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Mineralogy and Petrology Notes and Review

by: Paul Pelletier

Mineralogy and Petrology Notes and Review Geol 225

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Paul Pelletier

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Notes from Mineralogy and Petrology 225
Mineralogy and elementary petrology
Terry Panhorst
Petrology, Geology, mineralogy, minerals, Mineral, notes, Lecture Notes, chapternotes, review, rocks
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This 12 page Bundle was uploaded by Paul Pelletier on Monday August 22, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Geol 225 at University of Mississippi taught by Terry Panhorst in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 3 views. For similar materials see Mineralogy and elementary petrology in Mineralogy at University of Mississippi.


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Date Created: 08/22/16
Mineralogy Notes: November 5, 2104 Chemical Sedimentary Rocks Evaporation of seawater • Calcite begins depositing when seawater first begins to evaporate • Gypsum begins when ~75% of original water removed • Halite begins when ~90% of original water removed • Various Mg/K salts form when ~95% of original water removed Volume left Mineral precipitation begins - calcite 1/3 gypsum 1/10 halite 1/20 Mg & K salts Evaporite Minerals Common evaporites include: • Sulfates (gypsum, anhydrite) • Halides (halite, sylvite) • Rare to find in outcrop - only common in arid climates • Common in subsurface - present under about 1/3 of US land surface • Permian is time of great abundance - Probably due to having all continents together near equator • Halite - Mechanically unstable: deforms by flowing when deeply buried - Forms salt dome structures Phosphorites • Marine sed. rocks composed mostly of apatite with >20% P2O5 • apatite: - Phosphate mineral - Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) • Collophane • massive cryptocrystalline variety of apatite found in phosphorites • major source of phosphate used in fertilizer Chert • Rock name for cryptocrystalline quartz • Occurs in bedded deposits and as nodules in sed sequences • Precipitates in water, mostly marine - Silica sources include • Some plankton • Sponge spicules November 7, 2014 Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphism • Metamorphism occurs when a protolith undergoes a solid-state change in response to a modification of environment. - protolith, solid-state, change, modification of environment • Rock seeks new equilibrium due to changing conditions Range of metamorphism • Lower boundary set at first appearance of mineral(s) not normally occurring in sedimentary rocks - Ex; chlorite, epidote, certain zeolites • Gradual change from diagenesis to very low grade metamorphism • Upper boundary set at beginning of significant melting’ Agents of Metamorphism • Heat - Temps b/t diagenesis and melting - Recrystallization results in new, stable minerals - Heat may be provided by: • Contact metamorphism-heat from magma • Geothermal gradient-increase in T with depth • Radioactive decay • Prograde changes - Happen when rocks are heating - Occur rapidly, b/c diffusion is faster • Retrograde changes - Occur during cooling - Much slower Confining Pressure • - Increases with depth - Applies forces equally in all directions - May cause recrystallization to more compact XLline form • Differential Stress - Unequal in different directions - Can result in preferred orientation of mineral grains - Ex-convergent plate boundaries • Hydrothermal fluids - Mainly water - Enhances migration of ions - Aid in recrystallization of existing minerals - Metasomatism: change in rock’s composition by reaction with hydrothermal fluids • Different types based on: - Temperature/pressure conditions - Inferred processes active during formation • contact or thermal metamorphism - Magma invades a host rock - Temperature rises - Zone of alteration forms in rock surrounding the magma (limited areal extent) - High temps, but low pressures - Typically produces massive rocks Metamorphic Environments • Hydrothermal metamorphism - Chemical alteration caused when hot, ion-rich fluids circulate through fissures and cracks - Most widespread along axis of the mid-ocean ridge system, altering ocean-floor basalt • Regional metamorphism - Widespread metamorphic zones, producing greatest quantity of metamorphic rock - Associated with mountain building/convergence - Very high temps associated with depth and/or igneous activity - Higher pressures due to overburden weight, plus compressing and shearing - Foliation develops • High P, Low T- Subduction Zone metamorphism - Restricted to narrow belts(smaller than regional) - Formed at temps below average geothermal gradient, but very high pressure - Accretionary prisms at subduction zones is only site November 10, 2014 • Burial metamorphism - Associated with very thick sedimentary strata - Increasing T and P with additional burial/ subsidence - Required depth varies depending on prevailing geothermal gradient - Typically low-grade - Little to no internal deformation of rocks • Dynamic metamorphism - Occurs at depth and high temperatures along fault zones (localized) - Pre-existing minerals deform by ductile flow - Result of shearing - Mylonite: • Meta rock produced in shear zones • Large grains in protolith recrystallize to very fine-grained • Impact metamorphism - Occurs when meteorites strike earth’s surface - Rocks are called impactiles - Ultra high temp & pressure - Extremely limited occurrence Metamorphic Rocks • Contact vs. regionally metamorphosed rock textures - Contact is more about the temperatures to make changes - Regional is more exfoliated • Granoblastic textures - May form during recrystallization - XLs of roughly the same size - exhibit polygonal grain boundaries • Hornfels: generic name for fine-grained, granoblastic, contact metamorphic rocks that are typically - Hard - Dense - Baked appearance - Gray to brown to black - Smooth to the touch Non foliated examples Certain non-foliated rocks with specific chemical compositions and/or mineral assemblages • are given specific names • Marble: - Composed mostly of calcite (less commonly dolomite) - Protolith of LS or DS - Usually granoblastic - Foliation may be present • Skarns: - Originate from contact metamorphism of (possibly impure) LS and DS - Show evidence of having exchanged constituents with intruding magma (metasomatism) - May form metallic ore deposits • Quartzites: - Metamorphism of quarts arenites and cherts - Recrystallization with interlocking crystals of quartz - Fractures across grain boundaries - Hard • Serpentinites: - Consist mostly of serpentine • Soapstones: - Mixture of serpentine and talc - Talc gives greasy feel • Both typically form by hydrothermal alteration of ultramafic igneous rocks • Greenstone - Chlorite commonly formed, giving rock a green color - Mafic protolith, such as basalt • Amphibolites: - Medium to coarse grained - Dark colored - Principal minerals are hornblende and plagioclase • Porphyroblasts: metamorphic equivalent or phenocrysts - May occur in foliated and non foliated rocks - Ex; Garnet, Staurolite November 12, 2014 More on Metamorphic Rocks Metamorphic textures • Foliation-Parallel planes of aligned platy or elongated minerals or compositional layering produced by differential stress - Exhibited commonly by regionally metamorphosed rocks - Develops perpendicular to the direction of maximum stress - May assume any angle to original bedding • Ways foliation can form: - Rotation of platy and/or elongated minerals - Recrystallization of minerals in the direction of preferred orientation - Changing the shape of equidimensional grains into elongated shapes that are aligned • Analyzing foliated rocks includes observations of: - Intensity of foliating - Size of crystals - Degree to which segregated into light and dark bands - Metamorphic grade • Slate - Low grade metamorphism of shale/mudstone - Growth of very fine-grained chlorite and micas result in • Slaty cleavage: splitting into thin sheets along foliation • Phyllite - Fine-grained - Gradational between slate and schist - Glossy reflective sheen due to platy mineral grains - Wavy surfaces - Also exhibits rock cleavage • Schist - Medium-to coarse-grained - Conspicuous platy mineral grains - Exhibits irregular planar foliation of visible mica flakes called schistocity - Composition indicated by using mineral names (ex:biotite schist) • Gneiss - Medium- to coarse-grained - High-grade metamorphism - Exhibits gneissic banding: conspicuous color segregation due to compositional layering • Migmatites - heterogeneous rocks with both igneous and metamorphic properties - Dark layers experienced meta changes, but did not melt - Lighter portions may have crystallized form a partial melts of the precursor rock November 14, 2014 Metamorphic Rocks continued • Metamorphic grade- somewhat informal way to indicate intensity of metamorphism • Progresses from subtle low grade (~250-400 deg. C) to high grade (over ~600 deg. C) • With increasing grade - grain size coarsens - yield different mineral assemblages, stable higher T/P Meta Mineralogy • Number of minerals in metamorphic rocks limited, even with different rock types • Same protolith always produces same minerals when subjected to same T and P conditions Look up Barrovian sequence Index minerals Example: clay-rich rocks • Characteristic minerals showing zones of increasing metamorphism in mudstone • Each zone characterized by new mineral not present in previous zone - Lowest grade to highest (Chlorite, Biotite, Garnet, Staurolite, Kyanite, Sillimanite) Metamorphic grade • Isograd: - Line on map along which an index mineral first appears - Points along isograd have ~ same meta grade Metamorphic zones: • - regions between 2 isograds - represent different metamorphic intensities (T/P) • Problem with Barrovian metamorphic zones: - They were defined based on single index minerals that form from only one kind of protolith • Metamorphic facies - Group of meta mineral assemblages that develop under a specified range of T and P conditions - a more complete indication of metamorphic intensity - address different protolith compositions - Identify the mineral assemblages that approach thermodynamic equilibrium - Page 400 • Facies are named after characteristic rocks found in them, but may contain many more than the single rock type • Facies correspond to different plate tectonic settings and geothermal gradients Hornfels Facies • high temp-low pressure • corresponds with contact metamorphism • most common in the upper crust where the country rocks are relatively “cold” compared to the intruding magma Zeolite Facies • low temperature- low pressure • corresponds with burial meta zeolites commonly form via hydrothermal metamorphism of volcanic rocks • Increasing T and P facies • Green-schist through granulite facies correspond approximately to Barrovian regional metamorphic zones - regional meta in continental collision zones - most common facies - corresponds approx. to the Barrovian chlorite, biotite, and garnet zones - key minerals: epidote, chlorite, actinolite (green amphibole) Amphibole Facies • Regional meta • corresponds approximately to the Barrovian upper garnet through sillimanite facies Granulite Facies • regional meta • Highest-grade metamorphism experienced by continental rocks • Hydrous minerals absent Common in Precambrian rocks • • May form migmatites at upper end November 17, 2014 Metamorphic Rocks continued Blue-schist and Eclogite Facies • High pressure facies • correspond to subduction zone metamorphism experienced by a subjecting slab (sinking crust remains cool, well down into mantle) and very deep lower crustal and mantle conditions • Blue-schist facies - low temperature-high pressure - often contains the blue amphibole, glaucophane • Eclogite facies- relatively rare, dense rocks that may represent crust- mantle boundary • Learn what Geothermal Gradient means Exam: Blackboard exam info, and selected slides Material in text: Sedimentary Rocks Chapters 10, 11, and 12 Metamorphic Rocks: Chapter 13, 14 Sedimentary Rocks: Formation, common/abundant sed rocks, weathering rates and products Order of things going on; weathering, transport, deposition, lithification, diagnesis Questions: Most abundant siliclastic rock? shale Most abundant chemical/biogenic? Minerals found in mafic igneous rocks tend to LESS stable in a weathering environment Sediment formed form weathering of rock • detritus • grain size, sorting, sphericity, roundness • textural maturity concept • glacial sediment Immature? angular, poorly sorted (many different grain sized), clay Super mature? well rounded, well sorted Sediment transport: • laminar vs. turbulent flow • rolling, saltation, suspension • bedload vs. suspended load • turbidity currents • debris flows Would a fluid with a low viscosity more likely exhibit laminar or turbulent flow? TURBULENT Laminar would be like a glacier Sedimentary structures • stratification • graded bedding • cross bedding ripple marks • • mudcracks • trace fossils Depositional environment • Marin/continental/transitional Siliciclastic rocks • diagnesis • compaction • cementation • types of cements pressure solution • Mudrocks • importance, types, characteristics Sandstones • Compositions • quartz arenites • feldspathic arenites (arkos) • lithic amenities • wackes Biogenic and Chemical Rocks Carbonate minerals • calcite group • aragonite group • dolomite group Carbonate rocks • Limestone Limstone textures • allochems carbonate sediment • • fossils ooids • peloids • limeclasts • mud, micrite, spar Carbonate deposition • role of CO2 • Limestone diagenesis • stylolites • dolomitization • carbonate depositional sites carbonate compensation depth • Metamorphic Rocks • metamorphism • protolith agents of metamorphism sources of heat • • prograde/retrograde • confining pressure, differential stress • hydrothermal fluids • metasomatism Different metamorphic environments foliation • slaty cleavage • schistocity • gnessic banding • slate, phyllite, schist, gneiss • Migmatite • Mylonite November 21, 2014 Mineral Resources Minerals are non-renewable resources • - always searching for new sources • Sources of new materials - New deposits - Recycling materials - Substitution of other materials Economic Geology Field of study for finding and producing mineral products • • Can involve: - Exploration of new deposits - Feasibility studies for proposed deposits - Mapping ore-bodies - Extraction methodology • Crustal abundance: average concentration in crust • Certain geologic processes will segregate and concentrate materials • Higher the concentration, easier it is to recover • Ore: naturally occurring concentration that can be mined, processed, and sold at a profit • Orebody (ore deposit): contains enough material to extract economically • Ore grade: describes relative abundance of economic material in the deposit Concentration Factor • concentration factor: ratio of elemental abundance in ore deposit to average crustal abundance • Examples: - Low: Al 4X Fe 5X - Moderate: Zn 300X Ag 1,200X - High: Au 4,000X Hg 100,000X • Typical concentrations to be considered an ore: Iron mine: 30% FE • • Copper mine: 0.5%Cu Gold mine: 0.1 ounce per ton • ******Reserves vs. Resources*****test question • Resources include - Reserves - Discovered deposits that are not currently economic - Undiscovered • New discoveries are not automatically reserves Must be evaluated and be economically feasible to mine, process, and sell • Recycling • Very price-driven business - Typically restricted to metallic commodities • amount of recycling heavily dependent on how material is being used • Examples: - Some materials tied up for long time periods Industrial Minerals • Materials used mostly for their own specific physical or chemical properties • Include majority of nonmetallic minerals • Often of low unit value - Transportation is major cost factor - Results in high place value - Often more sensitive to market fluctuations December 1, 2014 Geology of Mineral Deposits • Processes that concentrate minerals in crust vary • Typically involve some type of fluid movement - May be magmas, hydrothermal fluids groundwater, etc. Circulation of hydrothermal fluids • Fluids expelled from or heated by magmas can interact with surrounding host rock • Metallic minerals with elements like Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn may concentrate this way • Veins: high concentrations along relatively narrow zones, usually faults or fractures • Disseminated deposits: ore minerals scattered throughout host rock Seafloor Hot Springs • Spreading centers supply heat to create hot springs on ocean floor • Waters are heavily enriched with Mn, Cu Pb, and Zn • Materials deposited around springs, accumulating in layers • Massive sulfide deposits: large masses of various sulfide minerals Weathering and Ore Deposits • Surficial processes can also result in ore deposits Transported deposits • Flowing water will cause certain resistant minerals to segregate and accumulate into placer deposits • Typically found in river banks and along beaches • Deposits of gold, tin, and diamonds commonly form this way In-place deposits (not transported) • Intense weathering will remove all but the least soluble compounds Called residual deposits • • Ex: laterite- ancient A-horizon tropic soils Magmatic segregation processes Occur during crystallization of magma • • Several metallic minerals (chromite, magnetite, platinum) form this way • Certain minerals have higher specific gravities, allowing them to sink • Results in layers within intrusive body • Pegmatites - another example of segregation during crystallization - very coarse-grained intrusives - usually bulk composition of a granite - contain huge XLs of quartz, feldspars, and micas - often have collection of rarer minerals - commonly dike-like or lens-shaped - Most are relatively small - Range from X m to X00 m long, 1 cm to 200 m wide - Classified based on presence of absence of internal zoning Pegmatite origins Represent final water-rich material of granitic magmas • • Formed in deep, high-pressure environments • Majority found near borders of granite plutons How to pegmatites grow? • Grain size misleading - Probably formed as rapidly as other crystals in magma Differences in conditions of formation: 1. Nucleation sites are few 2. Diffusion of materials in supercritical water is fairly rapid • Allows very large crystals to grow at normal rate Economic Value of Oxides • Titanium - major use of TiO2 whitening agent in paints - used in welding rods - Sources are heavy mineral accumulations of rutile and ilmenite Manganese • - used in making steel, dry cell batteries, paints Hydroxide Minerals • Contain either hydroxyl within structure - Results in lower hardness and lower specific gravity than oxide minerals • Commonly found as alteration product, generally from weathering - Fe hydroxides often red to yellow on rocks and in souls Bauxite Rock name for primary aluminum ore • • Mixture of - diaspore and gibbsite • Typical ore grade material >45% Al2O3 • Requires: 1. Aluminum-rich parent rocks 2. Warm climate 3. Abundant rainfall with wet/dry conditions 4. Good drainage Bauxite continued • Main use is making aluminum metal • Recycling accounts for about 36% of all aluminum usage in US • 1/2 is from “old” scrap


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