New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Complete Animal Behavior Course Notes

by: Natalie Puente

Complete Animal Behavior Course Notes Bio 330

Marketplace > Montclair State University > Bio 330 > Complete Animal Behavior Course Notes
Natalie Puente

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the entire class of animal behavior. No days are missing.
Animal Behavior
Dr. Kight
75 ?




Popular in Animal Behavior

Popular in Department

This 45 page Bundle was uploaded by Natalie Puente on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Bio 330 at Montclair State University taught by Dr. Kight in Summer 2016. Since its upload, it has received 7 views.


Reviews for Complete Animal Behavior Course Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 08/23/16
Monday 5/16 Behavior - How and Why & Nueroethology How and why: go hand in hand Why fund this research?  Maybe to see which males get to mate and which ones don’t o Characteristics and evolutionary fitness - peacocks need to be colorful in order to mate  Climate change and how it influences reproductive behavior Behavior: An integrated Approach Structure - does its shape effect how it behaves? Interactions - within the body, organism to organism Materials Assembly Environment Design Blueprint How does the mechanism get constructed? Plasticity - able to change something and make it something different  Genetics and development can be the same but plasticity changes it from organism to organism. How does the mechanism work? 1 Stimuli - what stimuli stimulates and causes a change in the organism 2 Nervous system 3 Efficiency & constraint - like amount of neurons involved in a process. Constraints 4 Endocrine System - hormones. Changes behavior. testosterone 5 Environment - temperature & how enzymes function 6 Age A proximate question - "close to" All the above questions pertain to HOW something happens. An ultimate question - All these questions pertain to WHY something happens. -function -survival -reproductive success? * Why an organism does something is because it inherited those genes to do something which means someone had to survive in order to reproduce. -Evolution from ancestral state? Why are peacocks different from a grouse? Different starting material o Natural selection - Darwin said if there must be variation in population in order for some to have advantage over others. Variations must be heritable. Some of the traits must convey an advantage over the other ones. o Constraints Why came first; behavior or spots? Open wings with eye spots all the time or open sometimes with no eye spots? You can test these hypotheses by comparing to other closely related species that have spots or don’t. -which characteristic evolved first? Example of proximate and ultimate:  If your car broke down and you still found a way to get to school: proximate - how did you get to school? Think about mechanism.  Ultimately, why are you here? To get degree, etc. Neuroethology Is there a biological basis for human homosexuality?  Proximate questions about same sex vs. opposite sex sexual behavior: o How come?  Development in the womb or birth order?  Mother's developmental environment  Genes in common/different o Environment - interactions with people/ things you're exposed to.  Ultimate questions: o Why are there different sexualities among people?  Why is one person gay and one person straight LeVay - studied brain. He studied the proximate questions. HOW does the brain generate same/opposite sex preferences? Studies:  Anterior region of hypothalamus o Correlates to sexuality  Got samples from morgue from people who he didn’t know o Worked with assumption that only gay men had AIDS. o So if the man did not die from AIDS, then they were straight o All females were straight  Clusters of neurons in this area were biggest in straight men, then women, then gay men.  Assuming that he was right, does different sexual encounters develop the brain in a certain way? o Possibility that different circuitry forms Can test this with different organisms  Cichlid fish brains o Before and after they become the territorial male.  Before - preoptic area is relatively small  After- the same individual, preoptic area is bigger  Brain shape could be responsible for different behaviors or vice versa?? Neural science: The Basics Neurons - cell part of the nervous system. They send signals to other cells. Information transmission  Dendrites - projections of the cell body. They receive information. o Post synaptic  Soma - body. Body of the cell  Axon - sends out information. o Pre-synaptic  Myelin - fatty substance that coats outside of membrane of the axon. o Speeds neural conduction. Openings allow for this speed o Many neural problems derive from misproduction of myelin o Nodes of Ranvier - nodes short circuit the action potential  Synapse  Neurotransmitters History Schleiden & Schwann Cell Doctrine  Basic unit of life is the cell and each cell is its own. o EXCEPT neurons: they do have plumbing (they could not visualize synapse so they assumed that neurons shared cytoplasm) Ramon y Cajal  Principle of Connectivity Specificity o Neurons connected to one another in a specific way o Connections are not random. o Some plasticity - depending on certain factors there are slight differences o Stained nodes Neurons (rock stars) Form and Function **** 1 Bipolar neuron - relay circuit a Form - one dendrite b Function 2 Motor Neuron - more complex pays attention to more stuff. a Form - multiple dendrites. b Function - movement 2 Pyramidal neuron - even more complex. a pyramid shape b Form - pyramid of dendrites, one axon. Even more dendrites. c Function - memory in hippocampus 2 Purkinje neuron - cerebelum a Form - have more complex dendritic arbor than pyramidal neuron b Function - dexterity/balance. Fine motor skills. Non-signaling nervous system cells 1 Glions - (roadies) - support the axons/neurons. a Grow along the axon & support them and neurons b Physically drags a growing c degradation d Secrete myelin Neural Science The Basics Action Potential 1 Resting Potential 2 Na+/Ka+ pumps - transmembrane channel. Uses ATP (hence pump). a Pumps Na+ ions against their concentration gradient outside the cell. K+ ions go against their concentration gradient to the inside of the cell. b Electrons build up inside the membrane causing the inside to have a negative net charge and outside to have positive net charge i So the -70mV is inside the cell b Threshold potential: point where all Na+ channels to open at once. 2 Ion channels - channels allow certain ion to move through it. a Na+ channels b Ka+ channels 2 Depolarization - sodium channels open first. Na+ moves in and at -50, chain reaction happens and all Na+ moves in. Negative to positive. All sodium channels close and simultaneously Ka+ channels open. 3 Repolarization - refractory period. 4 Hyperpolarization - very negative (more negative than resting potential). This happens so that the information will not go backwards into the soma again. Ensures one direction (forwards). Action Potential Video  Action potential only occurs at the nodes of ranvier, where the nodes are not covered my myelin sheaths. Impulse will move from node to node. 1 Outside of the cell - high concentration Na, low concentration K 2 Inside the cell - low concentration NA, high concentration K 3 Resting Potential (Polarization) 4 Depolarization - (Na+ channels open) At the Axon Hillock, depolarization spreads here. At threshold, voltage dependent Na channel are opened and Na moves into the cell. Inside of neuron is + compared to outside of the cell. a 1 K+ channels move K+ out of the cell. 2 Repolarization is when K+ ions diffuse out of the cell making the inside of the membrane 3 Hyperpolarization is when too much K+ diffuses out of the cell. (refractory period) **allows action potential to only move in one direction! 4 Correction occurs when ions diffuse through the membrane and the K+ channels are closed - restore polarization. ^^^These cells can change their resting potential by opening their Na+ channels. Tuesday 5/17 Signaling Units For example in the human stretch reflex -  relay cell. Muscle to spinal cord back to muscle.  Only two neurons are involved.  Brain was not involved. No decision making. This is called a peripheral o Reflex  ^^^proximate question  Ultimate question - this happens to prevent getting hurt. 1 Many independent signaling units a These can be interconnected 2 Interneurons - direct the message from the periphery process to the brain (brain neurons). 3 Brain neurons - responsible for cognitive a communicate with peripheral systems 2 Brain neurons and brain systems Neuroethology of Predator - Prey Systems Bats & Moths Bats  Griffin's Experiment - o jammed the bats' signals so they could not echolocate. Sounds had to be pulsed in order to here the echo. o High frequency stimulus (Hz) - Griffin concludes that bats do echolocate but only at high frequencies. o Low frequency stimulus  Intensity - (dB) - higher intensity. (energy) whisper vs yell. Not pitch Moths  have developed ways to avoid being eaten by a bat.  Has an ear under each wing - tympana structure (resonating chamber) o Two neurons in each ear. (4 neurons total) o A1 neuron/cells - i. send action potentials when low intensity is heard ii. As sounds become more intense and loud, the cell sends more signals iii. More sensitive to pulsed sounds. Sends more action potentials in response to a pulse iv. Will send action potential within 30-50KHz. (Bats echolocate at this frequency) o A2 neuron/cells - will trigger the diving behavior from the moth i. Send action potentials when high intensity is heard ii. Not very sensitive. iii. All or nothing iv. 30-50KHz Left stimuli - A1 cell turn right Right stimuli - A1 cell turn left When the pulse from stimuli are the same from each side then the moth will fly 180 degrees away from bat  These two cells with these two properties are sufficient for the moth to detect and respond to the bat Stimulus Filtering - organisms tend to filter out certain stimuli in a way that what they do respond to is advantageous and important to them.  Flies are listening to cricket sounds  Crickets are listening to other crickets  Not paying attention to everything. Nervous system filters out certain ranges of light, sound, taste, etc. Flies lay eggs inside crickets….  Why would a fly and cricket have same shaped ears? (proximate) o To know where the crickets are (males - produce sounds) in order to lay their eggs.  Why cant you see, hear, or smell certain things? o Constraints- cannot physically do all things  -can only hear, see, or smell within a certain range o Adaptation - has shaped and altered your ears, nose, taste buds, and eyes in a way that is advantageous to you  Ultimately: female flies parasitize male crickets so they must have same shaped ears to hear the same noises. Selective Perception Humans perceive different things from other organisms. Example: 1 In water, humans cannot detect electric fields. But, fish can. This allows them to eat. Selective perception for electric fields. 2 Pigeons can detect magnetic fields. They can pick up magnetic fields from the earth. This is how they know which direction to go in to fly to get back home. 3 Bees detect polarized light. Different parts of the sky have different polarities. They know where home is. 4 All animals come from common ancestor with same neurons. All the above are due to modifications What we do perceive in reality does not always equal what our brains process. Perception does not always = reception  Blind spots  Edge effects  Typos  Optical illusions Behavioral Genetics Proximate Questions:  How do certain behavioral genes get passed along?  How do dominant and recessive alleles influence behavior o How does the shape of protein influence behavior Ultimate Questions:  Why are certain alleles responsible for behavior while others are not  Why do we have sequences that coincide with certain species and not the others Two Hypothesis: 1 Behavioral differences due to genetic differences (heritability) 2 Behavioral differences due to environmental differences  Are these hypotheses mutually exclusive? o Can't have both at the same time o The hypothesis are not necessarily mutually exclusive  Are the relationships between genetics and environment the same for all species? o Each species has been on its own evolutionary trajectory and these things can shift around.  What about humans? What kind of experiments can you do to show differences of behavior due to genetics of environments. o Twins - can separate them and raise them with different families (not ethical) o There are many things you can do to animals that you can never do to humans. Method One: Cross Fostering  Cross fostering - take two eggs and switch them so that they are raised by foster parents. o Would they resemble foster or biological parents? Biological o If they resemble foster parents? Environment o Resemble both? Environment/genetic interaction o No relationship - null hypothesis H1:enetics H2: environment H3: environment/genetic interaction H0: null hypothesis Examples: 1 A galah bird raised by cockatoo will produce cockatoo calls - environmental 2 Selected two different lines of mice; slow and fast poopers. Grand mice were cross fostered and they poop like biological parents. - Genetic Method Two: Common Garden  Raising offspring of behaviorally different sets of parents in common environments and seeing how much variation happens.  If they behave the same way/look the same, etc. its because the environment  If there is variation its due to genetics  G/E: genes give a predisposition by the environment plays a role. Example: 1 Feeding all mice same diet. 1 Some become obese and some don’t. - Genetics 2 None of them change their weight - environmental 1 Funnel Web Spiders 1 Spiders of the streamside - caught prey slow 2 Spiders of the desert - caught prey fast 3 In the common garden, the differences were the same. 4 Genetic Hypothesis 5 Ultimate hypothesis: (Why?) streamside and desert spiders are hunted by different predators. Take each species and put them in the other environment. The stream spiders were killed off in the desert so this means that those spiders near the stream that moved fast were killed off leaving only slow moving spiders. (if it was an environmental hypothesis) Method Three: Hybridization  Breed behaviorally different parents and see what happens to the offspring H genetics 1: H 2 environment H 3 environment/genetic interaction H 0 null hypothesis Example: 1 German x Cape Verde Blackcap warblers 1 Zugunruhe - migratory restlessness i German: 370 hr ii Hybrid: 260 hr iii Cape Verde: 0 hr Genetic Hypothesis i German: SW pattern - Africa ii Austrian: SE pattern - Turkey iii Hybrid: South pattern - mediterranean Sea Genetic Hypothesis  This wouldn’t happen in the real world because they would die in the mediterranean sea. (ultimate questions) Mendelian Transmission Monogenetic traits - one gene contributes one traits In drosophilia  Rover vs. Sitter  Rovers move around constantly and eat Sitters find food and sit and eat it and then move on till they find food  again  Per gene is pleiotrophic - responsible for many traits. Beating of wings and heart beat, etc. Method Four: Twin Studies  Raising genetically identical twins in different environments.  Coefficient of relatedness [r] - what percent of my genome is identical to someone elses genome. H 1:netics H 2 environment H 3 environment/genetic interaction H 0 null hypothesis Behavioral Concordance in IQ test ID twins in same E - 85% ID twins in different E - 67% Frat twins in same E - 58% Frat twins in different E - 45% Siblings same E - 58% Siblings different E - 45% Mother - 39% Father - 39% Method Five: Selection Experiments  Possible outcomes of selecting for particular behaviors over several generations? Example: Running speed. Select fastest individuals & mate them. over generations: H1 genetic - they will get faster and faster. H2 environment - they wont get faster H3 env/gene - you get an evolutionary response but not very strong. Mixed outcome. H4 - null. No predictable effect Example: mice and cotton gathering over generations Heritable variation: differences in phenotype that are due to genetic variation Method Six: Genetic Mosaic  Possible outcomes of creating embryos with mosaic genomes Example: Possible to put cells of a particular gene into another organism that doesn’t have that gene and you create a mosaic. Like frankenstein. Drosophilia melanogaster  Female body  Male nervous system.  ^^ will want to mate with females because of the male brain Courtship behavior  The receptors in female antennae - bind the mating pheromones of other females as well.  Ultimately: they do this because of competition.  Fruit flies: lay eggs on fruit. Maybe this is why the receptors can pick up on female pheromones so they know not to lay their eggs on the same fruit. How do genes (proteins) influence behavior?  Some proteins have a disproportionate affect on your behavior 1 Transcription Factors: regulate development. Either promote/denote transcription/translation cells. turn them on and depending when/where/what cell they are turned on will effect behavior 2 Neurotransmitters: example: dopamine and seratonin. Enzymes break down and regulate these molecules. If the enzymes or the molecules are changed in any way, behavior changes. 1 Hormones: 2 Receptors: if receptor shape is changed, behavior changes. 3 Enzymes: Enzymes break down and regulate molecules (like dopamine and seratonin). If the enzymes or the molecules are changed in any way, behavior changes. Case Study One: Behavioral Development in Rats What role do genes play in development?  Cell position determines cell fate.  All cells have the same genes. The genes themselves don’t determine development.  Where the cells are in the embryo determines what they become  Cell-cell signal  Ectoderm/endoderm/mesoderm  Depending on the message from the mesoderm, the cells will be told what to become. What role does the environment play in development?  Phenotypic plasticity - the same genotype produces different phenotypes  reaction norms - range at which the phenotype can vary. There are limits to the plasticity.  Change the temperature:  Change enzymes  Change what cell becomes  If mom is sick this can change cells  Example: turtle sex is determined by the temperature of the sand at which the female lays the eggs. (phenotypic plasticity) Interactive Theory of Development  When does behavioral development begin?  Fertilization; based on cell position and something telling cells what their behavior will be. Cells talk to each other.  When does it end?  Life-long practice. (Rats) Sexual Behavior (heavily genetic)  When does it start to develop the potential for adult behavior?  In rats:  Female needs to detect pheromones (from both females and males)  Must be ovulating  Must have certain hormones present  Must pick up physical cues from male mate  Lordosis: arching of the back to present vagina  When? Females with hormones present  Stimuli? Males  By whom?  Mounting:  When? Sexually mature  Stimuli? Pheromones from the female indicating that she is "in heat"  By whom? Males Females organized and activated by E Males organized and activated by T XX embryos  Mammalian default  Estrogen organizes and activates lordosis. Organizes the nervous system to be female. Produces more populations of testosterone receptors. XY embryos  Testis determining factor (TDF): Transcription factor which regulates the gene that will produce the organ which will produce testosterone.  The hormone organizes the nervous system to be male  As an adult, the hormone binds to the receptors to activate male behavior.  If you castrate the male, now the male will have the instructions to become a female.  T organizes mounting  T activates mounting  Testes in the embryo: has more receptors for testosterone. Produces more population of testosterone receptors. Experiments:  XX embryo + T: give her testosterone. She will produce more testosterone receptors and be more sensitive to T when she is older. Masculinizing the female nervous system  XX adult + T: give her testosterone as an adult. She has masculinized female nervous system so giving her T as an adult may cause male behavior. She is more receptive to male triggers.  Castrate XY embryo: feminized nervous system (small population of T receptors like a females nervous system)  T therapy as adult: he won't mount as an adult because he is relatively unsensitive to T and has a feminized nervous system.  E therapy as adult: may engage in female behavior such as lordosis  ** Whats organizing it, and what is activating it? Embryonic Environment:  2 M males ( 2 males surrounding male in utero) - aggression is more common in these males  2 F males ( 2 females surrounding male in utero)  Males and Females in utero leak their hormones out. Depending on position and whether male of female is next to you will determine how many receptors for hormone the embryo makes and how sensitive it is to it Maternal Behavior in Rats  Normal maternal (females)  Will begin to show maternal behavior post-partum  Retrieval - retrieving pups and putting back into enst  Nest building Hovering - put the body over pups to keep warm   Males do not have maternal behaviors  Concaveation - spontaneous maternal behavior  Take a virgin female and take other females baby and see if the virgin female will perform maternal behavior. They do perform spontaneous maternal behavior.  Hypothesized that maternal behavior is before being a mother  Estrogen activates this behavior.  Intact adult female - does concaveation  Intact juvenile (prepubescent) female - do some concaveation  Ovaryx female - do not show concaveation  Ovaryx female + E - shows concaveation  Castrate male + E - does not show concaveation. He has no E receptors. Case Study Two: Song Development in Birds (not just genetic - might be E/G)  Males are homogamous  Females are heterogamous Vocal communications:  Which sex sings? Males  Which sex has song system in brain? Males and Females both have the same neural architecture for song.  Females may have it in order to process the song, not produce. Male system is more pronounced, takes up larger area in brain.  Which hormone organizes song system?  Males produce a little more estrogen at a time that females do not in the embryo. This masculinizes the nervous system.  Estrogen organizes the song system  Which hormone activates song system?  Testosterone activates the song system.  ^^ two different hormones responsible for organization & activation. Post embryonic song development  Subsong: sounds like babbling.  Chaotic chirps and tweets which eventually becomes their song.  Song: male sings this song the rest of his life.  Dialect: different populations of small species have different dialects. Peter Marler's Experiment  Raised baby birds in isolation. Never interacting with other birds.  When reaches certain developmental age, it will begin babbling, but then never develops into a song.  Concludes that the bird must have a cue to develop a song  Plays song of different bird species: would not make them produce a song  Plays song of different species and same species: would make their own species song  Critical period: must hear the song at a certain time period in order for males to produce their own song  between 0-10 days.  After 40 days.  Self-perception - if the bird was deafened at a certain time, wouldn’t produce a song. Must hear itself Another study but with an actual bird of different species  Social tutoring. White crowned male with strawberry finch social tutor  The white crowned male sings the strawberry finch's song  Even with tutor and same species recording, the social interactions trumps the recordings. Dialect  The males will imitate the males within his area  If transplanted to different area with different dialect, the male will adopt new dialect  Fitness?  Proximate: move a bird, listens to other birds, sings like other birds  Ultimate: change dialects to find a mate.  Birds that are best at adopting dialect are best at finding a mate. Obligate Brood parasite: lay their eggs into other nests.  cowbirds  Raised by social tutor.  Experiments:  Raised in isolation with no noise. They will make a song anyway.  When put into an establish hierarchy, he sings the loudest, and therefore he becomes one of the more dominant birds.  If you bring in female from another area. The cowbird will begin singing the dialect from the females area without ever hearing it. Social Development in Primates  Infant monkeys raised in isolation.  What types of environmental cues are necessary for this monkey to behave normally?  Hugs the terrycloth doll and not the wire doll. Finds comfort in the softer thing.  Isolated with the mother: not sufficient  Grows up just as maladjusted as if it wasn't isolated with the mother  Don’t develop normal behavior from mother alone.  Isolated with playmate who was also isolated from mother:  sufficient  Scale back the time they get to interact  15 minutes a day was sufficient for normal adult social behavior.  Isolated with dog:  Dogs play with the monkeys.  They are domesticated and got this playful behavior from humans  Monkey develops normal adult social behavior.  Sufficient Ultimate Questions: 1 What kinds of behaviors should be under strongest genetic control? 1 Maternal behavior 2 Sexual behavior 2 "" Environment - flexibility 1 Diet changes Exam I: 1 Paper exam 2 50 ?s 3 Scantron Ramon y cajal Marler Proximate (mechanism; HOW)/ultimate (phenotypic plasticity;WHY) questions TF - _____________________________________________________________________________________ ________ Monday, May 23rd Ethology and Learning  All of animal behavior can be explained by genes OR  All of animal behavior can be explained by learning Instinct: behavioral pattern that is performed fully functional the first time it is done. Behavior doesn’t have to be taught or shown. Can also happen at other times in life, not just when you are first born.  Example: babies & breastfeeding, babies and gripping Proximately: Baby is born and responds to stimuli and has action potentials  and will feed immediately…..  Ultimately: these behaviors are in order to eat/survive Learning: Durable modification of behavior in response to a specific experience. (before vs after the experience behavior is modified) Are learning and instinct mutually exclusive? Can learning influence instinct/ Can instinct influence learning?  An adult won't latch onto breast because adults have learned other ways to feed. Behavior has been modified. Galah bird raised by cockatoo parents:  Galah will perform cockatoo behaviors when cross fostered. (calls/flying patterns/food preferences)  Right when they hatch they perform Galah behaviors.  Some of their behaviors are instinctually and species specific. While some behaviors are learned from other species. Niko Tinbergen - very interested in instincts and to what degree do they explain what animals do  Threepsine stickleback fish o Males aggressive to other males o Would raise the fish in isolation:  Built nests, and would still attack anything with red on it? Red color mattered. Red color must be on the bottom  Really good example of instinctual behavior  The males that chase away competitors are more likely to get females  Herring Gulls o Stimulus that releases an instinct: sign stimulus. o Fixed action patterns: instinctual behaviors were always done the same way within the species.  Geese: perform a fixed action pattern of how they retrieve the eggs. o Anything that is just about the right size and shape she will retrieve. Must be in the right place at the right time - sign stimulus. o Redwing blackbirds: o Sign stimulus from the position of the female feathers (that mimics copulatory posture) o Fixed action patterns performed by the male. o Spiders: not taught how to build webs. Each species has its own web pattern o Sign stimulus: Fixed action pattern: Will still perform movements to build the web even if the spider is stopped from making silk Yawning - it is a fixed action pattern. It is a sign stimulus. Problem with instinct: code can be broken.  Hunters use sign stimuli of species to our advantage  Other animals have done this too: 1 Chimpanzees: 1 The mothers teach chimps to termite fish and take advantage of the termite sign stimuli. 2 Broke code by learning Co-Evolution: one population evolves in response to other population and back and forth  Can behavior coevolve? Example: Rove beetles and ants  Rove beetles lay eggs in ant nests. The rove beetle eggs get treated like ant eggs because the rove beetles have evolved to have eggs that smell like ant pheromones. Alarm signals cause ants to feed eggs? Rove beetles have broken the code of the sign stimuli of ants. Broke code by instinct  Cow Birds One cowbird egg with other species' eggs. Cowbird eggs are larger than the other species. The other species takes preference over larger eggs and will sit on and feed the larger chick (cowbird) The other species just has a fixed action patter to do this Supernormal stimuli: Threespine sticklebacks: Part Two: Learning ***** on exam Classical Conditioning: associate stimuli Pavlov's experiment: One stimulus predicts another stimulus. A elegans - 302 neurons. Pavlov's experiments have been performed with C. elegans.  Unconditioned stimulus - food  Unconditioned response - moving toward food.  Conditioned stimulus - Na+ gradient. Learns to associate Na+ to food.  Conditioned response - moves to where the Na+ is. A single neuron is capable of classical conditioning Three-spine Stickleback fish - computer regulated experiment. Caused stimuli to occur at certain times and the comp recorded it. Wanted to train males to do something differently than what the signed stimulus reaction was. Fish learned to see that different light colors meant different things. They could discriminate.  Unconditioned stimulus -  Unconditioned response -  Conditioned stimulus (+) - green light and screen clearing  Conditioned stimulus (-) - red light and screen not clearing.  Conditioned response  Extinction: animal stops performing the conditioned response when the condition stimulus no longer produces the desired result.  Unlearn the behavior  Recovery: don't forget the behavior so it'll be performed again after a long time of not doing it and although it was unlearned. Pigeon in a skinner box  Trained birds to respond to certain songs and behave a certain way.  Stimulus generalization - similar notes they will respond  Stimulus discrimination - not similar notes they will not respond Vicarious learning: animal observes another animal experiencing something and then modifies its behavior in response to this. Example: people scared to go in the water after watching JAWS Cephalopods perform vicarious learning very well. -cultural transmission of learning: individuals of the same age group learn from one another. Instrumental Conditioning - like trial and error. Riding a bike.  Behaviors that are instrumental in producing reward tend to be repeated.  Producing punishment tend to not be repeated  Positive reinforcers: reward  Negative reinforcers: punishments Instrumental Conditioning vs. Classical Conditioning?  Instrumental conditioning: it’s a consequential thing. The consequences influence your next action. Active learning.  Classical conditioning: there's a stimulus. More passive learning Prey Evolve negative reinforcers:  Monarch butterflies: Bird instrumentally learned not to eat the butterfly because it doesn’t taste good  Aposematism: biological advertisement of danger (rattle of a rattlesnake) or the colors on the monarch butterfly.  ^^^negative reinforcers.  Centipedes can be poisonous to the frog. Negative reinforcers ^^^^primary reinforcers^^^^ Secondary Reinforcers - money, threats, grades.  Example: training dogs. Don't use food because it’s a primary reinforcer and they tend not to last long. Should use praise and scolding. Instincts Modified by Learning  Thyninne wasps.  Flowers that closely resemble wasps. The male wasps think the flower is a female wasp and the flower benefits by being pollinated.  The wasp is performing instinctual behavior but then it is modified because realizes that it isn't a female wasp and he isn't reproducing so he will stop.  Wasp learns that these flowers are not females and therefore changes his instincts Stickleback males can unlearn supernormal preferences. Imprinting: nervous system has to be at a specific point in development to learn something Konrad Lorenz - instinct mediated learning/imprinting -developmentally constrained -critical period Why would natural selection favor biased learning? Imprinting & Mating  Some animals learn how to find a mate based on imprinting from the mom  Like goats - whoever looks and smells like the individual who raised me will be a mate  Shrew: learn what cues to latch on to within first hours of being born. Language Learning Are there constraints on speaking sounds? Are there constraints on learning sounds? Grammar Taste aversion learning - efficient in training some animals because it only takes one time. Powerful!  Taste cues How can learning evolve by natural selection? Yes  Brain morphology changes Are humans more evolved than other animals? No Is learning niche specific? When are simple behavioral rules most efficient? When the outcome of the behavior is highly predictable (Herring gulls) (like taste aversion learning)  Motmots and coral snakes. Wont eat any snakes with red and yellow stripes next to each other because they’ll die. Prairie vole - monogamous. Sexes have same home ranges. No sexual dimorphism in brain/learning. Not much change between male and female brains Meadow Vole - polygynous. Male home range 4x larger than female. Spatial learning is incredible and hippocampus. Females don’t have this hippocampus characteristic. Tuesday, May 24th Animal Communication How they communicate (proximate) Why they communicate (ultimate) To communicate: 1 To be able to send a signal 1 What good is a signal if nobody is receiving? 2 To be able to receive a signal 1 What good is a receiver if there is no signal to receive? ^^which evolved first?^^  Some of the hypotheses are more likely. o Speaking without hearing vs. hearing without speaking o More likely that hearing comes first *chemical signal, pheromones, etc HYPOTHESIS 1: Signal evolves first Water striders  Current signal? Make cues/signals by tapping the water with front appendages making surface ripples  Current receiver? Pressure/wave detection  Which appeared first? Most likely wave making because wave striders were on the water anyway making waves while looking for food. Then others evolved later to be able to detect waves in the water. This was then used for mating Urine/Feces -current signal: targeted urine. Dogs can smell pheromones of other dogs whether female or male, whether female is in heat or not. Morphology of poop. -current receiver: smelling and detecting things in urine and feces.  Which appeared first? Pooping and peeing. Later, animals with heritable variation for receiving evolve and can detect  Why do male dogs "save"pee - hes communicating and marking his territory. Bark Beetles -Male bark beetles find females frass. Based on how the frass smells will cause them to behave a certain way.  Current signal: female frass  Current receiver: male detection of female frass Female frass evolved first Redirected Behavior. Herring gulls Stab the ground with beaks when around the nesting grounds. One of them will back down and other one is dominant. They are redirecting aggression to inanimate part of environment. Current signal: Direct fighting Current receiver: Redirected aggression In humans: men punching walls when angry HYPOTHESIS II: Receiver evolves first Sensory Exploitation: Tungara Frog making song to court females.  Male ultrasonic call: the sounds were ultrasonic to humans and bats that prey on these frogs.  Female preference: Do female frogs prefer the ultrasonic call of these male frogs? Even prefer this trait when males of different species have ultrasonic call.  Which came first? Female preference (receiver) came first because many females of other species of frogs have this preference but only male tungara frogs have the ultrasonic call.  Sensory exploitation: the tungara male frogs can hear the bats & bats can hear tungara frogs. So the frogs made their call ultrasonic to bats so they don’t get hunted and therefore they can mate. Sensory Exploitation: Swordtail Blenny Fish  Male Tail: Length  Female Preference: males with longest tails are preferred  Which came first? Female preference  Comparative method? Take a different species with prosthetic tails and see how female responds. The female will prefer this male.  If more species have the preference then the receiver came first. **on exam, look at scenario. If receiver is widespread and signal is not, then receiver came first** Functions and Communication Monkeys (sounds)  group spacing and coordination . o Optimal foraging  Optimal distance for group hunting: 100 m o Contact calls: must be close enough to hear the calls o Lost calls: much louder and different frequency allowing them to come back together so no one gets lost. Fish (visuals)  Group spacing and coordination o Schooling. Very tightly coordinated that behave like a single organisms. o Using visual signals and nervous systems making decisions very quickly o Color Pheromones - the smells diffuse and cause the organisms to space themselves out to an exact distance. Recognition - being able to recognize people. Most animal species don't have individual recognition  Recognition - species  Species - fruit flies, for example, don't have individual recognition but do have species recognition. Can tell different species from its own species. Males of different species produce mating signal in different ways. o E.g. stridulation - (like what male crickets do) produce different sounds among different species. o Female ears are tuned to stridulations that the males of their OWN species produce. o Males will only fight with members of their own species.  Recognition - individual o Primates very good at remembering faces o Birds (primarily sound)  Indigo bunting. They have individual recognition. Part of their song is very generic (species). Indigo buntings learn the local dialect. Each individual has slightly different sounds within that local dialect. o Isopods - pheromones. A fraction of the pheromones from a species is the same. Each family group has a fraction of their pheromones that smell the same.  Friendly Enemy Effect - The enemy of my enemy is my friend. o Once me and my enemy have both drawn a boundary that we both respect, we are mutually both defending each others boundaries. When another new male is replaced, the birds come over and begin fighting. They recognize individuals.  Recognition - Class/caste o Social insects o Honeybee castes. There are classes within honeybee populations   Each caste has specific pheromone  Recognition - Kin o E.g. Family chemical signals o Spray pheromones onto young (beetles)  That way she knows that she is feeding the right children and she is able to discriminate between her young and not her young o Maternal Jelly - (tadpoles)  Eat nonrelatives. Brothers and sisters all smell and taste like mom. Secrete mothers pheromones so they know not to eat brothers and sisters. o Ground squirrels recognize siblings separated at birth.  Will recognize sister vs. another female and choose the nonrelated female to mate with  Proximate - some cue in utero was learned  Ultimate - natural selection favors squirrels that can detect their siblings because the offspring will be less fit. Inbreeding causes mutation. o Proximate mechanisms: Phenotype matching  Sweat bees - learn who their relatives are based on who they grow up with. Matching phenotype with family I grew up with. Fight with genetic brother and not foster brother. o Green Beard Effect - you have a gene that codes for the signal and receiver for the signal and if someone else has it then they know they're relatives. Agonism & Social Status  How do dogs indicate agonism or social dominance? o Aggression - growling, ears down, teeth showing, bulging eyes o Maximizing the signal  How do dogs indicate submission or fear o Whimpering, infantile sounds o Minimizing the signal Primates have same agonism/submission behavior **Why are there similar rituals in different animal groups?  Alarm calls o Vervet monkey alarm calls when predators around:  Leopard  Eagle  Snake o Sometimes alarm calls can be signals from violent behavior  Sea anemone being squished  Stressed rodents  The pheromones/blood/urine/etc being released act as alarm calls to other members of the species o Ultimately; what are the costs and benefits of raising the alarm In ground squirrel: one member looks around while others eat. The one member puts life at risk but only for relatives. (Altruism - selfless so society doesn't fall apart)  Individual fitness - individual ability to pass on my genes.  Indirect fitness - I helped my relatives survive and reproduce and therefore my genes still get passed on  Inclusive fitness - individual + indirect fitness o Aposematism - advertising danger to predators  Milkweed complex of animals.  Milkweed causes a poison. Certain organisms wont be poisoned by it. Some organisms lay their eggs on milkweed. These organisms are evolving the same signals. (beetles, monarch butterflies, other orange organisms, etc).  Aposematism signal - orange color because it will taste like paint thinner.  Predators will avoid everything orange.  Mullerian mimicry - dangerous things/distasteful thing all look like one another. Like bees - all have black and yellow stripes.  Frequency dependence? The more frequency of orange stuff, the better my chances for survival (positive)  Batesian mimicry - Nonharmful organisms that mimic the harmful organisms. Take advantage that predators learned not to eat orange things. Therefore other organisms that arent dangerous will mimic this characteristic to survive  Frequency dependence? The more nondangerous butterflies around, this lessens the survival of all orange organisms because predators learn that orange things taste good.  Burrower bugs  Different stages can have different strategies  Crypsis - stealthy behavior  Adults taste fine. But during breeding season they taste bad.  Offspring are all orange. When become adults - turn black  Young don’t eat roots. They’ve adapted to eat compounds in poisonous seeds so that predators won't eat them because they taste bad. o Signaling unintended receivers  Male cichlid- very colorful. Females want to mate with him but the unintended receivers (predators) also notice him.  Brightest males attract mates/attract predators  Dullest males avoid predators/avoid mates  Males can change when they display colors and when they hide them. Displaying signals at appropriate time and place.  Male cardinal - bright red birds & noise  Loudest males attract mates/attract predators  Quietest males avoid predators/avoid mates  Males will shed feathers and change colors. Displaying signals at appropriate time and place.  Male tungara frog  Ultrasonic males attract mates  Subsonic avoid bats - around bats, they don’t stop making the calls, but they stop making ultrasonic sounds  Crows - change their calls depending on what is going on Cheaters: o Receiving Harmful Signals  Hunters use duck calls, deer antlers, pheromones, etc.  Some species will send the signals of other species but it is harmful to the male. The female is going to eat him. - femme fatale  "Crying wolf" - animals deceive other animals by crying wolf. The bird gives alarm call when feeding so other birds get scared away and the one bird giving the call eats more food.  Some animals are hardwired cheaters  Fish fool other males and in the process spread semen over female eggs. Now the male is raising children that aren't his. o Honest Signals - honestly conveyed messages  Signal that cannot be faked  Most courting behaviors from males are honest because not all species have genes to produce signals. Must be eating the right way and very healthy to express red coloration of feathers.  Courtship calls honest signals:  Frogs  Birds  Crickets  Highly energetically expensive. This makes this honest  Females will either favor the loudest or longest calls because they are the healthiest males  Lek mating signal - when male doesn’t have an actual mating call. All the boys in population get together on mating day and get into a group called a lek and fight to be in the middle. Then the females all mate with the one male in the middle  Nuptial gift - one mate gives to another mate as a symbol of love  Spermatophore - a sack of sperm and food. Females prefer the largest Spermatophore. While she eats she is inseminating herself.  Wings - while copulating with a female, the female eats the wings from the male cricket. Handicap Hypothesis - male signals make it more difficult for the male to survive. More testosterone will supercharge the male and he will display signals until it kills him. Or females prefer longest tails but longest tails will get him killed easier. Tuesday Recap:  Green beard - instinct hypothesis. Must have a gene for both the signal and receiver for telling you who your relatives are. Odds for inheriting both are slim.  **on exam - learning vs. genes. If animal learns who parents are - phenotype matching. If animal knows genetically who parents are - green beard.  Adaptive learning - animals evolve nervous systems that are especially good at helping them survive and reproduce. Certain species are shockingly good at certain things but it makes sense because it is very important for them in their environments Wednesday May 25th Natural selection works differently on each sex Sexual Dimorphism  Male and female satin birds look and behave (sexually) very different from each other.  Males: o Build a bower for mating. o Collect royal blue objects to adorn bower; ultimately - this behavior is what worked in the past.  Amount of objects vary among males o They are royal blue (females prefer this color). Flashy & colorful.  Part of courtship^^ singing as well  Females: o Go into bower and then checks out the males. Fly around to different bowers o They will choose the males with the best bowers  Darwin modified the theory of natural selection to explain why males and females have different adaptive behaviors: Sexual Selection o Sexual selection is natural selection, but it is natural selection favoring different characteristics in different sexes  Heritable variation: o There is variation among males. o Do differences in male behavior/bower change female behavior  Higher quality built bowers are more comfortable and less startled there. The female will stay and better chances for the male to reproduce  What does the female get out of picking the male with the best bower?  Give the female good genes.  These males have the best evolutionary fitness so the sons will have this ability to make good bowers.  Males who make bigger bowers and more elaborate adornment have bigger brains across species  fewer ectoparasites.  This may lead to higher quality offspring. o Which sex has the most variation in reproductive success?  Females are limited in ability to reproduce if there isn't a lot of food. If enough food, very little variation among them if there is plenty of food.  High mating success, low variation  Males, on the other hand, have to do a lot in order to reproduce - courting & sex. Courting doesn’t always end up in sex. The sexiest ones mate a lot and the other ones may not mate at all… a lot of variation o One sex is evolutionary limited by production of offspring - females  Male ostrich - sperm very small  Female ostrich - 2L egg  Females usually invest much more energy in reproduction.  Females - limited to resources, raising young, being able to protect them, getting food, etc.  Males - have more sex to pass on genes. Only limited by number of females they can inseminate o One sex is evolutionary limited by access to mates - male sex Internal Fertilizers (most mammals)  Eggs are expensive, sperm is cheap….  Fairy Wren bird: o Females: 6 eggs o Male: 8 billion sperm o Females are highly constrained - she makes a small # of high quality eggs. Making more eggs doesn’t necessarily mean more offspring. They may die. o Males only limited by # of females they can mate with  Female fairy wren: she only has 6 eggs. Doesn't matter how many times she mates. o Natural selection should generally not favor promiscuity for females  Male fairy wren: has much more sperm. Limited by # of females to mate with o Natural selection should generally favor promiscuity for males.  External Fertilizer (fish)  Salmon o Females: 3500 eggs o Males: 100 billion sperm o Males have more sperm in this case because other males are putting sperm into environment and the more sperm you make, increase your chance at fertilizing female eggs. Do males/females benefit from promiscuity? Coolidge Effect - males from many species will court other females and not copulate with a female that they already copulated with.  Generally more advantageous for males than females Female Bower Bird  Mating: a few minutes  Raising young: months ***Operational Sex Ratio: Males seeking females/ females seeking males  Not a 50/50 sex ratio - usually many more males and less females trying to reproduce. Most females are busy doing something else and not trying to reproduce. Males are competing for a long time for limited number of females. Why do we have two sexes?  Hypothesis: Disruptive Selection - in all species, gamete size is very different. One very tiny and one very big.  @ 59 mins. Relisten  Animals that have middle gametes aren't good at producing babies. o Big eggs and small sperm are ideal o This is why we have two sexes Role Reversal  What if males invest more in production of offspring o Uncommon, not in size of their gametes but in their behavior  Dance Fly: o Males - large nuptial gift.  This holds the resources. They are choosy with whom they mate with. Female with the most eggs and that is the biggest is who the male will give their nuptial gift. o Females - apparent body size. Advertise to males how big their body size is. They flap their abdomen.  Need resources so must display to males how big they are so they can get the nuptial gift.  Seahorses: o Males have marsupial pouch. Females lay eggs inside there and the male inseminates them within his pouch. o Energy investment is about the same. o In most seahorse species, some females make eggs faster than the male can birth the young. Therefore, role reversal. Female will go out and find another male to lay her eggs into his marsupial pouch.  Which sex has high variation in reproduction? Females  Which sex is most likely to mate? Males o Some females won't get to reproduce because waiting for males to be ready to reproduce.  Mormom Crickets o Males: Only mate once. o Females: can mate more than once. o Males choosey  Seasonal Reversal: Katydids o Food limited: spermatophores are low (fall)  Female reproductive success is limited  Males are choosey sex o Food surplus: spermatophores are high (spring)  Female reproductive success is not limited  Females are choosey sex.  ^^^many questions about that Sexual Selection  Tenets of Natural (and sexual) selection o Variation o Heritability o Differential reproduction o Change in frequency  Natural selection can produce traits that can reduce survival.  Sexual selection can play out in 2 different ways: o Members of same sex can limit access to opposite sex - intrasexual selection; within a sex, there is competition, and if some males prevent other males from mating, then only some genes will be passed on  Example: deer with antlers fighting off other male. If he wins he has all the females around him and females don’t have a choice with whom to mate with because he is the only one. He prevented the other deer from mating.  Males with bigger antlers being used as weapons to keep other males away from females will eventually over time produce males with bigger antlers.  Which hierarchy is sexually selected? - male hierarchy. A result of intrasexual selection. o Members of opposite sex choose who to mate with - intersexual selection; behavioral interactions between both sexes. One sex chooses who they want to mate with  Like antlers - Dominance Hierarchies - savannah baboons  Male and female dominance hierarchies  Some animals forced into submission. If you are the alpha male, you mate with more females. If you are the alpha female, you get the most food.  All males, regardless of rank, mating the same. But the higher ranking males fertilized more because they were mating when the females were in heat.  Low ranking males - 30%  They become friends with the female and she will sometimes let him mate with her  Male "coalitions". 3 low ranking males will chase away alpha male and then mate with female.  Grey Seals  Males fight for dominance on beaches  This is where the most females are  Low ranking males mate in water where the food is. Females go to get food and sometimes get to mate. (Alternative)  Marine Iguana  Territorial males eject intruders.  Males go out and swim and look for food  Low ranking males that can't hold territory will go mate with females while the territorial males are out looking for food. He ejaculates before intruding. (Alternative)  The alternative mating strategies are conditional mating strategies - not genetic differences.  In a different condition (other than alpha), I will do another strategy 1 Male amphipods - size of them depends on the amount of food, not genes.  Males that are big are territorial  Males that are small are sneaky and mate with females in territorial males area 2 Horseshoe crabs  Healthy males strong enough to latch on to female and inseminate her  Unhealthy males spray their sperm into water and hope to fertilize eggs  When healthy males had bags over claws, the unhealthy males fertilized more eggs because males kept trying to latch on 2 Scorpionflies  Nuptial gift mating system Conditional mating system  The environment determines how you reproduce. Distinct Mating Strategies  Based on genetics  If I am a territorial male, my sons will be territorial males  Sponge Isopods o Alpha - large males that can defend territory o Beta - male that resembles females. Goes by males and waits for real females to mate with o Gamma - sneaker that goes to territory to sneak and mate with females.  Strategies depend on opponent - rock/paper/scissor Each allele is about 33% frequency.   If a strategy is rare and the others are common, then the rare strategy works relatively well. The more frequent I become,


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.