Psych 60 Lecture and Reading Notes
Psych 60 Lecture and Reading Notes Psych 60
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Psych 60 Compiled Notes Lecture 1 Psych 60B = Psych 60 without writing stuff or sections. Just lecture/exams What does it take to build a baby 1. Definition a. Help us understand origins of knowledge b. What is discovered from environment? 2. 2 extreme views a. Radical Nativism i. Descrip 1. New legos 2. Much knowledge is innate 3. Not really reusable 4. Have specific purpose 5. “when we turn to the mind and its products, the situation is not different from what we find in thecase of the body. Not learn to have arms” Chomsky b. Radical Empiricism i. Descrip 1. Old legos 2. Abstract 3. Have many reusable parts to build everything 4. Association, abstractions, etc 5. Use simple sensory inputs to deconstruct and reuse for other purposes 6. Locke = “blank slate” depend mainly on experience 3. Nativism a. Neonate reflexes i. Reflexes children are born with ii. Examples 1. Rooting = if touch baby cheek, auto turn and start sucking. 2. Sucking = if something in mouth 3. Stepping reflex = for walking 4. Rubinski = touch bottom of foot, auto curl toes 5. Grasping = touch baby hand, auto grab iii. Go away after few months = artifact of other stuff 1. Probably not necessary for adulthood which is why go away b. Learned in Action i. Words lol 1. But words not delineated by silences but still able to tell beginning/end 2. Transitions between syllables tell babies where words beginning and end 3. Probability of hearing certain syllable after another (by after bae) to helps familiarize a. AKA WORD SEGMENTATION 4. Building blocks of babies a. Basically a black box b/c only seen inputs and outputs b. Nativist baby i. Person concept ii. Reflexive actions iii. Preferences iv. Motor control v. Language faculty vi. Number sense c. Empiricist baby i. Exploration devices (hands) ii. Data acquisition devices (eyes/ears) d. Nativism/empiricism not enough e. Development is a complex interaction of innate capacity, enviro, and content of interactions 5. Class overview a. Explore developmental psychology of children b. Theoretical/phil isues about development can be tested empirically c. Investigate developmental questions 6. Study a. Found that babies look away and less interested in sounds they have previously heard Lecture 2 Psych 60 Lecture 2 9.24 Key Concepts: manipulation/measure Key Result: Adolph 2000: it takes practice to connect perception to action Any number of impressions, from any number of sensory sources, falling simultaneously on a mind which has not yet experience them separately, will fuse into a single undivided object for that mind. Nativism: cog develops from its own foundations, rather than from a foundation of perception and action. -aka orderly view that is enriched over time Components of an experiment 1. what you measure a. dependent variable b. something you can count/quantify 2. what you manipulate a. independent variable b. change something c. compare to when it wasn’t changed (control condo) What can babies (say < 3 mo) do? Sleep Crying Awake Gaze/attention Yawn Pacifier Etc. Do babies like wearing hats? Measure o Check for crying o Check if hat is corrective for crying o Smiles in specific amount of time Manipulation o Put hat on baby when crying o Take hat off baby when crying Prediction Can babies see? Eye muscles are weak so weak visual acuity o Lots of stripped lines o If high visual acuity, small stripes look like stripes. Low visual acuity just looks grey. The same as people who have bad eyes and need glasses. Cannot distinguish between fine details. o Babies orient themselves toward things they are interested in. therefore look at thing where they can see more stripes because “stripes are more interesting” o Small babies really do not distinguish between them - problmatic Problem with study is that maybe babies do not care o Babies actually see it. Found out when testing Visual Evoked Potential (VEP) in brain activity Babies rapidly develop sight Blurry to begin with but can stillsee Depth perception -around 24 weeks, learn depth. Monocular depth cues o Images of same distance away but look bigger in back Can babies see? Summary Acuity o Initially pretty low but improves rapidly o LOOK AT THE SLIDES FOR THESE SUMMARY Motor Development How does action integrate with perception? Sit and reach Young infants swipe at nearby objects to move. Not fine motor cordnation Begin to sit unaided by 6mo 7mo, reach to pick up objects 10mo, change reach and grasp perception and action 1: sitting enhances 3D perception can’t start reaching until sit up really because have no reach. babies who could sit by themselves noticed a difference between two test displays; those who couldn’t didn’t if you can sit, it changes your experience of it looked at triangles with a missing back Crawling Kids have to discover themselves o Parents don’t model it for their children Even though kids can see depth, do not incorporate into motor action Need to be recalibrated each time they change modes of motor o Even if know that cliff is dangerous crawling, same baby does not know what to do Therefore, PERCEPTION TAKES PRACTICE Psych 60 Lecture 3 9.29 Definitions 1. Habituation a. Diminishing response to a stiumulus item over time i. Shaking toy in front of baby get less interesting after each time 2. Dishabituation a. Recovery of interest following a change i. Baby becomes reinterested in toy 3. Looking time a. One behavior that can beused as an index of habitation i. Looking longer at strange outcomes Method: Habituation 1. Show stiumulus A until boredom 2. Replace A with B a. Does infant get interested again b. If so, they can discriminate A & B c. Variant: B vs. B’ – which is more unexpected 3. Can use temporal analysis to see if become re interested Measure looking time 1. Fancy: automatic eye-tracking 2. Stopwatch a. Error i. Subjectivity/bias 1. need a “blind” observer. Blind as in blind to the conditions of the experiment. Aka Confirmation bias Variant: Violation of Expectation 1. have normal expectations of the world a. causes habituation to certain objects 2. if violate normal expectation, is dishabituation a. causes interest in normally not interesting objects Variant: Auditory Familarization/Habituation 1. sound experiment of Saffran 2. listen to gibberish sounds 3. see if look toward sounds not contained in gibberish 4. look at direction of sound that is ufamiliar Infant perception 1. support for early perceptual abilities a. objects: persistence across time and space i. babies start interacting about the world. Can see some definition b. Object permanence? i. Baby see object ii. Baby sees object being hidden under blanket iii. Baby has NO IDEA where object went iv. Like peek-a-boo c. Behind the Box experiment i. Move rod behind box ii. Remove box. Show either broken rod (2 pieces) or 1 rod 1. If dishabituated by 2 rods, means expecting complete 2. If dishabituated by 1 rod, means expecting broken iii. Newborns surprised by 1 rod, means expect 2 rods iv. 2-mont-old surprised by 2 rods, means expect 1 rod v. Shows rapid development in early ages d. Ball behind Box experiment i. Have ball moving behind a box that gets covered up ii. 4mo, surprised by ball reappearing every time iii. 6mo, anticipates ball appearing on opposite side Numbers: Perception of quantity 1. experiment 1: object behind screen a. method i. object placed in case ii. screen comes up iii. second object added iv. hand leaves empty v. screen drops 1. reveals 2 objects 2. or reveals 1 object vi. should be surprised by only 1 object b. outcome i. novelty preference is still more surprising ii. proves can do “arithmetic” = keeping track of objects 2. experiment 2 : small numbe comparison limits a. method i. 2 crackers in 1 bucket. 3 crackers in other bucket ii. let baby choose bucket iii. uses baby’s greed b. outcome i. babies prefer 2 to 1 ii. babies prefer 3 to 2 iii. babies lose track at 4 cookies. iv. LIMITS ON HOW MANY OBJECTS CAN BE TRACKED 3. Experiment 3: approximate number system a. Have infant press button N number of times and will reward with something. b. Method i. Show baby multiple different orientations of 8 dots in frame ii. Test against 2 pictures: new set of 8 and another thing c. Outcome i. Babys look at different number of dots 1. Really only work when 2:1 ratio of dots ii. Baby look longer at the array with different number of dots 4. Symbolic understanding a. Intergers are neither object representaions nor appx numbers i. Objects don’t go past 2-3 ii. Difference between 1 and 2 not same as 14 and 15 Physics: simulation of the world in the mind 1. Expriment 1: items in gumball machine a. Method i. Gum ball machine with 4 objects. 3 of 1 color. 1 of other color. 2ndmachine flips colors. Both have same color pop out. ii. Different probabilities with same outcome b. Outcome i. Improbable event causes more looking time Review 1. Very early object knowledge a. Ability to complete/maintain across occlusion 2. Numberical abilities a. Exact small number b. Large approximate quantities 3. Expecations about physics a. Understanding of solidity and continuity b. Ability to simulate physical systems 4. Babies seem to have a perceptual system that rapidly converges on adult-like intuitions for objects, numbers, and physical interactions Psych 60 Lecture 4 10.1 Plan What is attachment Attachment classification Outcomes of attachment Strange situations in class activity 1. watch mom go away starts crying when alone still looking around after stranger comforts upset when stranger leaves -maybe upset because scared mom will leave 2. baby starts crying when left alone still upset when stranger tries to comfort this baby seems more attached to the mother--uniqueness of maternal relation 3. baby seems perfectly fine alone still playing and reaching for toys not too different reaction to being alone vs. with caretaker stable baby What is Attachment 1. Definition a. Strong affectionate tie we feel for special people in our lives that leads us to experience pleasure and joy when we interact with them 2. Background a. Infant begin to show preferential behavior i. Smiling b. Seem distressed when separated from the caregiver 3. Why do infants form atahcment a. Both psychoanalytic and berhaviorist perspective emphasized the importance of feding i. Basic theory: associate mom with food 1. Positive reincorced with food 2. Infant begins to seek the caregiver even when not hungry? 3. Not actually correct b. Feeding is not enough i. Rene Spitz ii. Studied infants at orphanages 1. Properly fed and good healthcare iii. Consequences 1. Infants were generally physically and developmentally retarded 2. 37% of infants died over 2 years c. Harlow’s monkey studies i. Monkeys reared in isolation with 2 surrogate mothers 1. Wire mother: provided food but no “contact comfort” 2. Cloth mother: provided “contact comfort" but no food ii. Monkeys attracted to cloth mother significantly more than wire mother. Only go there for feeding iii. If scared, run to the clothed mother iv. Findings 1. Infants spend the large majority of their time with the cloth mother despite feeding with the wire 2. Monkeys ran to cloth mother when frightened. Used this surrogate as a secure basis 3. Disproved hunger attachment theory 4. Theory of attachment a. Bowlby and Ainsworth i. Influenced by Freud’s idea that infants’’ early relationships with their mothers shape development ii. Emphasized the idea of the primary caregiver as a secure base b. Filial imprinting i. Ducks imprint mother figure 1. Follow once created attachment c. Human developmental changes i. Early preferential responding to caregiver (6-8 mo) ii. Clear cut attachment (6-8 mo – 1.5 yrs) 1. Cargiver becomes “secure base” a. Comfort for exploration 2. Separation anxiety iii. Reciprocal relationship (1.5 – 2 yrs) 1. Separation anxiety decliens when immediately leave d. Comforting baby i. Picking up baby ii. Mother entering room iii. Approaches/touches 1. Bolded significantly more effective in 4th quarter of 1 year as oppose dto 1 quarter 2. Proves develop attachment 5. Strange Situation Experiment a. Method i. Infant is introduced to toys in a novel setting ii. 2 brief separation from and reunions with the caregiver iii. FILL THIS OUT b. Outcome i. Active play and exploration in caregiver’s presence ii. Preferencee for comfort from caregiver iii. Behaviors during reunions 1. Crying during separation not a reliable indicator 2. Effectiveness of contact when distressed a. Does infant want contact b. Does it calm? 3. Absence of anger, petulance, and withholding of contact c. Attachment classifications i. Secure 1. Uses caregiver effectively as a secure base for exploration 2. Responsive to caregivers return a. Enthusiacstic greeting if not distressed b. Seeks and maintains contact if distressed 3. Clear preference for comfort from the caregiver 4. Eventually returns to exploration and play ii. Insecure – resistant 1. Usually wary during pre-separation 2. Highly distressed by separation and are not calmed by stranger 3. Tend to seek contact strongly in reunions but fail to be comforted by it a. Often resist angrily iii. Insecure – avoidant 1. Infant shows little emotional sharing pre- separation 2. Minimal distress displays during separations 3. Tend to behave similarly to stranger and caregiver 4. Tends to ignore or move past caregiver upon reunion iv. Disorganized/disoriented 1. No clear attachment strategy 2. Conflicted/disoriented behaviors a. Freezing b. Rocking, arm flapping c. Fear of caregiver 3. Often observed in abused/traumatized infants 6. Outcomes of attachment a. Secure attement correlated with i. peer competence, self0steem, curiosity ii. coping with novelty and failure iii. persistence in problem solving b. insecure attachment i. insecure-resistant internalizing disorders i.e. depression ii. insecure-avoidant and disorganized associated with externalizing disorders 7. Internal working model a. Attachment presupposes an “internal working model” = need to generalize model to all relations b. Claim: bond between mother and child forms a internal working model of how relationships should work c. Evidence: correlations between attachment and later relationship issues i. Not casual evidence d. Experiment i. Mom and small ball approach hill ii. Mom walks up iii. Baby starts crying 1. Mom keeps walking up hill 2. Mom goes back down to comfort e. Outcome i. Possibles 1. Shocked by mom keep walking – habituated to going back 2. Shocked by mom comforting – habituated to not attachment ii. Secure babies 1. Not much difference between 2 scenarios iii. Insecure babies 1. Very surpised by mom going back a. Probably expected to not go back f. Improving attachment i. Intervention meta-analysis 1. Successful interventions targeted babies starting after 6 mo 2. Maternal sensitivity – perceive and respond promptly to infant signals 3. Infants at sick Psych 60 Lecture 5 10.6 1. Attachment a. Clarifications i. Breast milk has many health benefits 1. Immune health 2. Question is only about delivery 3. Does breat milk in a bottle confer the same benefit ii. Solitary confiment 1. Important confound in my examples 2. Voluntary isolation vs. involuntary isolation a. Involuntary worse 3. See friendship and bullying lecture iii. Cross-culrutral variation in attachment 1. Differences in rates of attachment 2. Relation to caregiving style a. Ie 2. Heider & simmel a. Experiment i. 2 triangles and 1 circle running around on screen 1. people impose domestic abuse to video 2. many different reps 3. what we impose is the reflective nature of triangles to lives b. social cognition: what it takes to be an agent i. from “cues and instincts” to “rational inferences” ii. Early knowledge 1. Cues: faces, eyes, voices 2. Insticts: imitation, attention following iii. Inference 1. Imitate agents in order to achieve same goal 2. Share attention for communication 3. Infer a person is there who can’t see 4. Figure out what someone wants r 3. Johnson & Morton, Farroni a. Experiment i. 2 ping pong paddles. 3 dots. One like a face, one as inverted ii. track how long they follow the paddle b. outcome i. look at face for almost twice as long c. What do babies innately have? i. Metnal representations: internal cognitive states that represent external world ii. Core Knowledge: hypothesis that there are distinct, innate cognitive systems with representational content d. Developing specificity to human faces i. How close is the representation of human faces? ii. 6mo sensitive to identity for monkeys and humans iii. 9mo sensitive to identity only for humans**** 4. Infant – directed speech a. Experiment i. Adult directed= monotony ii. Infant = range between 100-700 Hz b. Outcome i. Look at boring checkered screen when listening to infant directed 5. Sharing Attention a. Experiment i. Caregiver looks at toy ii. See if baby follow b. Outcome i. Baby will follow the eyes/head movements of caregiver 6. Imitation a. Experiment i. Turn light on with head ii. Have hands free or preoccupied b. Outcome i. 14mo use their head, even after a week ii. when hands preoccupied, child uses hands iii. when hands shown to be free and still used head, children used head iv. AKA infer how things should be done 7. Gaze following a. Exerpiment i. “boobaa” toy on table. Turns toward one of 2 targets ii. can have face or not have face iii. contingency = make sounds based on babies sounds iv. if follow toys “gaze”, considered an agent b. outcome i. out come order: person, Face and contingent, only contingent, only face, ii. no face and not contingent did not get any response iii. Babies willing to interact with agents by inference 8. “secret”Agent a. experiment i. bean bag flies in from left side ii. where is the person 1. show hand on either left or right 2. show train on left or right iii. because bean bag is inanimate, need to infer that agent caused b. outcome i. significantly less looking time for hand on correct side ii. not siginificant difference between trains on different sides 9. Agents internal states a. Action understanding i. Experiment 1. Have ball and bear in box 2. Hand reaches in a chooses box 3. Next time a. Same location, but choose bear b. Same goal (ball) different location ii. Outcome 1. Change in goal (reaching for bear) caused longer looking time b. Sticky Mitten experiment i. Experiment 1. Put sticky mittens on baby 2. See what they reach for ii. Outcome 1. i Psych 60 Lecture 6 10.8 Foundations of language and baby oliver!! 1. Uniqueness of human language a. All animals have some time of communication b. Humans are unique in sense that have created language of it c. Actually many traits shared 2. Early vocalizations a. Ambiguity i. When not looking at person, what trying to convey is ambiguous 1. Baby on a swing 2. Every other primate, has specific sounds for specific thing 3. Aka vocalizations are flexible b. Babbling i. Similiarity to normal language 1. Phonological prosodic 2. Gestural ii. Actually similar to 3. Perception of the rhythms and sounds of language a. Experiments i. Experiment 1. Mother reads cat in the hat to their babies over last 6 weeks of pregnancy 2. Baby given instrumented pacifier 3. Measured how hard baby sucked on pacifier ii. Outcome 1. Baby recognized story 2. Not tied to good or bad learning though iii. Experiment 1. Play Russian 2. Play Russian or French iv. Outcome 1. Baby more interested in the switch of language v. Experiment 1. Same as before except play the language backwords vi. Outcome 1. No difference vii. What did the baby learn 1. General rhythm and generic sound viii. Experiment in monkey 1. If switch the language, tamarin distinguitish 2. If switch speaker, no difference b. Categorizing phonemes i. Voice onset time (VOT) 1. Length of time between a consonant is relesased and the vocal chords start vibrating ii. Categorical perception 1. As VOT increases, at a threshold, will sound like a different sound (2 discreet categories) iii. Infant categorical perception 1. Babies can distinguish between phoneme categories 2. When change from ‘ba’ to ‘pa’, babies interest is spurred 3. Chinchillas can also do the same way lol 4. How do we learn the specific sounds of our language? a. Ex. Lock in Asian languages become rock b. Universal vs. specific i. Most languages have a /b/ vs. /p/ distinction ii. /r/ vs /l/ = specific c. experiment i. play one sound to condition baby ii. play another sound with exciting outcome iii. test = if play sound without exciting outcome will baby be able to tell them apart iv. used hindi and salish d. results i. 6-8 mo baby very able to distinguish ii. 8-12 worse iii. 12-14 even worse iv. native speakers did not lose ability to distinguish v. therefore seem to be losing ability to distinguishing vi. similar to telling difference between primates vs. humans vii. acquired distinctiveness goes away e. experiment i. expose baby to native chinese speaker ii. see if can help boost distinguish iii. difference = live interaction vs audio/visiual vs just audio f. results i. baby with live interaction best able to distinguish sounds 5. Summary a. Basic mechanisms of auditory perception and learning underlie early language acquisitions b. Vocalization already flexible early on, Psych 60 Lecture 7 10.13 Cause!!! = Time (broken social Scene); Lost cause (beck + Laming lips) 1. Causal learning a. Authors i. Hume 1. We perceive things as casual but relaly just 2 things happening after each other 2. Cast doubt on predicting future with past experience ii. Piaget 1. Causality discovered via experience 2. Babies see casual world through their own actions 3. Originally acting and random stuff happening but can extrapolate to understand causality 4. Known as casual efficacy a. About magical thinking if you can intervene, there must be some connection 5. Partially right and partially wrong b. Experiment i. Leg Kick 1. Connect baby to mobile (baby toy that hangs above kid) 2. If kick, then moves mobile 3. How do their kick patterns a. Can see how well they remember they have learned 4. Results a. If retrained at 2 weeks and 4 weeks, babies have very similar at the beginning of training i. Called priming b. Clearly a memory of a repeated experience with only brief reminders ii. Billiard Balls 1. Standard contact casuality 2. Disproves casual efficacy because not from their own experience 3. First hits second a. Hits and moves second = direct launging i. Habituate to this b. Dishabituation i. Reversal = second ball hits first instead 1. Causal roles have shifted ii. Direction of movement changed = confounder c. Control i. Hits, pause, and second moves = delayed launch ii. Action at a distance d. If perceive casuality c. Statistical approach to causal understanding i. Covariation 1. “X causes Y” has prerequisite a. must be statistically associated 2. covariation is not causation a. Z could cause X and Y 3. Can older children use information from statistical covariation to infer causaul strength a. Experiment i. Blickets (toy box that lights up with sound) st ii. 1ndet = 2 of 3 are blickets iii. 2 set = 1 of 3 are blickers b. results i. choose 1 set if need to find blicket c. Variatiostexperiment i. 1 set = 2 of 3 are blickers ii. 2nd set = 2 of 6 are blickers iii. still choose 1 set 4. Covariation and Causal Reasoning a. These sorts of mechanisms may seem very abstract b. They are a powerful part of our cognition i. And we don’t notice ii. Until an artificial example like the “blicket detector” makes us notice ii. Mechanism 1. Causality not just about covariation 2. Experiment a. Move red block to blue block, and then fan turns on b. Repeat c. Last time block doesn’t turn fan on d. Ask to turn on the fan 3. Results a. Preschoolers (47mo) = confused by last action = longer looking time b. Toddlers (24 mo) = nothing 4. Explanatory depth a. Tend to assume we kow the mechanism behind how things work b. After trying to explain, much less confident c. After learning, feel much stronger again 5. Mechanism vs. Covariation a. If see a strong correlation, the more likely children will override their beliefs about a mechanism iii. Intervention 1. Take action 2. Should be able to intervene and change it 3. “X causes Y” means that making X happen will result in Y happening too a. interventions a like experiments: they can be used to distinguish causation from correlation 4. Experiment a. Babies are flexible in choosing what action they choose based on what they have been shown b. Aka know which intervention to take based on surrounding information c. Earliest evidence for flexible reasoning on observed data 2. Review a. Is causality one thing? b. Many faces in infancy i. Causal perception: launching ii. Efficacy: mobiles c. United in childhood i. Covariation->causation ii. Inference about mechanism iii. Rational interventions Psych 60 Lecture 8 10.15 Play!!! 1. Why do we play 2. Pretend play (role play) 3. Function of play for learning (exploration of domains of uncertainty) 1. Why do we play a. Madeline example i. Picking up ii. Examining iii. Banging iv. Shaking v. No clear goal b. Previous Beliefs i. Piaget 1. Useful for practice doing stuff ii. Vygotsky 1. To explore new things 2. Play is for trying on new constraints that normally couldn’t be otherwise (more roleplay) iii. Reworded 1. Play as practice a. Physical skills b. Better social coordination 2. Play as exploration a. New types of thought 2. Pretend Play (exploration/pretend play) a. Development of play i. Infants initially play with all objects the same ii. Play becomes more specialized through the second year iii. Allows for exploration of new ideas b. Child as ascientists i. Children learn about the world by exploring it and forming systematic theories about how it works 1. Intuitive physics (angry birds) 2. Intuitive psychology a. Expectations of how people work get expanded b. Considering different roles c. Functional Fixedness i. Give materials and need to make fulfill purpose ii. Box with tacks, candle, and matches. Need for candle to burn normally iii. Need to redefine purpose of box to contain condle iv. Kids get worse as they get older. So expect specific function d. Daxing i. Experiment 1. Show new game and explains rules 2. Puppet goes in and purposely breaks the rules a. Daxing = put stick with square thing and push block 3. Control: don’t explain rule ii. Results 1. Kids get visibly upset when don’t follow rule (when rules explained) 2. Normative protest when get to the age of 3 (instead of 2) a. Imperative protest = “with the stick” normative = “it doesn’t go like that” e. Mental aspect of pretending i. Do children understand that pretending is in the mind 1. Pretend items: pretend to be an object, animal, person 2. Control items: common actions (jump run, drink) ii. Results 1. 4yo = pretend = body 2. 6yo pretend = mind iii. Children play pretend before they understand pretend as a mental activity 3. Learning From Play a. Exploratory play as intervention i. Experiment 1. Right lever = frog. Left lever = duck 2. New box with 1 lever 3. Look at whether want to choose new toy and how long play for ii. Is this playing with new stuff or stuff they do not understand iii. Found that want to play with stuff they do not understand 1. Uncertainty drives exploration b. Direct instruction: intuitions i. Teaching provides evidence about causal relationships 1. Also about what relationships do not exist ii. Experiment 1. Toy with many different functions 2. Either teach about specific parts of toy or accidentally shown iii. Result 1. When teach, only plays with the one function taught and gets bored quickly. Find out fex 2. When accident, child explores toy and finds much more functions 3. Teaching limits exploration 4. Review a. Functions of play i. Practice of skills ii. Exploration of world iii. Child as scientist, testing hypothese b. Play reflects knowledge i. Construal of the mental world ii. Attitude towards objects c. Play is important to learning Psych 60 Lecture 9 10.20 Word Learning!! 1. Vocabulary and early experience a. Babbling b. Effects of experience 2. Mechanisms of word learning a. Using social cues b. Disambiguation c. Frequency, association, and beyond 3. Beyond names for things 1. Vocabulary and early experienc3 a. Babbling i. Already more flexible with modes of sound production ii. 6-8w, begin to coo iii. 6-10mo, begins to babble iv. soundssyllablesstrings v. purpose? 1. For motor practice or connected to language? 2. Both 3. Motor = syncing up sounds and movement 4. Language = babble vi. Deaf infants 1. Babble “with their hands” a. Protolinguistic b. Learning Through Parents’ eyes i. Instrument = MacArthur-Bates CDI Words and Sentences 1. Survey to parents that parents fill out a. Do kids respond to _________ b. Ask if child understand c. On wordbank.stanford.edu c. Vocab i. Learn words that they use earlier 1. Truck, ball, mom, etc ii. Meaning 1. Underextension a. “dog” only means Fido or particular 2. Overextension a. Ball = all things that are round (ball, balloon, moon, apple, egg,…) 3. Learn very quickly but large variability 2. Learning a. St. Augustine i. Learned by siblings interactions b. Using social cues (ostensive learning) i. Look at 1 object (gaze or point= s.c.) and name 1. Do action and call “daxing” ii. “mutual exclusivity” 1. not actually point at thing we are talking about 2. assume know some context and no need for explicit pointing 3. learn by knowing that one thing is not what is being asked a. Give me the dax, when ball and something else is on the table. They will extrapolate to learn other 4. Lexical = assume definition has 1 word 5. Pragmatic inference = conventional meaning and contrast to that mearning c. Cross Situational word learning i. Human Speechome Project 1. Recorded every moment in a home to see how babies learned words 2. See what drives learning a. Concreteness – see object and relation to word b. Frequency – how often c. Coherent activities – used often ii. Fast mapping 1. Able to remember random word (koba) in a signle rich exposure led to long retention 2. If presented fact, also able to remember 3. Conclusion = able to just learn new words with and without context. Same as other types of learning d. Disambiguation e. Frequency, association and beyond f. Verbs are often learned through sentence structure and supported by other language. 3. Beyond Names for thing a. Total words heard vs income i. Lower income = less words heard ii. Higher income = more words heard iii. More words learned = got more language iv. Psych 60 Lecture 10 10.22 Grammar, Communication, and symbols 1. The drive to communicat a. Babies standing around yelling i. Components of language 1. Prosodic = rhythemic characteristics 2. Gestures 3. Taking turns = pauses between people 2. Turn Taking (snow) a. Actions produce a contingent response b. Part of communication 3. Learning to communicate a. Turn taking i. Beginning in Earliest interactions b. Gaze following i. ~9mo ii. helps establish joint attention c. Point communicatively i. ~1 yr ii. to get something they went iii. to share attention iv. to inform location d. From the beginning, language use is driven by desire to communicate and share intentions 4. Grammatical Development a. Hierachical organization of language i. Phonological = sounds of words ii. Morphological/lexical = putting words together iii. Syntactic = set of descriptive rules that allow us to understand the words strung together iv. How do children learn unseen syntactic structures? b. Explosion of Language i. Madilyn 1. 18 mo = happy b 2. 19 mo = blue ball 3. 20 mo = move back 4. 21 – byebye other pirate 5. 22 – dump it my? 6. 23 – spike doggy no food eat dirt 7. 24 = my like no this paci (don’t like this pacifier) 8. 25 = that too big, my too bigger 9. 26 – dada move own boy: my need lilbit more space c. Learning i. Parents don’t directly teach 1. Children don’t realize corrections of parents 2. Kid only cares about conveying message 3. No evidence for correction 4. Negative feedback only correction false facts d. Innateness of language structure i. Baby’s figure out from context and sounds most meaning ii. Basic structural principles without input 1. Even kids who don’t get input language should still show some syntax 2. Case Study: Home Sign a. Deaf kids who did not learn sign language 3. Develop gestures to communicate but nottraditional sign language 4. Difference between parents and children signing (transitive, patient, intransitive) a. Parents = very different combinations b. Children = mainly patient and instransitive Patient = [you] eat chocolate. Intransitive [you eat] e. Early understanding i. Generalization 1. Have action that is named with random word (gorping) 2. Correlate word to specific action 3. Use syntactical structure to help understand 4. Success in looking at correct picture by age 2 5. Bilingualism a. Bilingual delay? i. Produce less words than monolingual ones ii. Learn concepts just as fast 1. Some overlap with different language b. Frequency matters i. Bilinguals hear fewer examples of each English word, but he same number of examples of each concept. They learn English words slower, but concepts at the same rate 6. Symbols a. What is a symbol i. Something that stands for something else ii. Gain utility when objects not “here” b. Picture perception i. Deprived child of picture for 2 years ii. taught name of many common objects iii. perceiving depictions does not require experience with them c. “dual representation” i. experiment 1. hide object in a room model 2. can you find the toy in the real room? 3. Can you find the toy in the model? ii. Results 1. 3 yo = able 2. 2.5 yo = not able 3. younger children not able to see dual representation 7. Summary a. Children are driven to communicate and this drives mitivation b. Abstract syntactic structre underlies productive use of language c. Bilingualism is the norm d. Basic interprestation of pictures is easy, but using symbols like aps requires keeping 2 representations distinct Psych 60 Lecture 11 10.22 Review Reach experiment o Encoding something about belief o More surprised when choose different object than choose same object in different position 1. Perspective a. Hide&seek/peek-a-boo i. Thinks that she is hidden because child cannot see ii. Distortion of reality 1. Children not able to take on another’s perspective 2. Theory of the mind a. Example i. Guy jumpins in the swimming pool with all his clothes on b. Def i. Taking some action will lead to fulfilling ii. Allows us to try and understand others’ thinking iii. Inferences about what others think c. How it works i. Action happens 1. Hit, grab 2. Search 3. Accept, get 4. Attend to ii. Reaciton 1. Happiness, sadness, anger iii. Desires recognized 1. Want, desire 2. Ought should iv. Emotion/Physiology drives desire 1. Love, like 2. Hate, dislike, fear v. Belief recognized 1. Believe, supposed 2. Doubt suspect vi. Perception drives belief 1. See, hear, smell 2. Touch, feel vii. Desire/beliefactionreaction viii. Can best probe when identify difference in desire or belief d. Reasoning about Desires i. Have goldfish and broccoli ii. If person likes broccoli and child likes goldfish, when person asks for some food, what will the baby give iii. Gives goldfish = egocentric iv. Almost every situation, young child gives the person what they like, not the person likes v. As get older, will start giving the experiment what they want not what the child wants vi. Experimental strategy: conflicting beliefs and desires are most revealing 1. Required to go against own desires e. Reasoning about Belief i. Experiment = Sally-Anne Task 1. Block placed in box and leave the room 2. Block moved to basket 3. Where does person think the block is ii. Results 1. 3 yo fail = in the basket = in line with their belief 2. 4yo succeed = in the box = contrary to their knowledge Preschooler visit Two theory of mind tasks o Probe ability to understand beliefs False belief(location change) Appearance-reality task Give a number o Probes understanding of exact number words Dimensional change card sort o Probes executive function 1. Location Change/false belief a. Understood physical layout b. Said child belief = not encoding of cows false belief c. Said cow would look where block actually was not where they left it 2. Apeerance-reality task = crayons in a box a. Guessed crackers in the box b. Said brother would say there are crayons in the box c. Projection of current knowledge on old self 3. Give-a-number a. Able to count, but not up to 10 b. When he was supposed to count and give a number, slightly ambiguous c. Got up to 2 consistently 4. Dimensional change card sort a. When just blue and red sort, did very well b. Switch task, able to understand he was not aware of what is going on Theories of Mind important factors “Anne” having a motive child’s participation physical presence of object salience of mental state Reading for today- southgate study create expectation for reaching for toy question = where does she reach when it has been changed when she was not looking result o if analyze task demand in most simple task, 2 yo can do it experiment o 2 bo Theory of mind = explanatory structre for understanding human behavior Commonly measured using false belief tasks Thougt transition was between ¾ yo Evidence for false belief in infancy Not present Lecture 12 10/29 – Moral Development Early Theory of Mind o [study in which 24mo succeeding in theory of mind even though 3yo cannot] o Alternatives explanations for result: Maybe something about the verbal storytelling of the experiment done with 3yo was too complicated Maybe the 2yo are looking where they are for a different reason bc experiment not designed well. representation change: implicit system and explicit system o [another theory of mind story—Emily with an Apple] Same story as Sally-Anne but presented in a different way final explanation: Continuity and Development preschool results suggest that tasts are difficult removing task demands allow stronger performance. Self-reflection o Think of something you did as a kid that was bad What was it? Why did you do it? Would you have done it now? o We were all pretty bad children as kids. Why not any more? What stops you? Empathy Fear of consequences (social or otherwise) Painting: The Garden of Earthly Delights Moral Classification o [Lists of things everyone thinks are bad and good] o [List of things we don’t agree on morally—most of which are political issues rn] o Where do moral intuitions come from? How flexible are they? Are we born savages, and shaped by the forces of society to be “good”? o Morality as imposed by society Freud (!!!): We are born with innate psychosexual urges and instincts that conflict with reality, and the goal of socialization is to learn to regulate these. [Iceberg model of the human mind] o Morality as progression towards Justice (Piaget & Kohlberg) Children begin with the morality of constraint (follow rules to avoid punishment) Only gradually become autonomous moral agents as preteens and teenagers. Evidence: Heinz’s Dilemma (Kohlberg) Guy steals super expensive (unnecessarily so) medicine for dying wife. Asked kids of different ages if actions were ok. o 3 stages of morality preconventional conventional postconventional o Standard view(Piaget Kohlberg & Freud): Children begin as amoral agents, eventually bound by rules, only gradually begin to reason morally. Evidence against standard view: infants/youngins show important precursors to morality even young children distinguish the moral and the conventional Morality is not always a steady progression towards Western notions of justice PC police have infected the syllabus Morality in Infants o Empathy? Newborns cry when other newborns cry [study results] o Early evidence for moral reasoning: [NYT magazine video of babies watching a puppet show and showing preference for the ‘good guy’ puppet] Toddlers o [Study we read before class—Altruistic helping in 18mo] [adorable videos of babies helping people] Morality vs. Conventionality o [study] preschoolers able to distinguish moral vs. conventional violations (ie. pulling hair vs. wearing pajamas to school) Disgust o reaction to physical things like rotten fruit o may be adaptive: prevents us from eating bad stuff o but extends to abstract things like people and ideas and events o Relation to morality harsher judgements on morality when sitting at a messy (“disgusting”) desk disgust sensitivity is linked to political affiliation o Extention of disgust to morality in development [study] older kids link physical disgust to moral things Overview: o Moral principles constructed on institutions that emerge early help and hinder altruism o Basic intuitions of empathy, sharing, fairness, etc., are supplemented by social norms Psych 60 Lecture 13 11.3 Midterm 15 mc (1/3) short answers (2/3) 2 senteces review session 7-8 380-380y how to study This lecture not on midterm Need last week (lecture 12) notes Generic Review on the higher level 1. Foundations of cognition and perception in early infancy a. Seeing the world as it is vs how the baby perceives the world i. Infants had relatively full perspective of world b. Roots of social/emotional relationships. Bonds between caregiver and baby i. How different upbringings affect people c. Abstraction about agents i. People have beliefs and goals ii. Attend to different parts of the world iii. Abtractions help babies differentiate between puppets and understand objects d. Foundation of language i. Auditory perception ii. Shared ability that becomes something unique e. Causality i. When one object hits another, perception of causality 2. Early childhood a. Language i. Think about every person ii. Context iii. Figure out what words mean. Vocab rwos very quickly b. Play and exploration i. Explanation for how the world works ii. Counterpart to causality c. Grammar syntactic structure i. Rules to create language d. Theory of the mind i. How to reason about others ii. Beliefs and goals iii. Act based on above iv. Can make predictions and use to explain behavior e. View of morality i. Moral trajectory ii. Use more moral reasoning in their decision making than thought Course Themes Intial bias and experience o Nativism vs empiricism Neither provides account for early childhood o Social signals: from cues to inference o Moral cognition: from mean nice/ to unconventional/disgusting Not okay to steal from kids Cultural spec vs all humans Prediction, learning, exploration o Child-as-scientist, forming theories Active ways of reasoning aobut the world o Dishabituation signals violated expectations Growing boredom = habituation o Exploration of the unexpected provides data for further learning Brain development Plan Brain development o Basics of the brain o Early organization, slow refinement Maturation o Fast: early visual deprivation o Slow: face processing Connection o Reading development Automation o Language development 1. Brain Development a. Basics of the brain i. In utero 1. Neural tubes 2. Growth of cortex 3. Growth of sulci (valleys) and gyri (bumps) a. Have because increased surface area ] ii. Neuron review 1. Dendrite = receive signal 2. Axons = long sten 3. Myelin sheath = 4. Axon ending = send signal iii. Vast majority of neurons grow into place during early development iv. Number of neurons in the brain relatively constant throughout life 1. Synaptic pruning st a. Random synapse forming during 1 2 years i. Connections made b. Synapse pruning i. Strengthen connections that exist 2. Myelination a. Insulation to promote synaptic transmission b. Myelination increases across childhood, promoting faster reaction c. Understanding things more quickly v. Methods for studying the brains 1. Dead babies 2. Animal models 3. MRI i. Very bd time sscale ii. Not viabile due to movement b. fMRI i. measure bloodflow in the brain ii. still problematic for motion c. Structural MRI i. Measure volume ii. Measure white matter vs gray matter iii. Easier to do – can be asleep 4. EEG (electroencephalography) a. Measures electrical activity at the surface of the brain b. Very good time scale c. Very bad spatial resolution d. Can use with very young infants 5. NIRS (near infrared spectroscopy) a. Measure bloodflow in the brain b. Very poor spatial resolution c. Good for newborns because almost no hair and measure IR defraction out of brain vi. Brain anatomy 1. Cortex = top a. Frontal lobe i. Higher order processes b. Parietal lobe i. Object processing c. Occipital lobe i. vision d. Temporal lobe i. language 2. Midtrain – middle 3. Brainstem 4. Cerebellum = above brain stem b. Order of Development i. Posterior (sensory) areas mature before higher order (frontal) 1. Shown through myelination and synaptic pruning 2. What makes brains better a. Maturation of neural connections in an area b. forming connections between areas c. becoming more automatic 3. Maturation a. Fast maturation – ocular dominance i. Kitten experiment 1. Patch or not patch 1 kittens eye 2. Cortex reorganizes itself based on informatio
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