History 152 - ALL LECTURES before Exam #1
History 152 - ALL LECTURES before Exam #1 History 152
Popular in US History since 1877
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Jawwad U Ahmed
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This 15 page Bundle was uploaded by Kathleen Sparks on Tuesday August 23, 2016. The Bundle belongs to History 152 at Purdue University taught by David Atkinson in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see US History since 1877 in History at Purdue University.
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Date Created: 08/23/16
Lecture #1: The “New South” and the “New West” 18771900 Politics in the New South o “Home Rule” white southern elites want to take control of the south again south governed by southerners o “Redeemers” o northerner “carpet baggers” came down from north o want to get rid of northern leadership o no African Americans o get rid of reconstructions the government put in place o “spend nothing unless necessary o closed down university and state prison o reduce taxes o taxed on purchases rather than value of land The Economy of the New South o Henry Gray and the idea of the New South Editor of Atlanta constitution Diversity in economy Encourage industrial goods o The reality Agriculture Sharecropping o “crop lean” or “crop mortgage” o predominate agricultural labor o economic slavery o 70% of farmers are in sharecropping o gave food, shelter, tools, seed, and mule o they sell crops back to land owner o make minimal profit o forced to go back into the same system Industry Money from northern investors for industrialization tobacco processing, 1880s Duke family controls 90% of tobacco production by end of 1900 Railroads, iron, and steel became huge industrialized products in the south o Precivil war>predominantly agricultural economy dependent on black slave labor o Dependent on cotton o Nonindustrial o Little investment on infrastructure Social relations in the New South o The Illusion of Equality o The Reality of Ineqthlity 1868 > 14 amendment > grants American citizenship to freed American slavery 1870 > 15 amendment > right to vote 1868 > Ku Klux Klan 1883 > Us supreme court looks back at constitution to legalize segregation of the races > 14 amendment applies to states but not to individuals 1896 > Plessy vs Ferguson: nothing unconstitutional in public situations schooling can be separate but they must be equal Jim Crow Law: laws that limit the rights of African Americans with legality Alabama Literacy Test for Whites: “that no person shall be imprisoned by debt Alabama Literacy Test for Blacks: “(long confusing paragraph)” Poll tax: minimum requirement to vote (i.e. 50 acres of land or $50 in the bank) This limited blacks and poor whites Lynching in the 1890s > 188 lynchings per year The “Empty West” o Native Americans o The Hispanic west o Chinese immigrants Chinese labor was what mostly built the railroads 1882 > Chinese exclusion act excluded Chinese immigration The overland trail o Oregon trail, Santa fe trail, etc. The changing western economy o Mining o Cattle o Farming Native American Dispersal Lecture #2: The Triumph of Industrial Capitalism 18771900 Second Industrial Revolution o The American economy in the north is changed, driven by industry o 1860 > the American economy is the 4 largest in the world o 1900 > the US has the worlds largest economy o application of new technology, electricity, and new chemicals makes economy a much more rational and productive economy o Inventions o Transport and communication Transport goods from New York to Seattle bc of railroads o Electricity Increases efficiency, power, productivity, and speed o Scientific research Sources of economic growth o Raw materials Surplus of food Abundance of coal o Labor supply Immigration: KEY PART of industrialized revolution 19001910 > 8.8 million people immigrated o Technological innovation Thomas Edison Creates “technology park” to work with college students Light bulb (1879) George Westinghouse Large scale electrification Worked with Nicola Tesla Alternating current vs direct current o Entrepreneurs and trusts Andrew Carnegie Global steel industry Gospel of wealth: spend money earned on the public Came up with new techniques to expand economy Vertical integration o consolidating your own personal business o controlling every single process ins business John D. Rockefeller Corporate titan oil industry Came up with new techniques to expand economy horizontal integration o buy all competition o not only the factory production process o Domestic and international markets International market place Department stores (consolidating rationalized products) by gimbel Criticisms of the “Gilded Age” o Rich getting richer o Poor getting poorer o Middle is stretching longer o “The Breakers” = summer home of Vanderbilt o incredibly conspicuous construction of wealth o Samuel Clemens (mark twain) 1873 The Gilded Age from a Shakespeare line o Horatio Alger had opposite views Lecture #3 The Struggles of Industrial Labor 18771900 The “Gilded Age” Social Darwinism o Herbert Spencer British scociologist Applies darwins animal theory to modern people Survival of the fittest Certain people were bred to be wealthy Natural selection for those who aren’t wealthy: lazy and stupid o Horatio Alger Bit of hard work and a bit of luck Critics of the “Gilded Age” The response of industrial labor o Wealthy industrialists have government by their side o Very similar to British monarch of social rich elitists while peasants are suffering below and bowing down to the elitists o Hobbs: nasty, British, and short life o Child labor was common o 20% of workplace was female o 500$/year was poverty line The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 o Main railroad strikes in Chicago, Pittsburg, Martinsburg, and Baltimore o Homestead strike of 1892 o Acts of violence against the railroad and other involved people and things o Military from united states government sent to subdue strikers o Workers realized that the only way to achieve what they want was to plan an organized rally strike o Knights of Labor Terence Powderly > KOL 1869 > forms knights of labor call for 8hour work day by 1870 it starts to decline o The AFL Samuel Gompers 1880 > American federation of labor work within capitalists order brings together all different trades throughout countries only works with skilled workers not interested in industrialized workers does not allow women or nonwhite people Anarchism o Believe in organized workers o Trade unions should be organization in society o Society should be led by producers of economy o Political established order won’t listen unless u commit violence o 1886 > (May 1) large anarchist crowd has gathered in Haymarket square in Chicago o police attempt to disperse crowd o bomb explodes o police kill 8 people to find bomb thrower o anarchists are prime suspects o 8 anarchists are charged with murder o all 8 are found guilty and 7 are sentenced to death o puts brakes of development of labor movement o labor leaders were worried if they continued with path they would be called anarchists Regulating the trusts o Threat to American society, the great trusts or monopoly o Trusts and monopolies are antiAmerican federal government acts to challenge monopolies o Laissezfaire act to economy o Sherman AntiTrust Act of 1890 almost unanimously passed makes monopolies illegal vertical and horizontal is illegal restraint of trade o Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 Regulating railroads All railroad rates must be reasonable and just “Interstate Commerce Commission” represents first time federal government has acted to take down big monopolies Lecture #4 The Problems and Possibilities of Urban and Rural America 18771900 New Urban Growth o Transform from agricultural to urban life o 1920s > majority of Americans and urban cities, also happening around world The Migrations (1880s and 1890s) o African Americans Moved north and west to escape persecution o Eastern and Southern Europeans Ellis island 1890s > more than ½ of immigrants are eastern and southern European o Urbanization is affected by the migration o Less money, less education o Some American cities are majority immigrants o 80% of New York and Chicago are first generation immagrants o PREDOMINATLY IMMAGRANTS The Ethnic City o Immigrants merged together with each other so they could feel more at home and in the culture Assimilation and Exclusion o Americans want immigrants to assimilate into American Society o Push to send all kids to American, Englishspeaking, public school o Growing resentment toward increased immigrants o Catholics are beheld to an external source of loyalty (the pope) and not toward the president o Immigrants are going to come in and steal their jobs o Restrict immigration: 1877 o Principalists push for a reduction of immigration o Henry Powers founds American Protective Association 1887 o Immigration Restriction League 1894 legislative restriction about immigration 5 Harvard Alumni screening process o Chinese Exclusion Act westerners put pressure to stop immigration 1882 o “undesirables” > people with criminal records, mental deficient etc. o if you curve immigration you will limit economy growth The Urban Landscape o Manhattan Then 106,000 people/square mile Now 70,000 people/square mile o Tenhements Apartmentlike structure 2 families living in 13 rooms Strains of Urban Life o Lack of bathrooms, fighterfighters, and police o Epideics of disease o Violence Farmers Grievances o Most farmers were selling to commercial government o Biggest problem: overproduction > deflation o Competing with international farmers also o Immediate local concerns o Farmers vs. railroads o High rate of transportation o Farmers vs. banks o Cycle of debt o Farming is isolating o Urban vs. rural Responses o The granges Southern equivalent 1890 and 1892 > peak of political power o Farmers alliances Organization by farmers, for farmers Share ideas Become more ambitious Organized cooperative Instead of going to a middleman (selling or buying seeds or goods), you can go to wholesale as a group Midwest granges have over 1 million people Political and economical leverage Granger laws Start passing limits on banks and railroads Potential power of organized groups The Populist Party o Electing state congressmen and governers o Organize potential presidential campaign o Omaha, Nebraska rd People’s part (independent 3 party) o Weaver wins 22 electoral votes in 1892 o Regulation of telephones, telegraphs and railroads Panic of 1893 o Populist party is too narrowly focused o Ignores concerns of African Americans o “boom and bust” o economic depression o major railroad goes bankrupt o March 1893 > 8,000 businesses, 400 banks, 193 railroads all go bankrupt o 20% of workers laid off o unemployment: 18% (in 2008 it was 6%) The Silver Question o Freesilver or the Gold Standard? o Paper currency is packed by “speci”, gold and silver o 1873 > US government only gold would be used to back up economy reduces inflation bad for farmers o farmers want to put silver back into currency > bump up inflation > put them out of debt o businesses want to keep businesses deflated, so they can be competitive over seas Election of 1896 o Republican (McKinley) – GOLD ONLY o Democratic (Jennings Bryan) – SILVER AND GOLD Lecture #5 Society and Culture in the Guilded Age 18771900 Popular Culture and Society Mass Consumption o Massive growth in domestic societies o Consumer society Time and money o CLOTHING AND FOOD Make your own clothes > department stores > because of sewing machine Find your own food > buy ready made > because of canning food, refrigerated railroad car, and ice boxes Leisure and Sport o Baseball (British ‘rounders’) National league (1876) st 1 world series (1903) o Football (British ‘Rugby’) “Elite” sport o Boxing o Roller skating > men and women o Coney Island o Sutro Bath Leisure and Popular Culture o Vaudeville Theater o Minstrell shows o Movies (The Kiss) “High Culture” and Society Literature o “The Jungle” by Upton Sinclair Art o John Sloan, George Bellows, and Edward Hopper o Ashcan School Universal Education o Before 1850, 100 public schools in country o By 1916, 12,000 public schools in country o 1900 > 31 states require public education o Morrill Act Signed by Lincoln Land grants for public universities Lecture #6 Americans in the World 18801908 Manifest Destiny o Not diplomatically engaged in the rest of the world o Deeply engaged economically o Focus on American energy is on the continent (expansion west) Louisiana Territory – 1803 Mexican Concession – 1848 Oregon Territory – 1846 o Destiny of Americans to cover this continent Ordained by God Christians Providence/luck – secular Used to justify looking outside continent (end of 19 century) Not just American west where tyranny and the devil live Explanations for Overseas Empire o Frontier and Overseas Expansions 1890 census announced that the Frontier was closed 1893 – Fredrick Jackson Turner publishes “The significance of the Frontier in American History” Frontier was essential in “making Americans” Key fold where we taught foreigners how to be Americans on the frontier o Everybody else was doing it too o Americans do not want to be left behind o Get access to markets abroad o Distraction o Social Darwinism o Govern other people who aren’t white into democracy was “white burden” o Gender: American men were said have more leisure than acceptable o Cannot support their families o They need war o Strategic Alfred Thayer Mahan’s thesis: influence of sea power on history (1890) Greatest powers in human history have been naval power US must have naval power The SpanishAmerican War, 1898 o Long Term causes Monroe Doctrine Threat to America continents if other European countries come over to be colonized Increasing interest in colonies Longterm interest in annexing Cuba Cuban Revolutions (1895) o Short Term Causes Jingoism and the “yellow press” Media and Newspapers The de Lôme letter The Maine Explosion William Randolf Hearst (New York Journal) Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) o 1898, Feb 18: Cuban agent steals a letter written by a Spanish minister to the US o de Lôme say McKinley is weak o 1898, Feb 15: USS Maine anchored in Havana harbor to see if Americans in Cuba are okay, and it explodes o assumption is a Spanish bomb o 1989, April 25: McKinley asks congress for declarations of war o “Remember the Maine, to Hell with Spain!” o War: April – August o War takes place in Caribbean (Cuba) and Pacific (Philippines) theatres o Treaty of Paris, 1989 5,860 American deaths (only 460 in combat) Spain recognized Cuban independence Spain cedes Puerto Rico to the US Spain cedes Guam to the US Spain sells the Philippines to the US for $20 million Congress doesn’t want these things because then they are able to become citizens o 1901 – Cuba makes constitution modelling America’s, congress puts Platt Amendment into Cuban constitution: “Cuba is independent but America reserves the right to come back to Cuba, and they are not able to control foreign policy without going through the US.” o America also acquires Guantanamo Bay o The US Philippine War, 18991902 Emilio Aguinaldo Revolutionary in charge of insurgency William H. Taft Governor of the Philippine colony (independence in 1946) The Annexation of Hawaii, 1898 o Queen Liliuokalani o Sanford B. Dole Overthrows the Queen, declares a republic, then asks to become a US state o AMERICAN IMPERIAL EMPIRE HAS BEGUN US Cultural and Economic Diplomacy in Europe, 18001914 o No diplomatic affairs with Europeans o Involved in Europe culturally and economically Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show (1886) o Takes his wild west show > Europe o Wants to improve ties between US and Britain o Tries to convince Britain that Americans are a civilizing force in the world The Americanization of the World o American products blanket Europe o 1895 > $800 million worth o William T. Stead > British journalist who thought the effect of Americanization was positive o Plead A Mackenzie thought it was negative “Personal” Diplomacy o Jenny Gerome > Winston Churchill’s mother The Columbian Exposition, Chicago 1893 o Showcases of races and technology Human zoos Lecture #7 Speak Softly and Carry a Big Stick 19011914 US Policy in Asia TR: Speak softly and carry a big stick Panama Canal o Connect Pacific and Atlantic o Theodore Roosevelt wanted and American Naval Power o French and British had been attempting to build a Panama Canal o $10 million and $250, 000 each year to Columbia o own 6 miles of territory on either side of canal o Panama becomes independent of Columbia Japan, 18951908 o Japan’s rise to world power o Regional Hierarchy (18941910) o The SinoJapanese War (18941895) o The RussoJapanese War (19041905) o Racial Tensions o The Meiji Restoration, 1868 Modernize and westernize their economy They don’t want to be colonized by Europe Before, Japan was a feudal country 1853: an American fleet arrives in Tokyo directed by Matthew Perry open Japan up for trade 1854: comes back with more ships Japanese opens up for trade o Challenges to Japan’s Growth Shortage of raw materials Shortage of agricultural land Excess population: land and food supply Colonial expansion? o Treat of Portsman, 1905 Japan gets territory in China Japan gets a privileged position in Manchuria Japan gets a protectorate over Korea Make it colony in 1910 Secret TaftKatsura agreement states US will recognize Japanese predominance in Korea if Japan recognizes US predominance in Philippines 1895: Japan wins war with China 1904: Russia goes to war with China 1905: Japan beats Russia Cali doesn’t like Japanese immigration and demands to stop it Gentleman’s agreement Japan prevents people from leaving japan, so the Americans don’t have to ban them US Policy in Latin America The Roosevelt Corollary, 1904 o Added to the Monroe Doctrine (1823) o America will act as an international police power, so Europe doesn’t have to Haiti and the Dominican Republic o 19151934: American marines take over DR Nicaragua o Cesar Augusto Sandino o Nicaraguan people resist against American marines
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