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NSCI 2103 Semester Notes

by: Malik Miller

NSCI 2103 Semester Notes NSCI 2114

Malik Miller
OK State
GPA 3.92

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These notes cover every chapter and exam for the intro Nutrition course. In addition to being broken down by chapter and exam I also added the supplemental instruction notes from tutoring sessions ...
Principles of Human Nutrition
Michael Rhone
nutrition science, intro to nutrition, Science, health
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This 61 page Bundle was uploaded by Malik Miller on Sunday August 21, 2016. The Bundle belongs to NSCI 2114 at Oklahoma State University taught by Michael Rhone in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Oklahoma State University.

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Date Created: 08/21/16
Nutrition Chapter 9 FAT-SOLUBLE Classifying vitamins as either fat or water soluble: Absorption and storage of fat and water soluble vitamins Antioxidant definition and vitamins with this function Best sources of vitamins and factors of content foods Functions, intakes, sources, deficiency and toxicity of vitamin A Lecture:  Vitamins: o No energy o Important to help make ATP o Regulate metabolism o Growth and reproduction o Required in small amounts o ALL are ORGANIC because of Carbon  Discovery: o Early 1900s discovered to cure rickets o Vitamin D cure rickets and thiamin helped beriberi  Naming: o Know A, D, E, and K for fat soluble  Disease o Child deficiency for lack vitamin D is rickets o Lack vitamin A symptoms include night blindness o Continued deficiency can result in permanent damage. o Even if vitamin levels are restored doesn’t guarantee the fix  Solubility influences: o Digestion o Absorption (eventually all becomes micelles and carried by chylomicrons) o Transportation (Lymph System) o Storage o Excretion  Structure: o All vitamins absorbed intact o Chemical structures all different o Some perform more than one role in metabolism o FIRST JOB FIRST  Roles: o Table 9.1 in notes  Provitamins: o Substances found in foods that are not directly usable by the body o Converted to be active once absorbed  Preformed: o Already good for use in the body  Vitamin toxicity o Rare but more common in kids o Tissue saturation that causes lots of problems. o Example: excess vitamin D helps bones too much that makes tissue too strong  Fat versus water soluble o Differ in absorption and Bioavailability o Bioavailability varies on  Amount in food  Preparation  Efficiency of digestion and absorption of food  Individual nutritional status  Natural or synthetic  Fat-soluble generally less bioavailable  Plant vitamins normally less bioavailable  Fat-soluble store after absorbed o Packaged in chylomicrons to lymph to bloodstream  Antioxidants: stimulate immune system and interact with hormones to prevent cancer o Vitamin E o Vitamin C o Selenium o Flavonoids-plant based (phytochemicals) o Carotenoids-plant based (phytochemicals) o Counteract the oxidation that takes place in cells to neutralize free radicals (unpaired electron molecules) o Carotenoids: lutein and zeaxanthin may lower risk of cataracts. o TABLE 9.2 for color to phytochemicals with foods  Diseases without antioxidants o Age-related macular degeneration AMD, very common in people over 60 o Cataracts another vision impairment.  Best sources of vitamins o Whole foods o Dietary Guidelines recommends variety of foods and that most people do not need supplements. o VITAMINS TO FOOD GROUP TABLE  Vitamins destroyed during cooking and storage** o Exposure to oxygen  Vitamin A, E, K and water soluble vitamins o Exposure to UV light  Riboflavin (dairy mostly)  Beta-Carotene and Vitamin C o Heat  Most water-soluble vitamins, especially vitamin C o ANTHOCYANINS: ****** EC on test  Difference between fortification and enrichment o Fortification: add something to enhance the food o Enrichment: add it back or better what is there  VITAMIN A o Primary for vision o Retinol is found in animals for reproduction o Retinal is found in plants for vision o Retinoic acid is another form for vision and regularities o Carotenoids with Vitamin A activity—Alpha carotene, beta carotene, beta cryptoxanthin o Carotenoids without are the others o Preformed: found mostly in animals o Absorption and Transport  Absorbed by active transport  Beta-carotene by passive diffusion  Enter lymph with chylomicrons  Albumin (transport protein) attached to retinoic acid and retinal binding protein  STORED IN LIVER o Metabolic function  Vision  Protein synthesis and cell differentiation  Reproduction  Bone health  Health immune system  Carotenoids are antioxidants help fight LUNG CANCER  HELP Epithelial Tissue: helps with good mucous in tissue cells o TOXICITY  Over 15000 micrograms cause liver damage and possible death,  Can interfere with Vitamin D  Supplements may increase smokers lung cancer risk  Too much of antioxidant can make it a prooxidant to give damage o Deficiency  Nigh blindnesss, yellow skin, keratinization(change shape of epithelial cells, hurt urine tract and infections)  Vitamin D o Sunshine vitamin o Interact with cholesterol from reaction with UV rays o Considered a prohormone o FOUND:  Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) animals  Ergocalciferol (D4) plants o 7-dehydrocholesterol converts to previtamin D3 then become cholecalciferol then calcidiol then calcitriol. o Functions: bone growth, may prevent some cancers, may help autoimmune disorders, may prevent diabetes o If live above the 40’50’ zone o Too much can cause tissues to harden o Deficiency  Rickets are for children makes legs buckle  Oseteomalacia is adult rickets  Soft spot on babies head fontanel o Most milk is fortified vitamin D  Vitamin E o Called alpha-tocopherol is the most active form in the body. Gamma is the most seen in foods o There are EIGHT structurally different forms o All of which are potent membrane-soluble antioxidants o Tocopherol is the major form vitamin E o Gama-tocopherol are inversely associated with incidence of CVD and prostate cancer. o Alpha is primary in the blood o Absorbed with bile salts and micelles o Packaged in chylomicrons to lymph to circulation to liver o Acts as a powerful antioxidant o Acts as an anticoagulant to affect VITAMIN K inhibiting formation of harmful clots o Adults need 15mg o Toxicity: no known risk but may increase risk hemorrhage o Deficiency: they are rare but cause nerve problems and muscle weakness  Secondary defieciency: fat malabsorption  Blood cells break open  Neuromuscular dysfunction o To be toxic need 65x the recommended amount o Destroyed by hear processing and oxidation.  Vitamin K o Phylloquinone name found in green plants o Menaquinone is synthesized by intestinal bacteria o Menadione is synthetic form o Involved in Blood Clotting o Absorbed in the jejunum o 10% produced by bacteria in the colon o Incorporated into chylomicrons and transported to the liver o Promotes four blood-clotting factors** o Promotes strong bones (total is Vitamin A, D, K) o Men need 120/day Women 90/day o Toxicity  no known adverse effects  takers anticoagulant medications should keep vitamin K intake consistent o Deficiency  Infants born too little need vitamin K. ****  Supplements o No regulated by FDA o Choose ones with USP seal o Read label carefully o Helpful for pregnant women, those that need vitamin B12, lack vitamin D, low kcal diet Chapter 11 WATER Water essential  Water is 45-75% of body so .45 to .75 times your weight will find how much  Higher in age means less water in body  Males have more water than females  Muscle is 65% water  Fat is 10-40% water Functions of Water  Polar molecule to help acid-base balance  Universal solvent liquid  Helps transport nutrients in the body, oxygen, and hormones o Think break down of salt  Maintains body temp  Lubricant eyes, joints, mouth, and GI tract  Protective cushion for organs and fetus (Amniotic Fluid)  Structure to cells  Parts in hydrolysis(needs water) and condensation(yields water)  Bicarbonate-carbonic acid buffer system with water neutralizer Fluid Balance  Fluid balance (Homeostasis)  Body adapts to changes  Intake should equal excretion o BEVERAGES ARE LARGEST SOURCE o All foods contain SOME water  Fruits and vegetables the most  Grains have the LEAST  METABOLIC WATER, water that is made through metabolism  Majority excreted from kidneys as urine  Losses through sweat  2/3 inside the cells intracellular (ICF): potassium, proteins, various acids  1/3 outside extracellular (ECF): NaCl and Sodim bicarbonate  Dissociation of salt Electrolytes  Minerals charged ions that conduct electrical current  They attract water  OUTSIDE CELL Sodium, chloride,  Maintain water balance between compartments (sodium has greatest effect)  Osmosis (affects movement of water or any solvent between the cell’s semipermeable. Low concentration of solutes to one of higher concentration. o Example: sodium-potassium pump- maintains normal electrolyte concentrations, water attacted to sodium, Two sodium ions are exchanged for three potassium ions, keep cells from swelling and busting Blood pressure  Water and Sodium affect o Kindneys regulate blood volume and electrolyte balance o ADH stimulates fluid intake and reduces urine therefore, blood volume drops=hypothalamus makes you thirsty AND ADH stimulate kidneys to reabsorb water o Blood pressure falls or sodium concentration is reduced  Renin is secreted by the kidneys THEREFORE: angiotensin 1 turns to 2 which activates kidneys to reabsorb water and salts/adrenal glands to aldosterone leading to water retention.  ADH helps retain water----------Aldosterone helps retain sodium Needs  Women 9 cups  Men 13 cups  Daily beverage recommendations  WATER CONTENTS OF FOODS Bottled vs. Tap  Bottle is more expensive  Bottle is better if tap is contaminated  Caffeine does NOT CAUSE loss of body water  Water after alcohol  Alcohol can dehydrate you Alcohol Dehydration:  Dehydrates by affecting electrolyte concentration, especially potassium  Older drinkers less affected than youth  Water with alcohol and consumption for hangovers Hypertension  120 over 80 blood pressure which will cause hypertension  Treatment with diuretics to inhibit sodium reabsorption o Reduces blood pressure and fluid excretion  HYPOKALEMIA** Water Intoxication  Rare in healthy people as more urine is produced  Drink too fast without replaced sodium, causing HYPONATREMIA o Swells the brain, fatigue etc. Dehydration  Less water intake  Necessary Males 13 women 9  Affects memory and fatigue  Elderly misdiagnosed with dementia  Athletes makes impaired performance  TABLE 11.1  Low blood volume and pressure  Consume pound of water for every pound lost since activity causing water- weight loss  Evaluate urine hydration Nutrition Chapter 7 ALCOHOL  Alcohol: class of organic compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups attached to carbons. Examples are ethanol (beverages), glycerol (triglycerides), and methanol (fuel). Common is ethanol version. o tends to be soluble in water due to polar OH compound. o ALL alcoholic beverages at some point use yeast for fermentation of natural sugars in grains (glucose and maltose) and fruit (glucose and yeasts). Yeast metabolizes glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Fermentation stops when alcohol content reaches 11-14% o Wine is made with the fermenting sugars glucose and fructose in grapes and other fruits. Beer is made with the malting of barley. Liquors are made with distillation which is the collected evaporation of alcoholic liquids. Proof is the amount of ethanol in an alcoholic beverage. o Distillation forms liquors. Know how to calculate proof. 80 proof is 40% alcohol. Priority in metabolism. Can impair health and nutrition, moderate amounts of alcohol MAY benefit. o Why DO PEOPLE DRINK ALCOHOL: social, traditional, ceremonial aspects. o Moderation 1 for girls, 2 for men, NO more than 10 a week. Can lower risk for CVD. Little benefits for younger people. Drink with meals, don’t drive, and avoid with pregnancy. o Standard Sizes: beer 12oz, wine 5oz, 10 oz wine cooler, .5oz shot, remember as servings o 5-10% alcohol absorbed in stomach. Most done in small intestine. DIGESTION not required by simple diffusion. o Metabolism of alcohol: factors- GI motility, absorption such as carbs consumed, dilution by large volumes. Rediffusion of ethanol: 4-5oz BINGE DRINKING. Since liver can only metabolize 1 oz at a time it tries again and fails then that is what makes you drunk. o TYPES OF FOODS AFFECTING ABSORPTION: fat slows peristalysis (GI motility), partially full or full stomach. o Alcohol Dehydrogenase(ADH) is used in stomach at first site of alcohol metabolism to begin metabolize. Liver may metabolize .5-1oz at a time as the o ADH Pathway: ---- o Metabolism of Moderate Alcohol intake: alcohol to acetaldehyde to acetate to acetyl CoA which makes energy and fat. Small amount excreted to lungs. o MEOS Microsomal Ethanol Oxidizing System: used when there is too much alcohol and the liver enzymes cannot keep up. Used to metabolize drugs and other foreign compounds. Since alcohol takes precedence over drugs when taken together the drugs are built up and halted from absorption, building in bloodstream until toxic. o Liver metabolizes 95% alcohol and lungs take the rest thus, the blood content. o Rate absorption: Fast to Slow= wine to liquor to beer thus need more beer to get the same buzz as wine. Women feel affect sooner due to 20-30% less ADH. o Asian Flush Syndrome: exposure to alcohol when turning red while drinking possible cancer reaction. o AFFECTS OF BRAIN: cerebral cortex(confidence), hippocampus(emotion), cerebellum(balance), and brain stem(breathing and circulation). o Affect on the liver: Niacin coenzyme Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) not enough causes glycolysis, TCA cycle, electron transport chain problems, nervous system damage, inflammation of joints, amino acid/protein metabolism. o Long-term effects: hurts thiamin, pancreatitis eventually, weight gain, and DISEASES o STAGES OF LIVER DISEASE: fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis, cirrhosis. (known as stages 1,2,3) o Alcohol is the third leading cause of preventable disease. o Wernicke Syndrome** o May REDUCE risk of Diabetes. o Alcoholism  Cravings  Higher tolerance  No cure o CAGE Screening** Lecture starts  Olestra is a fat substitute that affects the pancreatic lipase making VITAMIN E hard to absorb.  Triglycerides guidelines at 32% of total kilocalories AMDR fat 20-35%, o Heart health: no more than 7-10% of total kcals from saturated fat. o If have heart disease 2-4 grams fatty acids each day suggested by EPA and DHA may reduce blood triglycerides. Flax seeds, fish, and peanuts where you need to eat. o Cholesterol needed by body about 900 mg/d. Liver decreases synthesis based on diet intake. Total cholesterol levels in the blood are maintained by a feedback system. Soluble Fiber would reduce cholesterol by entering the enterohepatic pathway. o FOODS WITH MOST CHOLESTEROL PICK THE ANIMAL o Phospholipids are NOT ESSENTIAL, Lecithin is the most common. o KNOW LOW SAT FATS: Vegetable Oils, Soybeans, walnuts.  Know some alpha-linolenic acid Omega 3 are things like fish(3.5 ounces)  Omega 6 fatty acids are things lik o Plant sources of SATURATED FAT: coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil o Trans Fats are used to decrease rancidity by adding hydrogen to an oil. o MEDITERRANEAN DIET** o Food label: TRANS FAT on labels if 1% or more, if less than 1% it is under partially hydrogenated oil. o Remember all fats have saturated, poly, and mono fats and are characterized by how much of each. o PHYTOSTEROLS and STANOLS: plant subs for reducing cholesterol. o Fat substitutes: used to have fewer fat kcals and total fat grams. o Cardiovascular disease Start Alcohol:  Not a macro but has priority in digestion and metabolism.  Alcohol types: ethanol (ethyl), glycerol, methanol. Carbon structure goes 2-3- 1.  Alcohol content is half the Proof.  Do not need it to live and not much nutrition value. Variety reasons to drink though:  Females: 1 Males: 2 o Lowers risk for CVD if with moderation o Less benefits for younger people. o HELPS PPL WHO ALREADY EXERCISE, MODERATE DIET o DIETICIAN SAYS NO DRINK WHILE PREGANT o 12 oz beer, 10 oz wine cooler, 5 oz wine, and 1.5 oz shots Nutrition Chapter 12 Minerals Minerals  14 of 92 are essential to body function  Play role in immune system (selenium)  Muscles contract (potassium and calcium)  Keep heart beating  Help chemical reactions take place in cells  Groups Major and Trace o Major you need 100mg a day, 5g in the body (7 needed)  Calcium  Phosphorus  Potassium (lowers blood pressure)  Sulfur  Sodium (1500mg RDA)  Chloride  Magnesium (reduce blood pressure) o Trace 20mg in body and 5g total in body (9 needed)  Iron (deficient makes cold and anemic)  Zinc (  Copper (seafood, nuts, and grains)  Selenium  Chromium  Iodide  Manganese  Molybdenum  Fluoride  Amount in plants differs on the soil it was grown  Act as cofactors  Mealloenzymes, activates enzymes that contain one or more metal ions that are essential for their bio activity (chromium helps for insulin to lower blood sugar)  Water-insoluble with exception of potassium  Not destroyed like vitamins, so not by heat, oxidation, and UV  Intact through digestion Bioavailability  Degree to which a nutrient food absorbed  Nutritional status affects absorption  Binders (phytates(grains), oxalates (hurt iron), and polyphenols(tea, hurt iron) reduce bioavailability  Form of mineral, and presence of other minerals  Nutrients can impove bioavailability o Vitamin C helps Iron o Vitamin D help calcium but hurts iron o Animal protein helps zinc Functions  Blood formation  Metabolism  Structure growth  Body does tight control of mineral balance o GI absorb based on body need o Gastric juices go through bile or excrete in feces o FLUID BALANCE  ECF- sodium and choride  ICF- potassium… o Bones and teeth  Minerals make up the crystalline structure that gives strength to bones and teeth  Major: calcium, phosphorus, magnesium  Trace: fluoride  TABLE 12.2 Toxicity:  Can be toxic if too much, MORE LIKELY FROM SUPPLEMENTS Sodium:  Part in table salt  AI 1500mg up to 51 years old although average is 3400  Major electrolyte and cation  Blood and ECF cell primary finding  Important in the tissue  Move freely in blood, 95-100% absorbed in small intestine  Aldosterone if blood pressure low  Blood pressure high stop aldosterone and try excrete excess  Trigger thirst  Nerve impulses and nutrient transport, enhance flavor  Majority in PROCESSED FOOD 70%  Tasteless  Excess leads to hypertension (diabetes, elderly, and blacks), and hypernatremia (excess in blood and not enough fluid replenished), calcium- deficiency, ulcers, weight gain.  Reducing sodium: DASH-DIET  Sodium labeling (sodium free is still up to 5mg per serving, light is 50%less than regular  Deficiency: death, diarrhea, hyponatremia Chloride:  Anion to sodium  Major electrolyte  Maintain fluid balance, removal CO2, MOST PPL NOT DEFICIENT  UL 3600, AI 2300 mg/day, generally people have 3400-7000  Rare toxicity, mostly happens dehydration DASH diet and Mediterranean  Low fat, low sodium, low-fat dairy, and whole grains and fruits  Potassium replacement for sodium and lowers blood pressure Potassium:  Major cation in ICF  Absorb small intestine AND colon  Lost in sweat  Manage blood pressure reduction  Muscle contraction and nerve impulse conduction (heart beat)  Preserves calcium and phosphorus in bones  Helps reduce kidney stones  Needed to reduce hypertension AI 4700 mg/day  Most Americans falls short  Potato is better than banana  Toxicity: hyperkalemia: too much in the blood, heart damage, death, bad heart beat o Hypokalemia: too little in blood, weakness/cramps, glucose intolerance, bad heart beat Calcium:  99% from bones and teeth  More from greens where bioavailability is higher  Vitamin D needed for absorption  Too little protein reduce absorption  Oxalates and Phytates  500 is max for a supplement (calcium hurt iron) o Carbonate: 40% meal for acid, side effects o Citrate 21% anytime pill o because body can only absorb so much at a time  Parathyroid hormone and calcitriol hormone contribute to regulating blood calcium levels o Low blood calcium parathyroid activates for higher absorption o High blood calcium calcitriol used  Bone function**  Functions blood clotting and bone health, lower high blood pressure, prevent colon cancer, kidney stones, and obesity (foods not supplements)  AI 1000,1100 UL 2500  Toxicity: hypercalcemia: too much getting bone pain, weakness and hurt mineral absorption  Deficiency: hypocalcemia: too low, brittle bones, osteoporosis leading bone fractures  Most abundant mineral Phosphorus:  Second most abundant mineral in body, 85% of it found in bones  PTH hormone regulation, forms hydroxyapatite in bones and teeth  ATP helps  RDA 700  Foods from animals, soft drinks(sorta), plant seeds  Toxicity: Hyperphosphatemia: issue for kidney problems o Hypophophatemia: bone pain, rickets Magnesium  DASH plan  Synthesis DNA, RNA,  RDA 310 females 400 males  Toxic: diarrhea and cramps  Deficiency: very rare but happens  Animal foods Osteoposrosis:  Hip fracture/replacement, bone weakness,  Bone Turnover, check risk with bone density  Cortical bone is outer bone  Trabecular bone in inside lacy matrix, gives up calcium when running short  Peak bone mass in 20s and 30s  Height is lost when you age and spine starts to hump  Deficiency: o Osteoporosis: type I women with estrogen probs, type II o OSteopenia o DEXA machine measure bone densisty with T score  Need potassium, magnesium to keep up bone health and exercise with weight, omega 3s, body weight TRACE MINERALS  Assist in hormones  Difficult to determine deficiency and toxicity  Act as cofactors  TABLE 13.1  Know the names, food sources, toxicity, deficiency, interaction with other nutrients  AI women 2.7 liters water (9cups), men 3.7 liters (13cups)  Sodium: 1500mg AI  Iron o Most abundant mineral on earth, iron deficiency is the most common in the world o Deficiency anemia common in women of childbearing age o Two forms: Heme iron and Nonheme iron  Heme animal ferrour iron more bioavailable  Nonheme plant 80% of all iron and ferric o Bioavailability inhibitors  Oxalates  Polyphenols  Vitamin C  Heme o Absorption: helped for storage with ferritin and transferrin for transport o Hemoglobin not an accurate show of iron o Hepcidin: hormone that inhibits iron absorption to prevent toxicity, if not too high excreted in feces o Recycling: 95% recycled in body o Function: helps oxidation-reduction reactions, major component hemoglobin and myoglobin to transport oxygen and carbon dioxide o Energy metabolism—cytochromes in the mitochondria, Immune function by producing lymphocytes and macrophages to assist free radical damage o Brain function: produce neurotransmitters o Recommends: dietary needs vegetarians almost two times higher (1.8), o Toxicity  UL is 45mg  Constipation, nausea, and diarrhea  Liver disease and others that hurt iron stores  Hemochromatosis*** GENETIC DISORDER  Too much can turn antioxidant effects to prooxidant thus=MORE free radicals o Deficiency  Iron-deficiency anemia (hemoglobin decrease, oxygen to tissues diminished)  Babies and pregnant women at risk  Copper o Cupric o Cuprous o Bioavailable enhance amino acids (found in meats) o ZINC hurts absorption o Metalloenzymes and proteins to help IRON o Functions: energy production, blood clot, immune system o Toxicity: pains and cramps and liver damage o Deficiency: fatigue and weakness (risk to infants) o MENKES Disease toxicity copper transport disorder o Wilson Disease, eye ring and Steely hair syndrome  Zinc o Small intestine o Animal products o Metallothionine bound for storage o Bound to ALBUMIN o Excess excreted in feces o REDUCED ABSORB IF: high nonheme, phytates and fiber diet o Found in 100 metallo enzymes o Recycle in pancreatic juices, losses are urine, sweat and feces o Functions: wounds heal, DNA/RNA synthesis, immune system healthy, ANTIOXIDANT, taste perception, Prevent age macular degeneration, SHORTEN COLD SYMPTOMS AND DURATION, o Recs: Females 8/day Males 11/day o Toxicity: UL 40mg’day, EXCESS hurt COPPER, immune system, and increase LDL o Deficiency: hair loss, impair taste, skin rash (like diapers)  Selenium o Most are enzymes o ANTIOXIDANT o Selenomethionine most common in diet o Functions: Thryroid hormone regulation, antioxidant, may reduce lung colon and prostate cancer, protect cells from free raidicals o 55micrograms per day o Proteins like fish and nuts o Toxicity:  UL 400micro  Selenosis: brittle hair and skin rash  Deficiency:  Fluoride o Enamel repair, strong bones, important calcium and Vitamin D o Too much cause Fluorsis  Chromium o Helps with insulin o Prevent or improve metabolic syndrome o Too much may affect iron, NO known excess  Iodine o Too little gives you Goiter, Cretinism (disorder mental retardation and dwarfism if pregnant) o T4 and T3, only need 150micro o Thyroid hormones regulate metabolism, reproduction and energy o Too much impair thyroid function  Molybdenum (Mo) o Cofactor for metalloenzmes o Found in NUTS o Too much: like supplements reproductive problems and kidney disorders in animals o UL 2mg/day  Mangenese o Many enzymes in the body o Form bone matrix and cartilage in joints o Found in bons and accessory organs o Whole grains, PINEAPPLE, CINNAMON o Too much: nervous system and resembling PARKINSONS disease  Arsenic, Boron, Nickel, Silicon, and Vanadium o Arsenic-organic does toxify o Born-reproductive help o Nickel-essesntial no toxicity known o Silicon-bone formation o Vanadium-insulin like for animals, too little risk miscarriage, no known toxic in humans from food  Anemisas o Blood lacks helathy blood cell size for tissue oxygen o Microcytic: small red, lack hemoglobin, IRON DEFICIENCY and B6 o Macrocytic: Folate and B12, abnormally red blood cells large o IRON DEFICIENCY ANEMIA-  Most common in the world  Women and infants higher risk  Fatigue, pale color, brittle nails, headache, PICA(eat non-foods), cognitive damage in children, HEMOGLOBIN LAST STAGE  WHAT TO KNOW o Metabolism Calcium, Iron, and Zinc Nutrition Chapter 10 WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS  What to know o Food sources o Names of vitamins o Functions o Deficiency symptoms  Disease Deficiency o Pellagra: ashy condition NIACIN o Beriberi: think white rice can cause death THIAMIN o Spina Bifida: neural tube defect on infants FOLATE also Macrocytic Anemia(red blood cell division and start to pile up as large) o Cracks on skin and mouth: RIBOFLAVIN o Pernicious Anemia: B12(CYANOCOBALAMIN) secondary deficiency o Atrophic Gastritous o Vitamin C sporbudic gums bleeding gums, pinpoint  Folate o 100% bioavailability o 600mg recommended for pregnant women. o 400micrograms is for male and females o Absorption activated by B12  All 9 of the water soluble  Easy destroy by heat, light, and oxidation  Riboflavin destroyed by UV light  Characteristics o Hydrophilic o Absorbed in blood o Not stored in body o Not really toxic o MUST consume daily  Digest o Riboflavin separated by acid in stomach  Functions o Transforms carbs, proteins, and fats to ATP o Antioxidant: vitamin C o Nerve function: thiamin o Protein synthesis Niacin o Red Blood cells: folate and vitamin B12 one removes a group to make things better o Several B vitamins help heart health  MEMORIZE TABLE 10.1  Thiamin o Converted to active form thiamin pyrophosphate TPP o Destroyed in basic solutions; acid solutions protect it o Absorption in jejunum by passive diffusion, active transport if low intake o Transport to blood excess in urine o Best source Pig and whole grains o RDA 1.2mg/day Males, 1.1mg/day Females o Carb metabolism by turning pyruvate to acetyl CoA o Wet Beriberi could get heart failure, Dry Beriberi muscles wasting and nerve damage  Malabsorption  Alcoholism  Prolonged diarrhea  Riboflavin B2 o Two coenzyme forms  FMN  FAD  Well except UV light  Released when hits HCl of stomach o Enhance B vitamins o Sources: dairy, fortified cereal o Easiest destroyed by UV light o Deficiency  Ariboflavinosis: cracks at corners of mouth, inflamed lips and tongue  In elders, reduced conversion of B6 to active form  Niacin B3 o Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide o Converted to active coenzymes NAD+ and NADP+ o Bioavailability  Less in plants (lucine in corn prevents tryptophan change)  More in meats and dairy o 4 D’s of pellagra (ashy ring on body)  Dermititis  Dementia  Diarhea  Death o Important in oxidation-reduction reactions  Glucose, protein, fat, and alcohol metabolism  Folate and vitamin C metabolism o Skin cells health o Too much  Niacin Flush-turn red, get hot flashed, due to high nicotinic acid o Release of energy in metabolism o CAN BE SWITCHED WITH AMINO ACID TRYPTOPHAN IF YOU HAVE EXCESS  Conversion still needs riboflavin b6, and iron o Sources Meat, fish, poultry o No KNOWN toxicity but MAY get flush symptoms  Pantothenic Acid o Found everywhere so rare deficient o Acetyl CoA o Destroyed by heat  Biotin o Coenzyme for energy metabolism o DNA REPLICATION o CELL DEVELOPMENT AND GROWTH o Important for pyruvate of OXALOACETATE o Food sources like peanuts o Deficiency  Overconsumption of egg white (greater than 12/day)  Parenteral nutrition  Impaired absorption  Genetic disorders  SYMPTOMS-hair loss, dermatitis, depression  B6 Pyridoxine, .., .. o PLP is active form for PROTEIN SYNTHESIS o Functions  Hemoglobin red blood cells  Glycogenolysis and Gluconeogensis  Immune and nervous system health o Foods  Meats  Enriched cereals o Toxicity  Nerve damage, hard walking, tingling in legs and feet  DOES NOT CURE CARPEL TUMMEL o Deficiency  Sore tongue, inflammation, confusion  Micro anemia  Folate o Active form: tetrahydrogolate o Folate is Natural o Folic is unnatural and absorbed better o Bioavailability  Folic acid more bioavailable  Sensistive to heat and light  BEANS, Legume, cabbage o Functions  Helps with neural tube defects  DNA and amino synthesis  Cell structure  Prevent heart disease and cancer o Males and Females 400micros/day o Dark leafy vegetables, liver, pasta o No TOXICITY but EXCESS will hurt b12 because not enough HCl o Deficiency  Macrocytic anemia  Shortness breath  B12 o ABSORPTION** o STORED mostly in liver o Years to show deficiency o Two coenzymes o IMPORTANT to Mylin sheath o Absorption decrease with age o Atrophic gastritis-reduction of HCL production o No KNOWN TOXICITY o Animal food sources o Macrocytic anemia is without folate, pernicious is with folate but still lacking Nutrition Chapter 8 METABOLISM(FINAL)  Metabolism: sum of all chemical reactions in the body  Energy is stored in the bonds that connect the molecules that make up carbs, proteins, and fats.  Energy is given when bonds broken: o Aerobic (oxygen) o Anaerobic (without oxygen)  Metabolism never stops.  STAGES o Glycolysis stage 1 o Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA stage 2 (fatty acids only yield Acetyl CoA) o TCA Cycle stage 3 o Electron Transport chain stage 4  Functions: different for different cells o Outside cell-plasma membrane holds in the cell contents o Inside of cell- organelles: Mitochondria- key role in aerobic ATP production o Liver is the most metabolically active organ  Metabolize, store, and distribute nutrients after absorption  Converts monosaccharides, amino acids, glycerol, and fatty acids into new compounds, energy, and stores tris and glycogen  Chemical reactions o Metabolic pathway is sequence of reactions that convert compounds from one form to another. o Anabolic reactions: absorb energy o Catabolic reactions: release energy o Both reactions require energy intitially o KNOW EXAMPLES OF ANABOLIC AND CATABOLIC o Hormones (such as insulin) regulate anabolic and catabolic reactions.  Insulin is anabolic  Glucagon is catabolic  Oxidation-reduction reactions: electron donor and taker  ATP o Cells energy source o Continually produce ATP for energy supply o ADP is formed with coupled reaction occurs and phosphate is dropped from ATP o LOOK at the visuals o Sources of inorganic phosphate in creatine phosphate PCr o ATP to ADP VISUAL o Anaerobic metabolism: gives 1-1.5 minutes short burst o Aerobic metabolism produces less ATP with longer bursts  METABOLIC RATE OF FOOD o 4 stages o Glucogenic amino acids, glucose, and glycerol can enter into anaerobic glycolysis at specific pathways to produce pyruvate o Ketogenic amino acids, glucose, and fatty acids are converted to acetyle CoA o Acetyle CoA enters TCA cycle  Mitochondria o Look up visual for stages and where they occur  Glycolysis 10 parts VISUAL  Pyruvate to lactate a result if not enough oxygen within the cells. o CORI CYCLE**  TCA CYCLE**  How do macronutrients enter energy cycle  Deanimation and Transamination affecting the glucogenic and ketogenic amino acid metabolism.  TABLE 8.3 and 8.4 KNOW IT!!  Metabolism during absorbative state  Fasting o Short term: o Long term: Chapter 15  Genetic “set point” theory: theory that you have a natural weight that can be influenced by diet  Environment factors can increase appetite and decrease activity  Portion Distortion affects how much we eat and take in  Psychological harm and cycle for loss of weight for happiness  Glycemic Index is for blood sugar levels so low GI diet yields lose more weight  Energy density: calories per weight of food  High protein low carb diet will lose weight, increase physical activity per 150minutes per week (you need cardio and strength activities), Spot reducing doesn’t work,  Table 15.2 for activity  Behavior modification: break bad habits and stress  Maintain weight loss? Maintain the energy –gap reduction in kilo needs, weekly weigh-in is effective  ONLY PHYSICAL ACTIVITY CAN BE CHANGED IN ENERGY EXPENDITURE  Gain weight: gain muscle not fat, add 500kilos, energy dense food is PEANUTS o Sibutramine: suppress appetite o Orlistat: inhibit fat absorption (affects Pancreatic Lipase and may help weight) o Lorcaserin: stimulate satiety and may reduce food intake o ***high calorie intake reduced will reduce weight but not necessarily healthy weight***  Obesity o If going to use drugs should be LONG TERM COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAM o Drugs include Belviq and Qsymia: helps but does not replace for obese o Surgery should not happen UNLESS: attempted weight loss, BMI>40, clinically severe obesity. Gastric Bypass and Gastric Binding are two methods of surgery. Duodenal Switch, Gastric Sleeve Surgery, Gastric Bypass, Gastric Binding(most complications)  .5 to .2 lbs per week is healthy  Nutrition Exam 3 Review: Norma Ramos, NSCI major and Mickala  Lipids: o 3 fatty acids and Glycerol o Know the classes: sterols (rings of carbons and oxygens), tris, and phospholipids o Omega 3 alpha-linolenic acid like nuts, flaxseed, and walnut and Omega 6 linolic acid is corn and sunflower seeds o Counting the bonds starting from right end o Emulsifier is LECITHIN which is an example a phospholipid and is synthesized by the liver. o ABSORBED DIRECTLY INTO Blood medium and short chain fatty acids and Glycerol. If not, they are digested and broken down into these forms. o Lingual lipase is used to breakdown fat starting in the mouth. Gastric lipase breaks it down. Moves to small intestine then bile breaks it down. Bile is from gallbladder and created in the liver. Pancreatic lipase is also used to break down in small intestine. CCK signals release of bile. End result free fatty acids and glycerol. STEROLS NOT DIGESTED o Lipoproteins are the LDL, HDL50% protein, VLDL60% triglycerides, and the o Saturated fats are SINGLE bonds and Unsaturated single and double bonds o Mono and Polyunsaturated is based on bond numbers o Long, medium, and short chains are the classes of fats o Saturated is solid unsaturated is liquid due to bond differences o Three traits are length, degree saturation, and shape o Chylomicrons (phospholipid) transports long chains to lymph system to become short and medium chains o Hydrogenation (taste factors and shelf life) is the process of saturated to trans fat o Micelles are like the chylomicrons for phospholipids during the small intestine o  Questions: o Major sources of least cholesterol? Avocado o Abundant amounts of omega 3? Flaxseed o Feature cholesterol? Synthesize by the body o Fish doesn’t have…? Iron o LOOK UP OIL SHEET o Characteristics shared by cholesterol and lecithin? Both synthesized by the body o Heart disease correlates with..? LDL low-density lipids o Lipids substituted for saturated fats? Canola oil o NOT polysaturated fatty acids? Palm Oil  Alcohol: o Types of alcohols like ethanol and the other types o Fermentation then yeast metabolize glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Then it bubbles over. Fermentation stops when content is 11- 14%. o Liquors are made from distillation. o NO energy and DOES GIVE CALORIES o Proof = 2 times the alcohol content. o 12 oz beer, 5 oz wine, 1.5 oz liquor o Absorbed in stomach then small intestine especially small intestine duodenum o Metabolized in liver. If too much goes healthy liver, to fatty liver, to hepatitis, to cirrhosis which is unreversible o Possible disease of long-term alcohol is Wernicke o Short-term effects on the brain: imbalance, slur speech, alcohol poisoning, sleep disruption o Long term effects: impaired digestion of nutrients, interact with hormone glucagon and insulin (blood glucose levels), cardiovascular disease so cholesterol not digested, depression, liver problems, fetal alcohol syndrome if pregnant, o Benefits: reduce high blood pressure and increase HDL, may increase insulin sensitivity so may help diabetes o Binge drinking: males five or more in short time and women four drinks in short time. o Average drinking age in US is 14 o Alcoholism: DEPENDENCY, higher tolerance, SI Session Exam 5  Kidney best for body fluid organ  Aldosterone and renine each promote the calcium stuf  Angiotensin is the blood restricting thing  Angio(blood vessels) Angiodema(blood vessel swelling)  Major Cation is sodium extracellular  Intacellular Cation is potassium  Milliequivalents  Lost most in sweating or blood is NaCl  DASH to help Hypertension  2000mg sodium to 5g of salt  No to salt tablets because induces dehydration  AI 1500 sodium  Bolemia: more likely to lose chloride  Major function chloride: gastric acidity  Zinc links to wound healing SI session with Haley  All minerals leeched out in water  Stable so not easily destroyed  Intact in digestion  Major minerals you need 100mg/day (5g in body)  Trace minerals you need 20mg/day (less than 5g in body)  Factors bioavailability: nutritional status, preparation, heme vs nonheme, attachment to binders (leeches to absorption), how much you have of other minerals  Functions: immune system, cofactors(coenzymes for minerals basically) to do antioxidants etc, electrolyte balance, growth  Hydroxyapatite: 60% bone mass and without leads to brittle bones  Mineralization: helps strengthen bones somewhat and cells  Kidneys: do work on what we need (kidney disease greater risk mineral toxicity)  Sodium: fluid balance, nutrients in cell, nerve impulses, muscles contractions o Too little: Angiosteinll stimulates aldosterone basically saying to kidneys we need more sodium. o Too much: opposite and angiosteinll not stimulate o Hypothalamus to thirst signal ADH to urine less o Nutrients in cell by charged molecule to work with things to absorb o Toxicity: hernatremia(dehydration), hypertension, not enough fluids for balance  Blacks  Diabetes  Elderly o 77% from processed food because to help with shelf life o DASH Diet fruits, vegies, and fish sometimes to reduce hypertension  Function Focus, Toxic/Deficient, Interactions with other minerals  Sodium main just because sodium-potassium pump Nicole:  Water o Intoxication; too much water, causes water to move from ECF to ICF, dilutes sodium, o Dehydration; too little water, lb loss equals 2 cups water, reduced blood volume(pressure), o Cafeine afects; not much loss but some, blocks action of antidiuretics o Alcohol; significant loss of water and dehydrates you, inhibits antidiuretic hormone so you don’t pee, o Functions: help blood pressure, build cells, fruits and vegies best sources, digestive processes, body temp, cushion, acid-base balance, o Neutral pH so both acid and base o Sodium follows water while Potassium goes in (Sodium-potassium pump) o Hypothalamus thirst mechanism  Sodium o HELPS WATER AND BLOOD VOLUME o NaCl salt o Most absorbed in kidney o Blood o Too little; aldosterone is released to stimulate sodium absorption (water intoxication) o Too high; need more water because thirst will increase o Processed foods and table salt o HYPERTENSION and DEHYDRATION and OSTEOPOROSIS(messes with CALCIUM) o DASH Diet Nutrition SI Review Exam 4  B vitamin function is COENZYME PARTICIPATION  Large doses of Niacin equal LIVER DAMAGE  NOT a feature of vitamin D toxicity: Sun exposure  Cholecalciferol is the vitamin D animal version  Vitamin E is a blood thinner and could lead to excessive bleeding don’t take before surgery  Soy Milk is rich in Thiamin. Look for fortified cereals, whole rice, and Yeast  Coenzyme FAD is made with RIBOFLAVIN  NOT a fat soluble vitamin Cyanolobalamin  Measles think vitamin A  Vitamin E ELIMINATES free radicals  Folate is the replacement of red blood cells in the digestive tract  Essential dietary nutrient is folate acid  Alcohol intake effect metabolism DISLODGES PLP coenzyme  Adequate amount of protein amino acid TRYPTOPHAN synthesizes Niacin  Folate legally added to bread, flour, and rice is 140mg  Secondary deficiency think B12  Vitamin A deficient children in the world is 250 million  Iron deficient cause for kid death  Calcitinin NOT a vitamin D name  Vitamin widespread in foods is D  Poor sources of Vitamin E  Not among general things  Not a form of Vitamin A r long name  B6 causes probs  200mg vitamin to max absorption  Vitamin b12 nutrition halted with heat  Fermented soy products bad source b12 because not in bioavailable form  Vitamin again helps with measles and infants  RDA vitamin is cobalamin  Disorder of bile deficiency in folate  Not a feature vitamin D  Not a likely source for vitamin D deficient in elderly  Precursor vitamin A following tissues use it to perform vitamin A intestinal cells  Urine made in the kidneys Haley:  Fat-soluble A,D,E and K  All vitamins organic  Functions: bone health, blood clotting, protein metabolism,  Provitamin: can’t be used to initially  Performed Vitamin: immediate use after eating  Free radicals: unpaired electron that hurt us, smoking and UV light makes more of them o Create stress that can hurt the DNA and lead to cancer, CVD, diabetes, etc.  Vitamin A o Riboflavin is the precursor o PROVITAMIN o Orange foods: carrots, pumpkins, liver o Night blindness o Retinoic acid help with reproduction and protein synthesis o Prolonged deficient: xerophthalmia irreversible blindness (chronic) o Defieciency can lead keratinization to dry epithelial cells that will promote infections o Overconsumptions does not help acne, too much osteoporosis and increase risk lung cancer for smokers o Beta-carotene(first form) is PROVITAMIN  Fat vs Water vitamins o More toxic is fat  Vitamin D o Sunshine vitamin o Number one source is swordfish then salmon o Look for fish o Bone health o Calcium levels o Associated with rickets, osteomalacia, and osteoporosis o Diabetics usually have less vitamin D as a whole o May regulate blood pressure and reduce risk lungs o Way to overdose supplements o Hypercalcemia is the too much o Found in calciferols chole-animals ergo-plants o Too much melanin in body not absorb as if it was sunblock o  Vitamin E o Most active ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL o Too much will lead to hemorrhage due to stop of blood clots o Chronic deficiencies is rare and will lead to nerve problems o Nuts and sunflower oils are best forms: whole grains o 8 forms o Adipose tissue is where stored o Anticoagulant(stop blood clots) and Antioxidant  Vitamin K o Promoting blood clotting because it’s a coagulate (polish K word) o Sources are supplements, dark leafy greens, and colon (prostate) o Bone health o Intrinsic and Extrinsic trigger, preprothrombin, fibrinogen are the four blood clot factors to make fibrin(the clot) o Menadione, phyloquinone, menaquinione o Deficiency could cause colon problems and hip fracstrure o No toxicity Water-soluble Haley  Folate o Dark leafy vegetables, whole grains  Water soluble basics- o Vitamins B and C o Functions: B vitamins are for energy release (metabolic process, blood formation, nerve function, protein synthesis) while vitamin C is antioxidant o Is needed EVERYDAY because excreted easy o Easy broke down by UV light, heat, and oxidation o 9 of them o Water soluble is less stable  B-vitamin o Energy releasing  B1,2,3 and biotin and pantothenic acid o Thiamin  Beriberi wet and dry  Lean pork and whole grains  Basic solutions to protect o Riboflavin  Needs to attach to proteins  Basic solutions to protect  Beta-Oxidation reactions FMN and FAD to help ATP  Enhance other B-vitamins  Milk and dairy, cereals  UV destroy it  Deficiency  Ariboflavinosis cracks corner to mouth and hurt b6 activation  Messes up iron intake  Toxicity none o Niacin  Nicotininc acid and nicotinamide  Facilitated diffusion  Absorb in blood obviously  Because NAD and NADP+ helps in oxidation-reactions for metabolism in the process of ATP  Fish, poultry, grains  HEAT  No toxicity but may get flush o Pantothenic Acid(B5)  Helps with Acetyl CoA  HEAT  Synthesis the fatty acids, cholesterol  In everything o Biotin  DNA replication thus growth and metabolism  Acetyl CoA  Hair and nails health  Brittle hair and nails, dermatitis and depression o B6  Protein metabolism  THE ONLY with TOXICITY, nerve damage  Inflammation, and annemia’s o Folate  Need b12 for absorption, activates to tetrahydrogalate  DNA synthesis, neural health  Dark leafy Vegetables  Spina Bifida o B12  Stored in liver  Absorbed can be messed up with less HCl  Myline sheath, red blood cells, and folate functions  Anemia, spina bifida  Vitamin C o Ascorbic acid real name o Antioxidant, synthesize collogen o Bleeding gums, and more bleeding if deficient o Animal foods such as o Toxicity- kidney stones SI Session Nutrition Chapter 8 Metabolism  TCA and ETC are from Mitochondria  Catabolic and anabolic reactions. Catabolic needs energy  ATP is needed to make more and broken down to produce energy o ATP to ADP from a lost phosphate  Types of metabolism o Anarobic (ATP produces fast and is shorter) o Aerobic is only a few seconds (needs more time to produce but lasts longer like a couple minutes)  Types of macronutrients o Proteins o Carbs o Triglycerides  Proteins o Amino acids types glucogenic and ketogenic  Carbs o With monosaccharides  Tryglycerides o Enter in glycolysis starting with glucose end product 2 pyruvate o ATP produced from glycolysis is 2 although net is 4 o Pyruvate enters into acetyl CoA or, if not enough oxygen, turn into lactate  Process is a one-way pathway  Acetyl coenzyme A is added to pyruvate for reaction  End product 2 Acetyl CoA  TCA cycle end products are 3 NADH, 1 FADH2 which go to Electron transport chain. Both lose hydrogens to create majority of ATP  Limiting factor is oxylotal cetate  Post-absorptive state o 4 hours after we eat then energy needs are met by our body processes o Catabolic processes start occurring now  Absorptive state o Opposite where within four hours of eating and anabolic processes exceed catabolic Chapter 4 Lecture CARBS Lecture:  Carbs Classes o Photosynthesis: process in plants using the energy from sun o Eat the carbs as people makes it into glucose. o Glucose is most abundant carbs, preferred source of energy for body  Intro o Brain  Glucose o Muscles  Glucose  Glycogen: stored glucose (muscles and liver)  Fat (after energy use and stored capacity filled then fat)  Sources of carbs everything but lipids and oils o Simple carbs  Atoms and chemical bonds C6H12O6 carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. All are made with condensation  Monosaccharide: glucose(blood sugar) most abundant, fructose(fruit sugar) sweetest, and galactose(dairy lactose). All of which are C6H12O6 so HEXOS structure. Two makes a disaccharide  Disaccharide: sucrose(table sugar) most common glucose+fructose, lactose(dairy sugar) dairy products fructose+galactose, maltose(digestion product) least common glucose+glucose  Hydrolysis needs water Condensation produces water  Complex carbs (like starches) start in the mouth  Oligosaccharides: 3-10 monos o Starch: 40% is amylose straight chain which is easier to digest. Amylopectin 60% branch structure o Fiber: most nondigestible polysaccharides. KNOW THE STARCH TABLE, soluble fiber, insoluble fiber, functional fiber, resistant starches. COMPONENTS ARE EXTRA CREDIT PTS o Fibers fall under the carb category, fibers are also under complex carbs. o Inulins are more used in processed foods to replace sugar, fat, and flour. BONUS. Form of soluble fiber. o Glycogen: storage form of glucose, long branched chains, stored in liver and muscle. Insulin and glucagon break down glucose. Animal products are no glucose o Lactose maldigestion: inability to digest lactose due to low enzyme levels o Lactose intolerance: symptoms of lactose maldigestion with nausea, cramps, and diarrhea. Defiency in lactase to digest lactose. Still can have dairy foods in moderation. Intolerence hits the large intestine and ferments causing nausea and cramps. o ULTIMATE GOAL DIGEST CARBS FOR GLUCOSE! o Carbs absorbed as monosaccharides. Galactose and Fructose used by liver for energy then converted to glucose. Glucose converted to glycogen through glycogenesis then excess is converted to glycerol and fatty acids for storage. o Know the pathways for absorption. Glucose and galactose with active transport with sodium, ATP, and carrier protein. Fructose is absorbed via facilitated diffusion and a carrier protein. o Carb functions: 4kcals per gram, maintain glucose levels, high blood sugar makes nerve damage, low blood sugar equals dizziness and no energy, spare protein by preenting the need for GLUCONEOGENESIS: occurs mainly in the liver but can occur in the kidney or liver. Prevents KETOSIS: excess number of ketone bodies in the carbs needed for protein spearing and prevention of ketosis 50-100 grams per day o Insulin: lowers blood glucose levels. You want blood glucose between 70-110 mg/dl Insulin stimulates glycogenesis and lipogenesis(fat storage) o KNOW the Diabetes differences and dental hygiene effects o HORMONES (OTHERS)  Epinephrine or norepinephrine: raise blood glucose by stimulating glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Released from the adrenal glands  Cortisol: increases blood glucose  Growth hormone: conserves blood glucoses o Hypoglycemia is a blood glucose level less than 70 meaning within two hour eating period lower than normal levels o Fiber: Benefits  Bowel, constipation, obesity, cancer, diabetes, heart disease  Constipation: hard dry stool hard and painful to expel  Heart disease: soluble fiver interferes with reabsorption of bile acids alleviating OATS are SOLUBLE.  Diabetes: viscous soluble fiber helps slow digestion and absorption of glucose, help control blood glucose levels. More cereal foods help  Colon Cancer: decrease cancer-promoting substances spend in intestinal lining  Obesity: increases satiety, resulting in reduced food intake. Too MUCH Fiber without water may TRAP IRON AND ZINC and like MINERALS o DRI of CARBS  130grams/days  AMDR 45-65% total kcals  AI 25 women 38 men.  Whole food and grains best sources EX: fat-free dairy, fruits, vegies,  FIBER SOURCES o Glycemic Index (GI): rating scale of the likelihood of foods to increase the levels of blood glucose and insulin. Concern does not account for the carb amount consumed. o Glycemic load (GL): the amount of carbs in a food multiplied by the amount of the GI of that food. Adjusts the GI to account for the amount of carbs typically eaten. o Sugars:  Natural are like fruits or dairy products producing fructose and lactose  Added Sugar: sugars on label under different names like


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