Exam Bundle Psy 233
Exam Bundle Psy 233 233
Popular in Psychology of Personality
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verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
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verified elite notetaker
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This 48 page Bundle was uploaded by Analeese Monla on Saturday August 20, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 233 at Illinois State University taught by Eros Desouza in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Personality in Psychology at Illinois State University.
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Chapter 13 – Kelly How is Kelly’s theory categorized? – existential-humanistic paradigm. (emphasis on free will, the present and future, and the human capacity for improvement) o Phenomenology (study of intact conscious experience) o Cognitive theory o Existential theory o Humanistic theory What is constructive alternativism? o People are free to construe reality in any way they want: no one is bound by one’s biography. o How is it related to Vaihinger and Adler? Similar to their propositional thinking What is propositional thinking? A type of formal operational reasoning involving the ability to evaluate the logic of propositions without referring to real-world circumstances. What is the fundamental postulate? o Psychological processes improve one’s predictions about the future What are the 11 corollaries? o Construction. What is it? Themes that bind experiences together o Individuality. What is it? People differ from each other in their construction of events o Organizational. What is it? Personal constructs are arranged in a hierarchy – some are more comprehensive than others Superordinate over Subordinate under o Dichotomy Bipolar States that each construct has two poles, one of each describes what characteristics the events to which the construct is relevant have in common, the other of which describes events without those characteristics. o Choice Safety vs. risk Definition Validity Choice of a construct in construing a situation that has already been successful in construing similar situations. Such a choice has the effect of further validating one’s construct system Extension Generalizing Choice of a construct, in construing a situation that has never been tried. Such a choice has the potential effect of extending one’s construct system so that it is capable of assimilating a greater range of experience o Range Finite: relevant only to certain events and not others Range of convenience All events that construct can be used to understand and predict Focus of convenience Particular events for which the construct is maximally useful o Experience Experience alone is not important; the successful re-construing of experience is. States that mere passive experience is unimportant. It is the active construing of experience that ultimately results in a more effective construct system o Modulation Permeability. Easily assimilates new experience How flexible the construct is. o Fragmentation Continual flux Being inconsistent within ourselves States that as a construct system is being tested, revised , or extended, certain inconsistencies in behavior may result. o Commonality When our understanding of reality is similar (using construction systems) States that people can be considered similar not because of similar physical experiences, but because they construe their experiences in a similar fashion. o Sociality Construing the construction process of another States that to engage in constructive social interaction with another person, one must first understand how that person construes his or her experiences. Role Acting according with the expectations of others What are Kelly’s interpretations of traditional psychological constructs? o Motivation: Why is his theory viewed as a jackass theory of motivation? Motivation is inherent to human nature. Therefore, there is no need to postulate events that push or pull humans into action. We don’t want to do anything. Push theories. Examples? Pitchfork theories Those theories that emphasize terms such as drive, motive, and stimulus. Pull theories. Examples? Carrot theories Those theories that emphasize terms such as purpose, value, or need. o Anxiety Awareness that an event lies outside the range of convenience of one’s construct system o Hostility Forced validation of an invalid construct o Aggression Extending a construct o Guilt Acting inconsistently from one’s core role structure o Threat A comprehensive change in one’s core structures (core constructs have lost their validity) o Fear A minor change in one’s construct system (i.e., a peripheral construct has been invalidated What were Kelly’s research emphases and methods? o Idiographic (it values narratives) o The Role Construct Repertory Test. 2 steps: 1) generate a list of names of 22 important people in one’s life o People provide the names of specific figures who fill critical roles in their life (e.g., parent, lover, friend) 2) compare them in groups of three (triads) o People pick three figures from the list and indicate how two of them are alike, yet different from the third. o Credulous attitude? Believe (face-value) What are the criticisms and contributions of Kelly’s theory? o Criticisms Limited empirical research Important aspects of personality neglected or denied Difficulty in predicting behavior Many unanswered questions (e.g. Kelly is unclear of the origins of constructs o Contributions Emphasis on cognition Applied value Chapter 14 – Rogers What are the components of the phenomenological theory of the self? o Humanism (romanticism) Humanistic psychology: humans are essentially good and growth oriented o Phenomenology: focus on one’s immediate conscious experience in determining reality We react based on our subjective, private reality o Holism Focus on the whole person o What is the one master motive? To actuality, maintain, and enhance the experiencing organism o What is the organismic valuing process? Using the actualization tendency as a frame of reference in life. What is the phenomenal field? o What is phenomenological reality? Private reality o Distinguish experience from awareness. Experience: all events that could become aware Awareness: experiences that become symbolized o Explain the emergence of the self. Real self (self as it is0 Ideal self (self one should be) What is positive regard? o Warmth, love, care, respect, acceptance What is an incongruent person? o State of discrepancy or disharmony o Explain conditions of worth, conditional positive regard and need for self-regard Conditions of worth: circumstances under which children will receive positive regard Need for self regard: need to view oneself positively. o What results when an experience threatens the existing self-structure? anxiety o What is a subception? Being dimly aware of experience Explain defensiveness, including denial and distortion. Denial: refusal to allow it to enter awareness Distortion: falsification to make it non-threatening What is unconditional positive regard? o Experience of positive regard without conditions of worth. It is not contingent on certain acts or thoughts. o What is a congruent person? State of consistency of harmony What are the characteristics of the fully functioning person? o Open to experience Showing no defensiveness, experiencing unconditional self- regard o Existential living Living full in the moment o Trust in oneself Using the organismic valuing process Being congruent What were the phases of Rogers’s psychotherapy? o Non-directive Emphasizing clients’ ability to solve their own problems o Client-centered Focus on client’s internal frame of reference o Experiential Therapist as free as the client to express feelings o Person-centered Extending to many areas beyond the therapeutic process What are the conditions for positive growth? o Genuineness Transparency, realness or congruence o Acceptance Caring or prizing (unconditional positive regard) o Empathy Communicated through sensitive, active listening, and reflective remarks What are typical responses to emotional communication? o Evaluative Places a value judgment on the person’s thoughts, feelings, wishes, or behaviors o Interpretative Identifies the “real” problem of underlying feelings o Reassuring Attempts to soothe the person’s feelings o Probing Seeks further information o Reflective Captures the underlying feelings o What type of emotional response captures the underlying feeling and encourages further elaboration and exploration? reflective What were Rogers’s research emphases and methods? o Content analysis of actual transcripts o Rating scales monitor the progress and change of therapy o q-sort technique 100 cards to be put into 9 piles Self-sort (choosing cards that describe oneself) Ideal-sort (choosing cards that describe the person he or she would most like to be) What are the criticisms and contributions of Rogers’s theory? o Criticisms: Overly simplistic and optimistic Failure to credit others. Horney, and Allport Important aspects of personality ignored or denied o Contributions: Alternative, positive view of humans New form of therapy Applied valued Chapter 15 – Maslow What is Third Force psychology? o Third force psychology: humanistic psychology o Second force: behaviorism. Second force is limited by its assumption that general principles could be developed by studying rats o First Force psychology: Psychoanalysis. First force focused on the negative and pathological aspects of human behavior (disease or medical model) What does humanistic psychology explore and expand on? o Healthy functioning o Creativity o Love and play o Spontaneity o Personal growth (dignity and enhancement) o High levels of consciouness What are the types of needs related to motivation? o Basic needs (or deficiency needs) o Metaneeds (or growth needs) o Instinctoids (human needs) Innate human instincts What are the levels in the need hierarchy? o Physiological. Examples? Related to survival and shared with other animals o Safety. Structure, order, security, and predictability Very kellian – reduced uncertainty o Belongingness and love (social needs) Is technology making you lose the human touch? In other words, are you glued to your gadgets? o Esteem Approval of other via reputation and status and self-respect. E.g., adequacy, confidence, and competence o Self-actualization Fulfilling one’s creative potential – unceasing trend toward unity, integration, or synergy within the person What did Maslow mean by exceptions in the hierarchy and degrees of satisfaction? o Potency: some are more powerful than others, exceptions exist o Degrees of satisfaction: with one set of needs needing not complete satisfaction before the next higher set is reached What are the reasons for only about 1% of humans reaching the top of the hierarchy? o Self actualization is at the top of the hierarchy o Idea of desire to know and understand o discover fear of self-knowledge o some people are afraid of their max potential not being high enough o requires courage to go over safety What are the B-realm and D-realm? o B-realm: being B-cognition is a passive unfolding of life B-love is non-possessive, insatiable B-lovers are more independent, less jealous, less needful, more interested, and more autonomous than d-lovers o D-realm: deficiency Need-directed perception D-love is possessive, selfish How can self-actualization be encouraged? o Ashrams Places where already healthy people can get healthier (where personal growth is enhanced) o Esalen institute The western version of the indian ashram Improving normal life Growth centers What are transpersonal psychology and positive psychology? o Transpersonal Fourth force psychology Similar to non-western philosophies and religions Seeking mystical, spiritual, or peak experiences o Positive Studies Positive experiences o Flow is an optimal experience Intense and focused concentration Merging of action and awareness Loss of self-awareness High sense of control (an agent of one’s actions) Distortion of temporal experience Experience that activity is intrinsically rewarding Positive individual traits o Six virtues Wisdom and knowledge Courage Humanity Justice Temperance Transcendence Positive institutions What are the criticisms and contributions of Maslow’s theory? o Criticisms: Too many exceptions Unscientific approach Overly optimistic about human nature Several unanswered questions Concepts biased toward Western culture and male values o Contributions: Vastly increased psychology’s domain Applied value Chapter 16 – May What is existentialism? o Hard to define o It sees the quest for rationality and immortality as futile. o It’s a movement, not a body of theory What are phenomenology and ontology? o Phenomenology: the study of the conscious mind or the “given” of the immediate experience o Ontology: The study of the essence of people in general [human nature] and of a particular person What is freedom? o Exists only as a potentiality o Potential to set future-oriented goals and then to act in accordance with them. o Attained over time by increasing one's self-awareness o Involves anxiety and responsibility, making people run away from this. What is dasein, and what are the modes of existence? o Being-in-the-world We and the environment form an inseparable unity o Umwelt What is around us Objective aspects of the internal and external environment (nature); what that physical and biological sciences study o Mitwelt Relationships with other people Interpersonal relationships o Eigenwelt Self-awareness, the subjective world of the self o What is the human dilemma? Object-subject dichotomy Self-relatedness One who self-reflects on his or her experiences What is ground of existence (aka thrownness, facticity, or destiny)? o Authenticity and authentic life. Courage, mature values, and commitment Young people today lack viable values o Ground of existence or Throwness or facticity or destiny (“the givens” in life): Circumstances in one’s life over which one has no control What are the types of anxiety and guilt? o Normal anxiety o Neurotic anxiety Repression, conflict, and decreased awareness o Normal Guilt o Neurotic guilt Blocking out experiences conductive to personal growth What is the daimonic? o Potential for the divine (creative) and diabolic (evil or harm) o Any natural function that in moderation is positive, which has the power to take over the whole person and cause harm. What are the types of love? o Sex Biological drive. Need for sex o Eros Desire for union. Love with a significant other o Philia Friendship, brotherly or sisterly love o Agape Unselfish love What are the components of intentionality? o Wish Cognitive exploration of possible choices o Will Commitment to action What were May’s research emphases and methods? o New science of humans Freedom Phenomenology Symbols and myths o What is the goal of psychotherapy? Convert neurotic anxiety into normal anxiety To see their destiny differently. o What is the importance of myth? It’s to make sense of life What are the criticisms and the contributions of May’s theory? o Criticisms: Too philosophical and unscientific Nebulous (unclear) terminology o Contributions Call for human science Important, new way of conceptualizing personality Exam 3 Study Guide Chapter 9 – Skinner What are the basic assumptions regarding behavior? o Behavior is lawful, behavior can be predicted, and behavior can be controlled. o What is radical behaviorism? The version of behaviorism proposed by JB Watson by which only directly observable events, such as stimuli and responses, should constitute the subject matter of psychology. Reference to all internal events can be and should be avoided. Skinner accepted this version of behaviorism. o What is Skinner’s approach? He rejected all mental events as fictions. Took the “empty organism” approach or radical behaviorism. What is functional analysis of behavior? Measureable experiences (causes) and measurable behavior (effect) Skinner’s approach to research that attempted to relate measureable environmental events to measurable behavior and bypass cognitive and physiological process altogether. What are the two types of behavior investigated by behaviorists? o Respondent: it’s a behavior elicited by a specific kind of stimulus. Stimulus precedes behavior. o Operant: it’s a behavior emitted and produces consequences. Ex. Complex behaviors, driving, playing an instrument. What are the principles of classical (Type S) conditioning, and what are the principles of operant (Type R) conditioning? o Classical conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus elicits and automatic, natural, and predictable response called Unconditioned response. Original pairing: CS US UR After learning: CS CR o Operant conditioning: Reinforcement: if a behavior is reinforced, it is strengthened. (i.e. it increases the likelihood of the behavior happening again) Operant conditioning has been used to treat autistic children, in psychotherapy, education, childrearing, work settings, and has been proposed as a means to achieve cultural engineering. What are the differences between primary reinforcers and secondary reinforcers? o Primary reinforce: Unconditioned. Related to survival. Food, water, elimination, sex. o Secondary: Conditioned. Originally neutral, but acquires reinforcing qualities through association with primary reinforcers. Academic grades, medals, awards, gifts, privileges. o What is a generalized reinforcer? Secondary reinforcers that are paired with more than one primary reinforcer. Ex. A mother is a generalized reinforce because her presence is associated with several primary reinforcers. What are the differences between positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement, positive punishment, and negative punishment? Examples? o Positive reinforcement: presented (added) following a desired behavior and the likelihood of behavior increases. Behavior goes up because a pos. reinforce was presented. o Negative reinforcement: A neg. reinforce is removed following a desired behavior and the likelihood of a behavior increases. Behavior goes up because a neg. reinforce was taken away. Blasting a car horn o Positive punishment: a negative reinforce is added following an undesired behavior and the likelihood of the behavior decreases. o Negative punishment: a positive reinforce is removed following an undesired behavior and the likelihood of behavior decreases. Grounding, taking away a toy. What are the shortcomings of punishment? o Outcomes are unpredictable o May produce undesirable emotional responses (apathy, withdrawal, frustration, fearfulness) o Indicates only what one should not do and doesn’t give them information about what one should do. o Justifies inflicting pain on others. What is involved in the shaping of behaviors? Examples? o Acquisition: To learn a behavior, reinforce it. o Shaping: Differential reinforcement: some responses are enforced while others are not Successive approximations: responses that are closer and closer to the desired behavior are required to maintain reinforcement. Define generalization, discrimination, extinction, and spontaneous recovery? o Generalization: the tendency to extend a particular behavior pattern from the situation (cues) in which it was originally learned to other similar situations. o Discrimination: The tendency to respond differently depending upon the situation (cues); that is, response that is made under one set of circumstances but not under others. o Extinction: the withdrawal of reinforcement. When a reinforcer no longer follows a response. o Spontaneous recovery: refers to the reappearance of the conditioned response after a pause, which suggests that extinction is actually inhibition rather than elimination of a response. What are reinforcement schedules? o Partial reinforcement schedules: only some of the responses are reinforced. o Explain continuous reinforcement schedule. Every time the desired response occurs, it gets reinforced. o What are differences between fixed interval schedules, variable interval schedules, fixed ration schedules, and variable ratio schedules? Examples? Fixed interval: rewards are given after a constant amount of time has passed. Ex. Boss gives out paycheck at the same time every week. Variable interval: rewards are given after a variable amount of time has passed. Ex. Teacher gives a pop quiz an average of once a week but not always on the same day. Fixed ratio: rewards are given after a constant number of actions are performed. Ex. A farm is paid $1 for every 4 boxes of fruit picked and packed. Variable ratio: rewards are given after a variable number of actions are performed. Ex. A slot machine pays a large jackpot on the average of once per million plays. o What is the partial reinforcement effect? Increase rate of responding. Increase resistance of extinction. What is superstitious behavior according to Skinner? o An accidental connection between a reinforce and a behavior (i.e. a reinforce follows a response but it’s not dependent on that response) o Why is superstitious behavior an example of non-contingent reinforcement? Reinforcement that occurs regardless of what the organism is doing. Ex. Rain dances- dancing brings rain. What is our biggest problem? o His behavior is more easily influenced by small, but immediate and definite reinforcers than it is by large but distant and uncertain reinforcers. o How did skinner suggest we deal with our biggest problem? Examples? To make our future immediate. Ex. You want to quit smoking, but won’t see the effects for a while in your life. You say to a friend that every day I don’t smoke you give me $10, every day I do smoke, you get $10. Makes the problem present, not in the future. What is contingency contracting? Agreement between two people that when one acts in an appropriate way, the other one gives her or him something of value. What were Skinner’s methods and emphases? o Abnormal behavior is learned just like normal behavior is. o Describe Skinner’s version of behavior therapy. Token economy. o What are token economies? Desirable behavior is reinforced by tokens that can be exchanged for reinforcers. o What is Skinner’s argument for cultural engineering? Describe Walden Two. Utopian novel published by Skinner describing an imaginary ideal society based on positive reinforcement. What are the criticisms and contributions of Skinner’s theory? o Criticisms: Excessive generalization from animals to humans Radical environmentalism Who controls the controllers? o Contributions: Applied value Scientifically rigorous. Chapter 10 – Dollard and Miller What are the differences between primary drives and secondary drives? o Primary: biologically determined and directly related to survival. o Secondary: culturally determined. o Why are primary drives the building blocks of personality? Because they directly relate to survival. o Describe Miller’s experiment of how fear became and acquired drive. A rat was in a box where half of the box was electric, when it was off it was not afraid. When the shock started, the mouse was afraid. When he was placed in the box again he was afraid even though there was no shock. He acquired the fear. What is habit? o A link between a stimulus and a response What is a response hierarchy? o Every cue elicits several responses; tendency for certain responses to occur before others. o What is an innate hierarchy of responses? Habit family hierarchy that is genetically determined. o What is a resultant hierarchy of responses? Hierarchy of responses elicited by a cue after learning has taken place. o What is the learning dilemma? Examples? A situation in which existing responses are not reinforced, forcing to learn new responses. No failure, no learning. What is instrumental learning? o Drive? Examples? Energizes behavior. It impels action, so it is motivations. Want something o Cue? Examples? Guides behavior. It indicates the appropriate direction an activity should take (i.e., when, where, and how to respond) discriminant stimulus for learning. Notice something o Response? What a person does to reduce a drive Overt Instrumental in reducing a drive Internal Cue-producing responses o Reasoning: solving an immediate problem o Planning: solution of a future problem o Reinforcement? Equated with drive reduction. Get something What are the four critical training situations of childhood? o Feeding: associated with Freud’s oral stage. Monkey experiment: Wire mother w food vs. comfy mother w/ no food. o Cleanliness: Freud’s anal stage o Sex: Freud’s phallic stage o Anger and aggression: relates to conflict. Most neuroses originate in early childhood. How were Freudian construct studied scientifically?- with experiments. o Displacement? TIP: Describe how they experimentally demonstrated displaced aggression in the lab with rats. Displacement: taking your anger and putting it towards something else that is not the source of your anger. Experiment: two rats were put in a cage that shocked them and they would fight to stop the shocking (neg. reinforcement) What is frustration-aggression hypothesis? o Interference with goal attainment, outcome is aggression. Frustration leads to aggression. o What is the current conclusion regarding the frustration-aggression hypothesis? Frustration leads to a stress reaction, and some persons cope with stress by engaging in counterproductive behavior. There are two major types of unconscious experience. What are they? o Experiences that were never verbalized. o Repressed experiences Suppression: stopping what causes anxiety. Escape Repression: when potentially painful thoughts are aborted automatically (before they enter consciousness. Avoidancethoughts don’t even appear. What are the components of neurosis and symptom formation? o The neurotic is stupid and miserable—full of anxiety. o Conflict is at the core of neurotic behavior. o How does psychotherapy work according to Dollard and Miller? Provides a way to unlearn maladaptive behaviors. Teaching behavioral coping Teaching discrimination of cues Teaching relaxation Explain the four types of conflict investigated by Dollard and Miller. o Approach-approach: Shall I fly first or take a ship to Europe? Both sound desirable, but you can only have one, not both. o Avoidance-avoidance: Must write a report or perform an experiment. Don’t want to do either, but you have to choose one. “Damned if you do, damned if you don’t” o Approach-avoidance: New job that pays more, but has to move away from family. It attracts and repels you at the same time. o Double approach-avoidance: 2 different goals (cars for example), but both are desirable and undesirable. What are the criticisms and the contributions of Dollard and Miller’s theory? o Criticisms: Unsuccessful synthesis of Hull’s and Freud’s theory Overgeneralization from animals to humans Overly simplistic approach Research suggested that reinforcement often does not produce drive reduction o Contributions Synthesis of Hull’s and Freud’s theory Scientific rigor Clear description of therapeutic process. Chapter 11 – Bandura and Mischel Explain cognitive social learning theory. o Emphasis on people as active agents, social origins of behavior, cognitive (thought) processes, and learning complex behavior in the absence of reinforcement. What is Bandura’s reciprocal determinism, what are the 5 cognitive social person variables described in class and in the text? o Reciprocal determinism: behavioral, personal, and environmental factors constitute a system that mutually influence one another over time. o Encoding strategies. What are they? How we see (categorize) experiences o Expectancies. What are they? What we think will happen Behavior-outcome expectancies: o What should I expect if I act this way? Stimulus-outcome expectancy: o What should I expect to see next? Learned from past experiences o Subjective values. What are they? What is worth having or doing? o Self-regulatory systems and plans. What are they? How do we attain our goals? Help us prioritize our values/goals. Keeps us on a certain path. o Competencies. What are they? What we know and are capable of doing “tools” or ways of thinking about life problems and behavioral skills in executing solutions to them. Skills we have acquired. What are the components of Bandura’s self system? o Self-regulated behavior. Performance standards Goals and Plans What is perceived self-efficacy? o What one thinks one can do o Competency—I think I can do it. What are the 4 sources of information about self-efficacy? Cite and explain each one/What are the components of Bandura’s self system? o Performance: prior success strengthens one’s perceived self-efficacy – the reverse is also true. o Vicarious experiences: if they can do it, so can I o Verbal persuasion: Encouragement from others o Emotional arousal: how fearful or calm we are in a given situation. Morality acts a regulator of performance, but there are 8 self-exonerating mechanisms that excuse violations of moral standards. What are they? Cite and explain each one! Examples? o Moral Justification: Means to a higher purpose When invading/occupying another country is framed as national Cognitive security restructuri o Euphemistic Labeling: renaming of harmful acts ng Death labeled as passing away, farting labeled as passing gas. Sounds nicer. o Advantageous comparison “Sure I did that, but look at what he did” Justifying your acts by deeming someone else’s acts as worse than yours. o Displacement of responsibility Minimizi Nazi soldiers saying “I did it because I was ordered to” ng one’s o Diffusion of responsibility role When everyone is responsible, no individual feels responsible. Letting others deal with it because you know someone will. o Disregard or distortion of consequences The tobacco and gun industries have long used this technique, denying that their products harm others. Effects of one’s o Dehumanization People looked upon as subhuman can be treated inhumanly actions without experiencing self-contempt. o Attribution of blame Blaming women for being raped. Victim blaming How did Bandura study learning by observation? o Bobo doll experiment. o What is vicarious reinforcement? Reinforcement that comes from observing the positive consequences of another person’s behavior o What is vicarious punishment? Punishment that comes from observing the negative consequences of another person’s behavior o How did he distinguish learning from performance? TIP: Explain the results of the second phase of Bandura’s study. In the second phase, all children from all three groups were given incentives (candy) to act the way as they did in the film (everyone in the film was aggressive, but some were rewarded differently). All children in all three groups replicated the behavior in the film—showed Bandura that all the children had learned what they had observed. o What implications can you derive from his studies utilizing symbolic modeling? Analyses of televised programs reveal that violent conduct is portrayed as permissible, successful, and relatively clean. What are the processes influencing observational learning? Cite and explain each one, including how motivational processes operate. o Attention: observing the model Characteristics of the model, characteristics of the observer, reward consequences o Retention: remembering what the model did Mental images, verbal instructions, delayed modeling o Motor reproduction: doing what the model did Concept-matching o Motivation: wanting it Reinforcement Information, incentive What motivates human behavior according to Bandura? o Self-regulation, performance standards. Explain how psychological problems result from dysfunctional expectancies. o What is the major goal of psychotherapy? Changing undesirable behavior o What does research show is the most effective method to address dysfunctional problems such as phobias? See Figure 11-1 (page 348 of textbook) Live modeling with participation. What was Mischel’s conclusion regarding the consistency of human behavior? o What is Mischel’s personality coefficient? R= .30 o What is the consistency paradox? Discrepancy between intuition and empirical findings. What were Mischel’s research findings concerning delay of gratificiation? o The ability to delay gratification increases with age, intelligence, shorter intervals of delay, and modeling. o What did Mischel mean when he said that “self-control” is necessary to delay gratification? Being able to wait for gratification has a positive effect on you in the future. What are the criticisms and contributions of Bandura’s theory and Mischel’s theory? o Criticisms: Mental events cannot cause behavior Important aspects of personality are neglected Lack of unification o Contributions: Emphasis on Human Empirical research Applied value Chapter 12 – Buss Explain Darwin’s theory of evolution. o What is struggle for existence? When organisms produce more offspring than the environment can support. o What is survival of the fittest? Only those organisms that are best adapted to their environment survive and reproduce o What is adaptation? Any physiological structure, trait, or behavioral pattern that facilitates adaptation – survival and reproduction o What is natural selection? Environmental demands determine which organisms survive and reproduce and which don’t o What is sexual selection? The evolution of characteristics because of their mating benefits, rather than because of their survival benefits. How does fitness differ from inclusive fitness? o Fitness is measured in terms of differential reproduction and nothing else. o Inclusive fitness: Fitness can be increased by leaving offspring and by helping close relative survive and reproduce. What are the differences between sociobiology and evolutionary psychology? o Sociobiology: Master motive is perpetuation of the genes rather than the individual organism or group. o Evolutionary psychology: problems of adaptation, more individualized. What are women’s preferences for long-term mating and for short-term mating? o Long-term: Men with good resources and ability to obtain them. o Short-term: prefer quality over quantity. Look for men with “superior genes” who are more physically attractive than her current mate What are men’s preferences for long-term mating and for short-term mating? o Long-term: look for women with a reproductive value, healthy, young, and who show signs of fidelity and commitment o Short-term: men play fast, loose, and are undiscriminating. (lower their standards) o What is the Coolidge effect? The elimination of post-ejaculatory refractory period for males when a novel partner is introduced. Explain sex differences in jealousy. o Men are mostly jealous about what? Their partner enjoying passionate sexual intercourse with another person o Women are mostly jealous about what? Their partner forming a deep emotional connection with another person. Explain strategic interference and deception for men and women. Examples? o Men: Derogate a rival’s resource potential- saying their competitor won’t be successful and then talking themselves up. (interference) o Men: Feinging commitment- some men are cads (casual) (deception) o Women: Undermine a rival’s youth/beauty or her potential fidelity. (interference) o Women: deceive men about their sexual availability. (deception) What are the different types of altruism? Cite and explain both types! o Kin altruism: offering help to genetic relatives. o Reciprocal altruism: humans who cooperate with one another have a better chance of survival. o Explain parenting as altruism. It suggests we are probably all hard-wired to respond and care for babies, to help us perpetuate the species. Explain why fathers are more likely to extend resources to their children when the children resemble their fathers. He is more certain that the child is his. If the child doesn’t look like him, he has little connection with the child because he thinks it isn’t his. What is xenophobia? o Fear or distrust of strangers (e.g., the perception of male ethnic out- group members as angry or aggressive) What are dysfunctional behaviors according to evolutionary psychology theory? o What is context failure? Refers to activation of an evolved strategy in a setting for which it did not evolve, often resulting in behaviors that are socially inappropriate, dangerous, or self-destructive. How is suicide currently a dysfunctional behavior? Possibly an extreme example of kin altruism How is murder currently a dysfunctional behavior? Most common target is an unrelated acquaintance or stranger How is homicide within families currently a dysfunctional behavior? Spouses and stepchildren are more likely to be murdered within a family than one’s biological children How is anorexia currently a dysfunctional behavior? Often lead to being restless and energetic (exercising) Often find good aversive or disgusting How are anxiety disorders (ex. Phobias) dysfunctional behaviors now? The represent a fear that was a major threat in archaic times, but are not threats now. What are the criticisms and contributions of Buss’s theory? o Criticisms: Adaptationism Story-telling Legitimizes status quo (racist and sexist) Ignores important research in the neurosciences o Contributions Connections with other theories Heuristic Eliminates false dichotomies Grounded in scientific principles. Exam 2 Study Guide Psychology 233 Chapter 5 Horney o What are the two basic childhood needs? What do they refer to? Safety—the need for security, to be free from fear. Satisfaction—physiological basic needs necessary for survival. (need for food, water, and sleep) o What are basic evil, basic hostility, and basic anxiety? Basic evil: parental mistreatment that undermines a child’s security. Basic hostility: unmet safety needs. Feeling generated in a child if needs for safety and satisfaction are not consistently and lovingly attended to by the parents. Basic anxiety: feeling lonely, helpless in a hostile world. Feelings of insecurity in which the environment as a whole is dreaded because it is seen as unrealistic, dangerous, unappreciative, and unfair. What are some examples of parental mistreatment (basic evil) described in class and in the text? Indifference toward the child, rejection of the child, hostility toward the child, obvious preference for a sibling, unfair punishment, ridicule, humiliation, erratic behavior, unkept promises, isolation of the child from others. o What are the 10 strategies for coping with basic anxiety (aka neurotic trends)? 1) Need for affection and approval- a person emphasizing this need lives to be loved and admired by others. 2) Need for a partner who will run one’s life- a person emphasizing this need must be affiliated with someone who will protect him or her from all danger and fulfill all his or her needs. 3) Need to live one’s life within narrow limits- a person emphasizing this need is very conservative, avoiding defeat by attempting very little. 4) need for power- a person emphasizing this need glorifies strength and despises weakness 5) Need to exploit others- a person emphasizing this need dreads being taken advantage of by others but thinks nothing of taking advantage of them. 6) Need for social recognition and prestige- a person emphasizing this need live to be recognized. Highest goal is to gain prestige. 7) Need for personal admiration- a person emphasizing this need live to be flattered and complimented 8) Need for ambition and personal achievement- a person emphasizing this need has an intense interest in becoming famous, rich, or important. 9) need for self-sufficiency and independence- a person emphasizing this need goes to great extremes to avoid being obligated to anyone and does not want to be tied down to anyone or anything. 10) Need for perfection and unassailability. - A person emphasizing this need attempts to be flawless because of hypersensitivity to criticism. How do neurotics and healthy people experience these trends? Almost everyone expresses all or most of these needs, which is normal. The neurotic will focus on 1 of these 10 needs to the exclusion of all the others. For the neurotic the need is too intense, too unrealistic, and too anxiety laden. Thus, the more 1 neurotic need is emphasized as a means of coping with basic anxiety, the more other important needs go unsatisfied. o Explain real and idealized self Real self: to move toward self-realization. That which a person actually is Idealized self: That which a person thinks her or she should be. Living in accordance with the real-self to self-realization. Basic evil often leads to creation of what? - Neurotic heading towards idealized self. What is the “tyranny of the should”? Images pushed on to the neurotic to try and get them to their idealized self. Life directed by unrealistic self-image. o What are the three neurotic adjustment patterns to other people (i.e. neurotic solutions to interpersonal conflicts)? Moving Toward (self-effacement) Need for affection and approval Need for a partner who will run one’s life Need to live one’s life within narrow limits Complaint type: not taking care of ones needs, put others before themselves. Moving against (expansion) Need for power Need to exploit others Need for social recognition and prestige Need for personal admiration Need for ambition and personal achievement Hostile type: capable of acting polite and friendly, but is always a means to an end. “If I have power, no one can hurt me” Moving Away (resignation) Need for self-sufficiency and independence Need for perfection and unassailability Detached type: “If I withdraw, nothing can hurt me.” How do neurotics and healthy people experience these attempts? As with the 10 neurotic needs, the normal person uses all 3 adjustment patterns. The neurotic, however, emphasizes 1 of the 3 adjustments at the expense of the other 2. o What is externalization? Belief that the cause of one’s major experiences are external to oneself. Externalization is related to which of Freud’s ego defense mechanisms? How is externalization different from that? Similar to Freud’s projection, but externalization is more comprehensive than projection, for everything of importance lies outside oneself. Process of self- elimination. o What are the auxiliary approaches to artificial harmony? Which one refers to ignoring factors not in accordance with one’s idealized self? Blind spot- deny any experience that’s opposite to self- concept. Which one refers to situational rules and ethics? Compartmentalization- compartmentalize different parts of their life and have different rules for each. Which one refers to logical, plausible justifications, and excuses? Rationalization- logical, but faulty explanations Which one refers to controlling expressions of emotion? Excessive self-control- won’t allow oneself to feel emotions Which one refers to dogmatism? Arbitrary rightness- What’s right is right, wrong is wrong. No debate. Only black and white. Which one refers to indecision and lack of commitment? Elusiveness- postpone making a decision Which one refers to failure to believe in anything? Cynicism- nothing is worth believing/doing. o What are the characteristics of self-analysis? Free association Overcome resistances Courage to change o What are the goals of therapy? To return the client toward self-realization. If it’s successful, client will show Responsibility Inner independence Spontaneity of feeling Wholeheartedness o What are the foundations of feminine psychology? Horney said women don’t have penis envy. Womb envy (motherhood envy) - men are jealous of women’s ability to bear and nourish children. o What are the criticisms of Horney’s theory? Unoriginal contributions (copied from Freud, Jung, and Adler) Little empirical support Disregard of healthy persons (focused on neurotics) o What are the contributions of Horney’s theory? Original ideas Self-analysis Feminine psychology What do people consider to be Horney’s greatest and most original contribution? Feminine Psychology Chapter 6—Erikson o What is ego psychology? Theoretical system that stresses the importance of the ego as an autonomous part of the personality instead of viewing the ego as merely the servant of the id. o What is epigenetic principle? The sequence (chronology) of the 8 stages is genetically determined and is unalterable. The innate biological principle that determines the sequence in which the eights stages of psychosocial development occurs. o What is a crisis according to Erikson? Conflict that becomes dominant during a particular stage of development that can be resolved positively, thus strengthening the ego, or resolved negatively, thus weakening the ego. Each crisis, therefore, is a turning point in one’s development. What are the 3 phases of a crisis? Immature phase o Not the focal point Critical phase o Crisis become focal point Resolution o If resolved well, then they are better at handling future crises and vice versa. o What are the differences between ritualization and ritualism? Ritualization: behavior patterns sanctioned by one’s culture. Ritualism: When ritualization’s become stereotyped or mechanical, causing social and psychological pathology. o What are the eight stages of personality development, including time periods, the crisis, and the virtues that emerge, given the positive resolution? Explain each stage...make sure that you understand Erikson’s verbatim description of each virtue. 1) Basic trust vs. Basic mistrust. Time: Birth-1 Infants learn they need not worry about a loving, reliable parent and therefore are not overly disturbed when that parent leaves their sight. Basic trust: established when and if the guardians of infants satisfy the infant’s needs in a loving and consistent manner. Basic mistrust: established when and if guardians of infants reject and satisfy the infant’s needs in an inconsistent manner. Virtue: hope. This emerges when the infant has more basic trust than basic mistrust in their life. 2) Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt Time: 1-3 Children learn how to hold on and let go. Autonomy: Parents must perform the task of controlling the child’s behavior in socially acceptable directions without injuring the child’s sense of self-control. Shame and Doubt: If parents are overly protective or unjust in their use of punishment, the child will be doubtful and experience shame. Virtue: will. The unbroken determinates to exercise free choice as well as self-restraint, in spite of the unavoidable experience of shame and doubt in infancy. 3) Initiative vs. guilt Time: 4-5 Limits are tested to learn what is permissible and what is not Initiative: developed when parents encourage children’s self-initiated behavior and fantasies. Guilt: developed when and if parents ridicule the children’s self-initiated behavior and imagination. They will lack self-sufficiency. Virtue: Purpose. The courage to envisage and pursue valued goals uninhibited by the defeat of infantile fantasies, by guilt, and by the foiling fear of punishment. 4) Industry vs. inferiority: Time: 6-11 Children learn the skills necessary for economic survival, the technological skill that will allow them to become productive members of their culture. Industry: most important lesson during this stage—the pleasure of work completion by steady attention and persevering diligence. Prepares children to look confidently for productive places in society among other people. Inferiority: causes them to lose confidence in their ability to become contributing members of society. Virtue: Competence—free exercise of dexterity and intelligence in the completion of tasks, unimpaired by infantile inferiority. 5) Identity vs. Role Confusion Time: 12-20 Searching for identity. Represents transition from childhood to adulthood. Children must ponder the
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