny  Rejection  Disruption from normal routines  Women who do run o It’s not just about recruitment, it is also the fact family said they can do it. When you don’t get personal encouragement from home, it does have a substantial effect. o Equally as likely as men who decided to run (but more likely than those who did not run) to think about politics was negative o In general, men and women who had higher levels of political activity, and received encouragement were more likely to run.  What one variable was found to depress running for office, Why? Money, the higher income you have. The less likely you are to run for office. Politics is not a lucrative business. Why would you end all of that to live in a nasty environment?  Does sex continue to be a significant predictor of those who actually run for office? Why? Sex is not significant anymore. We got over the hurdle of women not being recruited, or being qualified. Sex is significant in stage one, but not significant in stage 2. 2/29/16 Gender Stereotypes and Elections  Gender Stereotypes-Positive or negative generalizations about gender roles and/or attributes  Men: Aggressive, assertive, tough  Women: Compassionate, passive, warm, gentle  Are personality traits or political beliefs the most powerful source of political gender stereotyping?  Trait Approach- Voters assumptions about a candidate’s gender-linked personality traits drive expectations that women and men have different areas of expertise  The Belief Approach- Stresses the expectations that women are more liberal and Democratic than men, therefore women are better able to handle compassion issues because Democrats are perceived as handling these issues better.  Argument  Feminine traits: compassion issues. Elderly care, poverty, healthcare, education  Masculine traits: military, crime, defense  Neutral: Economic issues/women’s issues  Liberal Beliefs---most competent: compassion issues. Least competent: economic issues/defense  Findings: Traits  Easily able to reverse the stereotypes:  Associate masculine traits to women and feminine traits to men.  All candidates were perceived as being better able to handle military and police issues when described as tough and ambitious rather than compassionate and family-oriented  Feminine traits increased competency to deal with compassion issues  Despite manipulating traits, gender continued to effect perceived influence in both domains.  Findings: Beliefs  Studied the effect of gender on: Ideology, party ID, and Feelings toward feminists.  Women perceived as more liberal, more positive towards feminists, more Democratic  Much smaller effects of beliefs on gender stereotypes  When both belief and trait effects are included in mode, it is the traits approach that has the strongest effect.  Discussion Questions  What do you think of the sample used in the experiment? How could they affect the findings?  Political science majors may overstate their findings a bit  This article is from 23 years ago. Other readings argue strongly that gender stereotyping in the media has dropped since this time. Do you think this matters? Do people still stereotype on gender?  Hillary Clinton has hired our class to consult her on gender and politics  Based on this article, what traits would you say she is stereotyped with because she is a woman?  Does her party ID affect her ability to overcome these stereotypes? Why or Why not? 3/2/16 Gender Stereotypes and Elections  The Female Advantage o Most of the gender stereotype literature focuses on the associations of traits and beliefs to males vs. females o Moreover, the literature often reveals that women may be disadvantaged because their stereotypical traits do not conform well to specific issues. o What do Fridkin and Kenney find about gender stereotypes in senatorial races? Women were advantaged, because corruption was happening. And women are seen more honest than male candidates. o What explanation did they did they give with their findings for why women were actually advantaged in 2006 election? Healthcare was a big issue during this time period, and these policies were ones women are seen to better handle.  From Stereotypes in the Electorate, to Stereotypes in the Media o How do we receive information through the media? Through mediated realities:  Perceptions, which are focused, filtered, and fantasized by the mass media.  Because the perceived realities are shared by others, they take on an aura of truth. o Influencing News making: Journalists affect reality by framing stories in a certain perspective o Specific agendas are passed through the media  Myths and Stereotypes about Women: A Timeline o 1966, NOW is formed: Non considered news by the Washington Post, reported in the Food, Fashion, Family, and Furnishings section of the NY Times. o Aug. 1970: First time the Women’s Movement makes front page of newspapers- Strike of women workers. o 1993: First Women’s Caucus meets with FL Clinton on issues of politics and policy. Runs on the front page of the “style section.”  FL Clinton meets with other caucuses, reported in the “A” section.  Persistence of Gender Stereotypes in Media for the Highest Level of Office o While studies of media gender stereotypes have found decreased support for their presence at lower levels of office, they are still going strong for VP and Pres. Candidates o Media Faming: The focus on how issues and other objects of interest are reported by news media as well as what is emphasize in such reporting o Why do you think media gender stereotypes are present for the presidency, but are not as present for other offices?  What does it mean to Be Gender Stereotyped? o Stereotypes can be broken down into four categories:  Sex object: includes everything from clothing to appearance, speaking in a feminine manner, being a victim of sexual harassment.  Mother: Women are caring and understanding, Women cannot be leaders because they must be mothers first  “Pet or child”: Women are taken along as mascots, are weak, naïve, cannot handle difficult tasks without man’s help  Iron Maiden: Women are too masculine, take on the male stereotypes. o Palin Sex Object: This media frame was often used for Palin due to her attractiveness, fashion choices, and beauty-queen background o Clinton Sex object: Due to Clinton’s fashion choices and age she was seen as the opposite of Palin’s sex-object: the anti-seductress o Palin Mother: Palin’s role as mother was often prominently displayed by both the campaign and by the media. In the end, this led to questions of Palin’s ability to balance being a mother and VP. o Clinton Mother: Stereotypes as the “scolding mother” as exploiting her only child on the campaign trail. Additionally, she was seen as a “mother” to Obama, teaching him the ropes. o Palin Pets: Palin is brought on board to be cheerleader, bring some interest. McCain often protected her (from the press) and spoke of her as if she was his daughter. o Clinton Pets: While Clinton’s qualifications did not come under scrutiny the presence of her former Pres. husband often made it seem like she needed a man to help her win. o Palin Iron Maiden: Palin could also portray “toughness” but her femininity did not shield her from criticism o Clinton Iron Maiden: The most common media frame used for Clinton. She was often portrayed as not feminine enough, when she tried to be was criticized for not being genuine. 3/14/16 Women in the Legislature  The numbers  Congress: 19.4% o U.S. Senate: 20% o U.S. House: 19.3%  State Legislature: 24.5% (all throughout the U.S.) o State Senate: 22.6% o State House: 25.2%  U.S. world rank of female representation of legislature: 95 out of 185  The Numbers: Women of Color  31.7% of the 104 women currently serving in the U.S. Congress are women of color.  22% of the 1,808 female state legislators are women of color o No black female legislators in AK, HI, KY, ME, MT, ND, SD, WA, WY o No females of color at all in KY, ND, SD, WY  Each of these states population is 8-14% non-white  Women in Leadership  Number of Female Speakers of the House: 1  Total Number of Women Heading Exclusive Committees: 2 o 113 Congress: Barbara Mikulski, Senate Appropriations o 110 -111 Congress: Louise Slaughter, House Rules  Number of women in leadership positions 114 Congress: 3 o Senator Patty Murray, Democratic Conference Secretary o Rep. Cathy Rodgers, Chair, Republican Conference o Rep. Nancy Pelosi, House Democratic Leader  Explanations for Women’s Numeric Underrepresentation  Discrimination o Overt bias is now rare, although still evidence of stereotypes  Incumbency o Incumbents seek reelection in more than 75% of congressional races o Reelection rates are consistently above 90%  Eligibility Pool o More men are in areas considered to be the pipeline to politics, particularly business and law  Political Ambition  Differences Between Male and Female Legislators  Ideology: Females are more liberal  Perspective: Women are more likely to think of politics as a career o Professionalization Gap: Degree to which men are more ambitious and experiences and mobilize gender resources than women. o Why are women not in politics less ambitious than men, but women in politics are more ambitious?  Issues that aren’t getting attention that are more obvious now since they are in the legislature.  Because they are male dominated they feel as though they have to prove themselves.  Confidence-once women are recruited they are more likely to run, and maybe want to continue on.  Realize they have a duty to people, feel that they are doing it better than someone else.  Women become more professional  Prior to the 1990s women in politics were less professional than their male peers. o They did not fundraise as much o Were less ambitious o And had less experience  This started to change in the 1990s o Women had more professional campaigns o Spent more time on legislative work o And had more issues specialization than a general knowledge in multiple areas.  Differences in Legislative Activities  Female legislatures spend more time with constituents and are more likely to keep in touch with them.  Yet female legislators are not less likely than men to take part in confrontational activities  Female legislators report slightly more coalition building  Also report more time studying and writing legislation  Female legislators are more likely to consider the state’s interests versus only their districts.  Discussion Questions  Why do we think women become more professional when expectations were that they would not be as likely to get into office?  What is the downside to more professional politicians?  Why does it matter having women in the legislature?  Why Women Matter  Descriptive Rep: Extent to which the population of women in representative institutions mirrors their proportion in the electorate  Substantive Rep: Legislative agendas and policies reflecting women’s interests. 3/16/16 Women in the Legislature  Why does it matter having women in the legislature? (Powerful for Mosley to honor their ancestors. She stated her ancestors were slaves, and by honoring and supporting a design patent as such, it didn’t honor hers. Certain life experience that men will not understand about women, and races won’t understand about another.)  Why would we assume that women will focus more on women’s issues/interests? (This isn’t a fair expectation for women to live up to. This will force the woman to have ideas that she truly doesn’t believe in. Because throughout the decades we sort of ignored the issues, it is important that women bring up the issues. Do women feel this way because they were so underrepresented?)  19-20% is not enough to make a difference in the legislature. Or change the ethic of the legislature to make it more women friendly. When will you have enough women in the legislature to have enough?  How does collective consciousness relate to this? It is not a number we have to reach, having just one or a couple to stand up when the time is needed to represent the women needed. Women are connected, similar needs and this unites women. Women this is a challenge for because we are so diverse. How the legislature may feel obligated to represent women, she buys into the idea of collective consciousness.  Women’s issues: issues that are particularly salient to women because they seek to achieve equality for women, they address women’s special needs such as women’s health concerns and childcare, or they confront issues with which women have traditionally been concerned in their role as caregivers such as education and the perception of children.  What Affects women focusing on women’s issues? o Political and Institutional Contexts:  Representative’s position in the institution  Committee position  Findings: women more likely to focus on social welfare issues, less likely to focus on antifeminist issues  More likely to promote feminist initiatives: o Reproductive rights o Breast cancer research o Violence against women  Democratic women are more aggressive advocates of social welfare initiatives when their party was majority o Republican women were more likely to support feminist initiatives when they were in the minority party. Why? Stronger as a body instead of following the usual party platform. As a minority party it gives them more leeway to support these issues because the party isn’t in power so they won’t be able to get the initiatives passed any ways.  3 kinds of conservative female legislatures: o Socially Conservative Woman: strong conservative motivated by religious beliefs and desire to protect the traditional family. Embraces role as mother and wife. o Declines Gender Difference Woman: Does not see sex as related to role as legislator. Focuses more on core Republican issues. o Feminist Woman: Ideology moderate. Perceives gender as central to her role. Actively seeks out opportunities to act as a woman on behalf of women.  Why did the authors not create a typology of Liberal women?  Carol article looks at specific women in Congress-Representing Women o Should we automatically expect women to represent other women? o If yes, should would act for only women in their district or all women in the U.S.?  Surrogate representation: when a rep. represents the interests of voters beyond the boundaries of the reps. districts?  According to the study did women in Congress feel as though they should represent women> o Yes. Almost all the women interviewed claimed to feel a special obligation to rep. the interests of women in Congress  Many of the congresswomen felt there were underlying commonalities shared by all women. What are they? Caregiving, shared life experiences, discrimination, work style  Yes they also recognized differences, what were these divisions? party, race/ethnicity, district, ideology 3/21/16 Women in the Executive Branch  The Facts: Women and The Presidency o First woman to run for the presidency: Victoria Woodhull, 1872, Equal Rights Party o First woman nominated to major party’s presidential ticket: Geraldine Ferraro, Democrat, VP Candidate o First woman nominated to be a major party’s presidential candidate: No one o Question to consider: Why has a woman never been nominated as a presidential candidate?  The Right Man for the Job? o Presidential capacity is gendered to be masculine. o What adjectives do we normally use to describe the kind of president we want: Tough, Decisive, Dominant (All male qualities) o What helps to reinforce what and how to think about the presidency: The press  The Press’s Role in the Presidency o The press plays an important role during the invisible primary, where aspirants, potential aspirants, and recruits are vying for media attention as well as support. o Aspirants: those who actively seek to become presidential candidates (Jeb Bush) o Potential Aspirants: those who do a few activities to bring them press coverage, but ultimately do not prove to be serious candidates o Recruits: Spotlighted because they have characteristics consistent with presidential candidates, although they may not have given serious consideration to a bid (Rick Perry)  The Making of a President o Presidential Timber: The building material used to construct a president. (Test of executive toughness, Preference for military heroes, Sports and war metaphors in debates) o Presidential timber is gender by blending overlapping elements of charisma, stature, experience, and viability in a particular election  What is a Masculine President? o Dominance  Preoccupied with dominating, controlling, commanding, bending other’s to one’s will.  When the presidency is defined as dominance, female candidates are at a distinct disadvantage. o Technical Expertise  Capacity with technology or other intellectualized pursuits.  When the presidency is defined as technical expertise, female candidates perform better.  Discussion Questions o How has masculinity and sexism shaped the 2016 presidential election? o Should a woman be president, why or why not? 3/23/16 Women in Executive Office  The facts o 35 women ( 20D, 15R) have served as governors in 26 states o First Female Governor: Nellie Taylor Ross (D-WY): 1925 o Six females are governors in 2016: WA, NM, OK, NH, SC, RI o Today 77 women hold statewide executive office  24.7% of the 312 available positions  34 Democrats  42 Republicans  1 Non-Partisan o 22 States have never elected a female governor  Stages of Female Assuming the Governorship  Stage 1: Surrogates o Three Women were surrogates for their husband, including Ross in 1925  Stage 2: Winners of Open Seat Contests (no incumbent in) o 1974 election of Ella Gross (D-CT) was the first where a woman was elected independent of her husband o 1986: first election with two female candidates  Stage 3: Winning re-election o Winning reelection matters because it shows an ability to put a program in place and maintain the electoral support needed to defend it against challengers  Stage 4: Defeating the Incumbent o 1990: Joan Finney (D-KS)  Reasons for Variation of Women in Executive Office  Political system  Recruitment Processes of the Political Parties  Supply of Candidates  Demands of Gatekeepers  What has the greatest impact on both the numbers of women running and those who actually hold executive office: Candidate supply  The Executive Branch also Includes Civil Servants and Appointees  Federal Level: Civil Service  Equal numbers of men and women in civil servant positions  Upper-level bureaucratic positions (SES), has more men than women o Less than a third of the SES is comprised of women  Federal Level: Appointees  7 female cabinet members  48 women in total have been appointed to cabinet level positions  Women have mostly been appointed as: Secretary of Labor (7), Secretary of Health and Human Services (5), EPA Administrator, UN Ambassador (4)  State level: Appointees  Women: 35.1% (2007)  Men: 64.9% (2007)  Why do women go into appointed office rather than elected office? (Higher than anything we have seen before. We are used to seeing about 20%).  Women: 40% (2013)  Men: 60% (2013)  Why should women be in the Bureaucracy?  Bureaucrats can, at times, have a wide discretion of authority  Why? Because the executive branch is invested with the power to execute laws, but legislative bodies are no always clear on how to implement the laws they pass  Problem: Unelected individuals are given wide scope of authority  Yet because of this wide scope of authority in addition to a lack of accountability, political scientists have suggested the need for representative bureaucracy o Government bureaucracy that reflects the demographic makeup of the nation.  Why lower numbers of women in the upper levels of Bureaucracy?  Glass Ceiling: Subtle, often invisible factors that adversely affect women’s and people of color’s opportunities for advancement to higher jobs.  Stereotypes and bias  Hirers selecting people who look like them  Glass Walls: Barriers that prevent women from moving laterally w/in the bureaucracy.  Women often found in: Health, Human Services, Education, Welfare Departments  Far less women in Fire, Police, Corrections, Transportation departments. 3/28/16 Intersectionality  One Person, Multiple Identities o Intersectionality Theory:  Feminist Theory first argued in Crenshaw’s 1989 book: Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex.  The intersections of socially constructed identities impact people’s lives  Think back to the beginning of the semester and the difference between sex and gender: sex is biological, gender is socially constructed.  Identities such as race, class, gender, sexual orientation are socially constructed identities and have meaning because we give them meaning  And we know that certain identities are considered superior to others o Again, think back to masculinized ethos  It Gets Complicated o Each person has multiple identities, and each one is considered and inferior to others based upon its social construction o This places people in positions of power or oppression given a certain situation creating a matrix of domination  For example, a white woman may be privileged by the color of her skin, but oppressed by her gender  Intersectionality, An Example o Violence Against Women  Women: 6 times more likely to be victim of intimate partner violence than men  Women: 20% of women (2% of men) raped in their lifetime  Class is a big intersection: Lower Socio Economic Status  Violence against women more likely to occur in areas of poverty  Race/Ethnicity:  35% of white women experience IPV  44% of African American Women  54% of multi-racial women  In 30% of LGBTQ IPV cases police arrested victim instead of abuser.  Sexual Orientation:  24.5% IPV survivors are lesbians  Connections to Descriptive Representation o Descriptive Representation: The demographic compositions of the legislature mirrors the demographic composition of the electorate  Microcosmic: Entire assembly is designed to form a microcosm of the electorate  Cost: lesser talent  Selective: Institutional design gives selected groups greater descriptive representation than they would achieve in existing electoral systems  Cost: choosing some groups over others o How do we get around this problem? Deliberation  What can Description Representation Do? o Mansbridge argues in favor for descriptive representation because:  It enhances communication in times of mistrust  Promotes innovative thinking for unarticulated interests  Created a social meaning of ability to rule  Increases the polity’s de facto legitimacy in contexts of past discrimination  And Yet…Essentialism o Essentialism: The assumption that members of certain groups have an essential identity that all members of that group share and which no others partake.  Why is this a problem?  Because it means that we cannot represent each other if we do not share the same identity  If we agree with intersectionality theory that this becomes an even bigger problem. Why?  Discussion Questions o Can gender be studied in isolation? Why or why not?  You could, at some point you have to consider other identities. You have to tease out some sort of privilege in identity.  You want to be considering other identities and that’s what matters o What are some other public policies you can think of where the intersectionality approach is needed?  Abortion clinics- less financial, religion, party, transportation or region  Affirmative action- women, race, ethnicity o Do you think that when citizens see someone who looks like them that they are more likely to trust them? 3/30/16  The Many Different Faces of Women in Politics o African American Women o Latinas o Asian American Women  Double Disadvantage: Forced to overcome the ills of sexism and racism.  African American Women o Because a disproportionate number of African American women live in poverty, the expectation was that they would be less likely to politically participate. o But this expectation fails to account for history: Many African American women were activists fighting for civil rights.  Increased political engagement  Acquisition of skills that have been translated into running and holding o Since 2008 African American women have had the highest voter turnout rate amongst all eligible voters. o 30% of the women in Congress are African American  The Double Disadvantage of Black Women o Ida B. Wells, suffragists and early leader of the civil rights movement, is not invited to be a founding member of the NAACP. o After being elected financial secretary of the Afro-American Council in 1904 the Colored American newspaper wrote a segment  “We are compelled to regard her election…as an extremely unfortunate incident. She is a woman of unusual mental powers, but the proprieties would have been observed by giving her an assignment more in keeping with the popular idea of women’s work and which would not interfere so disastrously with her domestic duties.”  “Black women are ambitious for power, often jealous, very sensitive, (but) they get things done” Mary Ovington, suffragette, founding member of NAACP.  Latinas o In the last two presidential election cycles the Hispanic population has been more likely to vote Democrat o Yet the gender gap between Latina’s and Latino’s is bigger than the gender gap between any other racial or ethnic group:  Gender gap in 2010 election: 13%  Gender gap on issues in 2012 election: 10%  Why is the gender gap so much larger amongst the Latino population? Latinas are more likely to naturalize than Latinos. Sexism and gender roles are extremely different where they are coming from. Women are granted more individuality and power than they ever had before. The Democratic women are attracted to these issues and when you are coming from these countries you need some sort of governmental assistance or support. Many of these women want to stay here and create a life here. However, the men are creating this idea where they will eventually go back home someday.  The Immigration Factor o Political Incorporation: The process of becoming a part of mainstream political debates, practices and decision-making… incorporation is generally achieved when patterns of immigrant participation are comparable to those among the native born (Bloemraad (2006). o More women migrate to the U.S. than men o Many who become involved in activist organization do so after their children have grown, or they are divorced. o Immigrant women become more likely to participate when their income and education increases.  Asian American Women o History:  Few Asians, let alone Asian women were allowed to immigrate to the U.S. due to the 1970 Naturalization Act which limited naturalization to “free, white persons” until 1952.  Have achieved similar if not more education and high income status than white women.  But Asian American women still earn less than Asian American males and white males  This is an interesting puzzle because usually high socioeconomic status leads to more participation  Political Participation By Race and Gender o In general White and Blacks are more likely to be registered and more likely to vote. o Least likely to vote are Latino Males and Asian Males and Females o Statistical analysis reveals that being Asian depresses voter turnout and registration (being African American increases voter turnout and registration)  No effect of being an Asian female on voter turnout  Only gender/race effect is African American women are more likely to be registered and to vote.  Discussion Questions o What other factors (or identities) may make participation amongst women of different races so different? Sexual Orientation (in a socially conservative community or even race community), education, culture and origin o How can the level of political engagement affect women’s substantive representation? They don’t have anyone to represent them to tell them if a policy represents their best interests or not. o Think about the differences amongst socially, economically, and politically based upon race or ethnicity. Do certain policies affect these women differently? Why and which ones? Clause to protect immigrants that are here legally Federal level, state: overview of history of policy, Supreme Court cases, opinion of best policy solution 4/4/16 Women’s Reproductive Rights  Includes: o Access to abortions o Access to necessary healthcare o Access to contraception o Minor’s rights o Proper treatment and funding for STD’s  Those who affect women’s reproductive rights o Interest Groups o State Legislators o United States Congress o Executive Branch o Federal Courts- United States Supreme Court  Where it all begins o We think it begins with Roe, but it actually begins with Griswold  Griswold v. CT (1965)  CT law criminalized the provision of counseling, and other medical treatment, to married person who wanted to prevent contraception  7-2 Decision: Constitution creates zones that establish the right to privacy  First (freedom of speech/religion/association), third (restrictions on quartering of soldiers, fourth (search and seizures), and ninth amendments (rights not listed in Constitution does not mean other rights do not exist)  Eisenstadt v. Baird extended to single persons  Scalia- Doesn’t agree in right to privacy “I can’t rule on a hypothetical case” “Depends on the facts of the case”  The Center of it all o Roe v. Wade  Facts:  TX law prohibited abortions except to save a woman’s life  Question:  Does the Constitution protect a woman’s right to terminate her pregnancy by abortion?  Finding (7-2):  Falls within the right to privacy  Creates the trimester system  The Aftermath o Minor Rights:  Court strikes down MO law that required consent of both parents as well as consent of husbands  This is AKA a blanket veto  In response states started to pass judicial bypass procedures  Must allow a minor to show either that she is mature enough to decide to have an abortion or it is in her best interests  Ensure anonymity  Must allow expedited appeals  States pass parental notifications laws which the Supreme Court upholds o Public Funding:  Question: Does the government have to provide funding for abortions?  States limited payment for abortion expenses in their state medical assistant programs for poor women  Beal v. Doe, Maber v. Roe, Poelker v. Doe o States have legitimate interest in childbirth and therefore are only required to fund medically necessary abortions.  Discussion Questions: How does class complicate the issue of abortion?  Just because everyone has the right to have an abortion, if you can’t use that right it’s like not having that right at all. Regardless of race.  Elective v non-elective (reasoning as to how person is getting medical funding)  Are these decisions at odds with reasoning of Roe?  Minor’s rights and Adults rights not the same. Maybe have trusted family members to get consent. 4/6/16 Reproductive Rights  Planned Parenthood of Southeastern Pennsylvania v. Casey (1992)  Sandra Day O’ Connor (Supreme Court Conservative Justice)  Talk about partial birth abortion  Oklahoma o 1982 PA Abortion Control Act (and amendments)  Required doctors to inform women about the risks of abortion and childbirth at least 24 hours before performing an abortion.  Obligated married women to present a signed statement that she had notified her husband o Findings:  A woman’s fundamental right to an abortion should be retained  Abandon’s trimester framework for pre- vs. post viability  Prior to viability a state can ensure an abortion decision is thoughtful and informed  Cannot impose undue burden  State Abortion Policy: SC o Woman must receive state-directed counseling to discourage her from having an abortion o After counseling must wait 24 hours before abortion procedure o Health plans offered under the ACA can only cover abortions in cases of women’s health, rape or incest, same requirement for public employees health care policies o Parent of a minor (younger than 17) must consent to an abortion  The Fight Continues today o Whole Woman’s Health v. Hellerstedt  Facts:  2013: TX passed HB2, imposing restrictions on access to abortion through the following requirements: o Doctors who provide abortions must obtain admitting privileges at local hospitals no farther than 30 miles away from the clinic o Every Health care facility offering abortion care must meet building specifications to become ambulatory surgical centers. 4/18/16 Public Policy: Workplace Equality  Women in 2016 o 48.3 cents o 2058-majority of states (26 states) will have wage equality. WY is extremely behind on wage equality, DC is location smallest wage gap (87 cents) o West Virginia  Women in SC o Women in SC earn 80 cents for every dollar a man makes o Women will not receive equal pay in SC until 2094 o Gender Gap for Millennials : 91.5% o Women’s Earning with a Bachelor’s Degree of Higher: $45,000  A little History o In 1900 less than 20% of married women outside of the home. Under half of unmarried women worked outside of the home, but usually stopped once they got married. o WWII saw increases in the workforce participation rate of single women (estimates show an increase of 10%), and married women. o A significant decrease in the percentage of women in the workforce occurs after WWII. o The percentage of single women working continues to decline until the late 1970’s, with a low of approx. 40% o Why? Because men had come back from the war and society dictated at that time that women should be at home taking care of the house and children.  What’s Happening Politically o Title VII: Civil Right Act of 1964  It shall be unlawful employment practice from an employer  To fail or refuse to hire or to discharge any individual because of race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.  To limit, segregate or classify his employers or applicants for employment in any which would deprive or tend to deprive any individual of employment opportunities or otherwise adversely affect his status as an employee, because of such individual’s race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.  But remember the Political Climate o The original writing of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 did not include sex as a form of discrimination. o When Rep Smith (D-VA) wrote an amendment to include sex, he received a lot of backlash from other Democrats including President Johnson. o Title VII does contain a clause that says it would not be discriminatory to use race, color, sex, religion, or national origin as a hiring practice if it is a bona fide occupational qualification.  Any jobs where this clause is important?  A new commission is born o Title VII create the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC):  1/3 of the complaints to the EEOC in the first year were for sex discrimination.  This trend continues today  Today there are 53 field offices around the country  Can only file charges in person or by mail  Punditry damages is where company is charged fine, compensatory damages is where I receive money for my damages.  Types of Title VII Discrimination o Disparate treatment: Plaintiffs must prove intentional discrimination o 3 phases for Disparate treatment cases:  Phase 1: Members show they are of a class protected by Title VII; Prove they are qualified for the job/promotion sought; Applied but were rejected; Employer continued to seek employees with their qualifications  Phase 2: Employers offer a legitimate nondiscriminatory reason for the decision not to hire/promote  Phase 3: Plaintiffs must prove that the employers reasons were a pretext for discriminatory motives 4/20/16  Disparate Impact: Plaintiffs challenge employment policies that are facially neutral but have disproportionate impacts on them. o After plaintiffs identify a neutral employment policy with a disproportionate effect on them, the burden of proof shifts to the employer to show that the criteria have a “manifest relationship” to the job. o If the employer proves the criteria are job related, the plaintiffs must demonstrate there is a less discriminatory option available.  Wage Discrimination o Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act (2009)  Clarifies discrimination under Title VII by stating that wage discrimination occurs each time a person is paid, not simply when they were initially discriminated in wages. (Have to file within 180 days, this changed to every time a person is paid) o Equal pay legislation prevents employers from paying members of one sex less than the other if their work is essentially the same.  Yet despite such legislation there is still an earnings disparity amongst men and women,  One of the main causes is occupational segregation  90% of secretaries are female, over 75% of computer programmers are male.  Possible Solution to Wage Discrimination o Comparable Worth Theory: Based on the premise that men and women who work for the same employer in jobs of comparable skills, effort, and responsibility merit comparable pay.  Comparable worth theory has not been incorporated into Title VII.  A few states, such as MN, NY, and IA have enacted comparable worth legislation.  Congress has been unable to pass


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