Geol 104 - full notes from entire course
Geol 104 - full notes from entire course Geol 104
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This 16 page Bundle was uploaded by Jacob Gambrell on Wednesday August 24, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Geol 104 at University of Mississippi taught by Dr. Cathy Grace in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Environmental Geology- Hazards in Geology at University of Mississippi.
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Date Created: 08/24/16
Geology 104, Dr. Grace Chapter 1 Philosophy and Fundamental concepts Case History: Island of Hispaniola Good site for comparative study DR v Haiti Biophysical differences Rainfall, topography, land use, land cover Socioeconomic differences history, population, economic activities Reasons for degradation of Haiti's environment and subsequent inability to quickly rebuild after the 2010 earthquake Case history: Easter Island Small volcanic island with subtropical climate By 16th century, thriving society of 1530,000 Europeans encountered in 17th century, only 2,000 people struggling in a degraded environment Reasons: overpopulated deforestation soil erosions loss of agricultural base further conflicts and wars geographic isolation geologic limitations Earths place in space Earth: Geospatially isolated in the universe Origin of the universe Origin of Earth system: Lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere Facing limited resources: Energy, soil, freshwater, forests, ocean fisheries, rangelands Global environment: conflicts and integrated resolutions Earth Environment (1) James Hutton (1785) Earth as a superorganism James Lovelock Gaia Hypothesis Earth is an organism Life significantly affects earths environment Life modifies the environment for the betterment of life Life deliberately or consciously controls the global environment Interdisciplinary thinking (2) Earth dynamic, alive, complex Everything alive with a beginning and an end Earth environment as a total as a whole Prolong Earths sustainable healthy life Environment monitoring Environment problems mapping and analysis Environment problem prevention and protection Environmental sciences Environment complex system with physical, biological, geological, ecological, and geopolitical aspects Requires multidisciplinary research environmental geology, environmental chemistry, global climate change, biological diversity and ecosystems, environmental economics, environmental ethics, environmental law Environmental crisis population, environmental hazards, resource limitations and contaminations, environment ownership (space and time Environmental geology Environmental geology Applied geology Environmental geology knowledge To better understand environmental problems Geologic knowledge for problem solving Minimize environmental degradation Optimize the use of resources to maximize environmental benefits for the society Environmental Geology (cont.) Earth Source for habitats and resources, waste disposal, environment, and health issues Better understand the natural hazards Land and water resources Use, planning, and management Geologic aspect in every environmental condition Fundamental Concepts Five fundamental concepts Population growth Sustainability Systems and change hazardous Earth processes Scientific knowledge and values Other important concepts Finite resources obligation to future Human Popula Growth Number one environmental problem Nearly 7 billion by the year 2010 (US 315,098,557 World 7,399,580,600 as of today) Population Bomb? exponential growth Exponential growth Growth rate (G) measured as a percentage Doubling time (D) D = 70/G Above earths comfortable carrying capacity Use more resources, need more land space, generate more waste Earth as the only suitable habitat in the foreseeable future Human pop growth (cont.) Uneven growing pace and distribution By 2050, 3 billion more people Almost all of the growth in developing countries No easy answer to the population problems Education is paramount, especially womans education. As people become more educated, the population growth rate tends to decrease Good news the rate of population growth is decreasing Sustainability Sustainability the environmental objective An evolving concept Expectation and reality Criteria variation in space and over time Is a longterm concept and has longterm implications Requiring careful resources allocation, large scale development of new technology for resource use, recycling, and wast disposal Measuring sustainability Use and consumption of nonrenewable resources Natural replenishment and renewable rates Global consumption versus replenishment of resources Development and improvement of human environment versus viable environment Not lead to environmental crisis Sustainability The Death of Aral Sea Once a properous vacation spot in 1960 Water diversion for agriculture Dying sea surrounded by salt flats Largely irreversible Earths Systems and Changes System condition Open versus closed systems System inputoutput analysis System changes Types of changes, rates of changes, scales of changes Rates of change Average residence time T = S/F T residence time S total size of stock F average rate of transfer Earth: a dynamic system Four interconnected subsystems Lithosphere, atmosphere, hydroshpere, and boisphere Four subsutems are interconnected and interdependent Present human actibity key to understanding the future Predicting future changes Uniformitarianism The present is the key to the past The present is the key to the future Changes of frequency and magnitude: Geological processes and human activities Environmental unity chain of actions and reactions Earth systems Gaia hypothesis Earth is a living organism Complext and interrelated subsystems Global presepective on environment Hazardouc Earth Processes Hazardous earth processes and risk statistics for past two decades Annual loss of life about 150,000 Finacial loss > $20 billion Millions of life loss during past 20 years, particularly catastrophic from a major natural disaster in a developing country (2003 Iran quake, ~30,000 people, 2004 tsunamis, ~300,000) More property damage occurs in a more developed country Scientific knowledge and values 3D environmental problems changes of environment in 4D Expansiveness of geologic time Broad spectrum of geologic processes Solving Environmental problems Difficult processes Environmental problems tend to be complex Rapid changes slow recognition, slower actions Some changes are of irrerresponsible nature Environmental policy links to environmental economics in infancy Precautionary Principle Scientific certainty not required to take a precautionary approach Scientific proof not possible in dealing with any environmental problems Maybe difficult to apply Lead to a proactive approach with an emphasis on environmental unity Humans Pleistocene era Chapter 2 Internal structure of Earth and Plate Tectonics Case History Two major CA cities San Andreas Fault plate boundary b/w the North American and Pacific plates Two major cities on opposite sides of the fault LA and San Fransisco Many major earthquakes related to the fault system Loss of many lives and billion in property damage When will be the next 'big one' and what to do "Strikeslip" fault Internal Structure of Earth Earths formation Differentiation and interior concentric layers Chemical composition model Crust, Mantle, Core, Moho discontinuity Physical property model Lithosphere, Crust, plate tectonics Asthenosphere, weak layer, like playdoh, allows for lithosphere to move Mesosphere, Middle area Outer core, liquid Inner core Solid, nickel, iron, radioactive particles Study of Earths Interior Structure Knowledge primarily through the study of seismology Seismology study of earthquakes and seismic waves Examining the paths and speeds of seismic waves Reflection on refraction Two basic types of seismic waves Body waves P waves primary waves S waves secondary waves Surface waves Seismic P wave Primary of pushpull wave, travels like sound wave Direction of rock particle vibration parallel to that of wave propagation Fastest rates or propagation, first arrival at seismograph Body wave travels through earths interior and all media solid and liquid Seismic S wave Secondary of shear waves The direction of particle vibration perpendicular of that propagation Propagates slower than P waves Body wave, propagating through Earths interior, but not its liquid layers Seismic waves and internal structures Earths interior boundaries Sudden changes seis waves Different characteristics different rates and paths of wave propagation Asthenosphere Low velocity zone, major source of Earths volcanism Outer Core No S wave through it Internal Dynamics of earth Evidence Earths landscape Dynamic phenomena earthquakes volcanoes Hypothesis and theory Continental drift Sea floor spreading Plate tectonics Dynamic Earth evidence Mountain belts continental mountain ranges and oceanic ridges Earthquakes in space concentrated zones Earthquakes over time Volcanism in space concentrated zones Volcanism over time Continental drift 1910 Alfred Wegener proposed idea Pangaea all land, unified supercontinent Two parts of Pangaea Laurasia (N) and Gondwana (S) Pangaea drifting apart ~200 MYA Same fossils across both sides of the Atlantic Ocean Rock distribution and Paleozoic glaciations Sea floor Spreading Lack of mechanism for continental drift 1950s and early 60s ocean expedition increased knowledge of oceanography Harry Hess proposed sea floor spreading Sea floor not a single static piece Existence of midoceanic ridges Sea floor spreading along midoceanic ridges Continents "float over" spreading sea floor Paleomagnetic data Dipolar magnetic field Magnetic field recorded by ironbearing igneous rocks Striking symmetrical magnetic anomaly stripes Age of sea floor rocks Progressively younger towards the midoceanic ridge Thickness of sea floor sediments progressively thinner towards the ridge Plate tectonics Unified theory Study the dynamic creation, movement, and destruction processes of plates Plates lithosphere fragments Plates move in relation to each other at varied rates No major tectonic movements within plates Dynamic actions concentrated along plate boundaries Three types of plate boundaries Convergent plates moving apart and new lithosphere produced in midoceanic ridge Divergent plates collide, subduction and mountain building Transform two plates slide past one another Earths interior convection is mechanism for plate tectonics Divergent plate boundaries Plates move away from each other Midoceanic ridges Continental rift valleys Creates new sea floors Extensional stress and shallow earthquakes Basaltic volcanism Basaltic lava soft and runny, flows easily Convergent plate boundary CC major young mountain belts and shallow earthquakes CO major volcanic mountain belts, subduction zone and oceanic trench, earthquakes OO Subduction zone, deep oceanic trench, Volcanic island arc, wide earthquake zones Hot Spots Volcanic centers with magma source from deep mantle, perhaps near the coremantle boundary Chain of volcanoes over a stationary hot spot Bend of a sea mount chain over a hot spot representing the change of plate motion Plate tectonics and environmental geology Significance of tectonic cycle Global zones of resources (oil, gas, and mineral ores) Global belts of earthwuakes and volcanic activities impacts on the landscape and global climates Geologic knowledge of plate tectonics foundation for urban development and hazard mitigation Pangea broke up 180200 mya Curie forms Lohiki smallest newest Hawaiian volcano Chapter 13 Water Resources Global water cycle Cyclic nature Global movement of water between different water storage compartments Global distribution Abundance not a problem Distribution in space and over time a problem Supply vs. use a problem Waters vertical movement Upflow Evaporation, transpiration Downflow Precipitation and infiltration Waters horizontal movement Surface runoff Shallow subsurface flow Groundwater flow Surface water Surface runoff Drainage network Drainage basin or watershed Drainage divide Stream order and size of drainage basin Sediment yield in surface runoff Geological factors Type and structure of soils and rocks Topographic factors relief and slope gradient Climatic factors type, intensity, duration, and distribution of precipitation Vegetation factors Type, size, and distribution Land use practice factors Ground water Ground water profile Vadose zone (unsaturated zone, zone of aeration) Zone of saturation Water table The boundary of the above two zones Perched water table local water table above a regional water table Aquifer A unit capable of supplying water at an economically useful rate Aquitard or aquiclude a confining layer or unit restricting and retarding GW flow Unconfined aquifer no overlying confinging layer Confined aquifer with an overlying aquitard layer Perched aquifer local zone of saturation above a regional water table GW recharge and discharge Recharge zone area where water inflitrates downward from surface to GW Discharge zone Area where GW is removed from an aquifer, such as spring, well, river, etc Influent stream above the water table, recharge water to GW may be intermittent Effluent stream perennial stream with the addition of GW when the precipitation is low GW pressure surface generally declining from source along the flow from recharge area to discharge area Artesian Well water selfrising aboce the land surface in a confined aquifer Cone of depression drawdown cone of GW in a well Groundwater movement Hydraulic gradient The gradient of water table, generally follows topographic gradient Hydraulic conductivity ability of rock materials to allow water to move through Porosity percentage of void space in sediment or rock to store water Permeability measuring the interconnection of pores in a rock material How fast the fluid can travel through rock GW use and supply Available GW estimated above total flow of the Miss during last 200 years GWas primary drinking water source for ~50% of US population GW overdraft problems extraction rate exceeds recharging rate in many parts of country, especially Great Plains region Estimated 5% of GW depleted but water level declined more than 50 ft in some areas Now more than 300 ft Interaction bw SW and GW Overdraft of GW leads to lower water levels of streams, lakes, reservoirs Overuse of SW yields lower discharge rates of GW Special linkage area sinkholes and cavern systems in the karst terrains Water use Offstream use removal or diversion from its SW or GW sources temporarily irrigation, thermoelectric, industrial Consumptive use type of offstream use of water without intermediate return to the SW or GW, such as transpiration and human use Instream use Navigation, fish and wildlife, recreation uses Major urban areas Overwithdrawal of groundwater groundwater mining Overuse of local surface water Threats of local urban landfills o the water supply Long island NY Water import issues and problems What is distance to transport, how much is available, from where, conflicts with other areas, litigations, and longrange planning Trends in water use Data from 19501995 SW use far greater than GW use Rate of water use decreased and leveled off since 1980 Irrigation and thermoelectric are major consumptive use Water Conservation Engineering technology and structure (canals) regulation irrigation and reducing evaporation Better tech in power plants and other industries less use of water due to improved efficiency Increased water reuse and recycling Water Management Need for Increasing demand for water use (pop and economic development) Water supply problems in semiarid and arid regions Water supply problems in megacities of humid regions Water traded as a commodity capital, market, and regulations Aspects to be considered Leopold philosophy Natural environmental factors geologic, geographic, and climatic Human environmental factors Economic, social and political Strategies More SW use in wet years, more GW use in dry years Reuse and recycle water on regular basis as well as in emergencies Management of the Colorado River Managing the water Water appropriation to 7 states in the US and to Mexico Local needs vs. regional needs (Colorado River compact of 1922) Us vs. Mexico (treaty w/ Mexico in 1944) Dam construction Impact on flood frequency Impact on sediment distribution, particularly downstream Impact on wildlife habitats Controlled and planned floods Water and ecosystem Ecosystem changes in response to climate, nutrient input, soils and hydrology General tendency increased human use of water, increased degradation of natural exosystmes Overall reconciliation between multiple water uses Water resources development (dams, reservoirs, canals) and associated impact on surface water environment Reconciling the the uses of water Agriculture, industry, urbanization, and recreation Protection of wetlands and water resources Emerging global water shortage Isolated shortage of water indication of a global pattern of water shortage Depleted water resources oberdrafted aquifers, dried lakes (aral sea) troulbed streams (CO and Yellow river not reaching seas some years) Polluted limited water recources due to development and increased wastes Demands for water recources tripled as population increases Long Island case study Salt water intrusion due to decline in water level Urbanization triggered more serious water problems Applied and Critical thinking Topics Water pressure greater at a confined aquifer Ogalla aquifer ground water mining Comsumptive V noncomsumptive use Chapter 14 – Water pollution Common pollutants Oxygen demanding waste (common organic waste) - Dead organic matter decomposed by bacteria, an oxygen-demanding process BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand) - High BOD associated with a high level of decaying organic matter in water, reducing DO (dissolved O) for other healthy organisms Sources of oxygen-demanding waste - Natural processes, agricultural applications, urban sewage, and runof Pathogenic waste (pathogenic microbes) Fecal coliform bacteria Harmful risks (diseases and death) of E. coli Billions exposed to waterborne diseases, especially in poor countries Outbreaks do occur in developed countries Epidemic risks of waterborne diseases du ring natural disasters, such as earthquake, tsunami, flooding Nutrients Two important nutrients - Nitrogen, Phosphorus Major problems - cultural eutrophication - algae bloom, triggering BOD problem Major sources of nutrients - Fertilizer, feedlots, and discharge from wastewater treatment plants Areas of certain land use - agriculture and Urban Petroleum Major problems - polluted water, ecosystem damage, interrupted socioeconomic conditions of a community Major sources - oil spills from tankers and pipelines, on or ofshore oil production, war Toxic waste (chems, heavy metals, radioactive waste) Synthetic organic chemicals, up to 100,000 chemicals in use especially those POPs (Persistent Organic Pollutants) Heavy metals - Pb, Hg, Zn, Cd Radioactive materials Sediment Sand and smaller particles Polluted streams, lakes, reservoirs, even ocean water Major sources - soil erosion, dust storms, floods, and mudflows Greatest water pollutant by volume Thermal plumes Temp increases, less dissolved oxygen Adverse changes to the habitats of organisms Economic impacts Major sources - Hot-water discharge from industrial operations, power plants, abnormal ocean currents Surface Water pollution and Treatment Point sources of pollution Point sources are discrete, confined, and more readily identifiable Common sources - landfills discharge from wastewater treatment plants, discharge from industries, power plants, storm water runof Identify sources, on site treatment and mitigation, prevention Nonpoint sources of pollution Nonpoint sources are difused, intermittent, and hard to specifically identify Causes of nonpoint pollution often regional cumulative, and compound Influenced by land use, climate, hydrology, topography, and geology Common sources - urban runof, agricultural, mining (acid rain and acid drainage) GW pollution and treatment Why care about GW pollution? Most abundant freshwater source Growing dependency on GW ~50% of people in the US depend on GW for drinking water Triggers other environmental problems - water pollution, subsidence, saltwater intrusion GW pollution bs surface water pollution Residence time diference Environmental conditions - Inflow, flow rate, dissolved oxygen, sunlight Harder to track pollution sources More difficult and expensive to clean up May pose long-term risks Saltwater intrusion More than half the worlds pop lives in or near coastal zones GW pollution from saltwater Water table is inclined oceanward Wedge of saltwater is inclined landward Overpumping of GW Severe drawdown of GW causes saltwater ascension = Cone of Ascension GW Treatment Pretreatment studies Identify Contaminants and their characteristics of transport behavior Identify the Characteristics of aquifer geology Determine the hydrologic characteristics of polluted aquifers Extraction wells Vapor extraction Bioremediation permeable treatment bed Water quality standards MCLs - Maximum contaminant levels 83 contaminants MCLGs - Max contaminant level goals Max level at which no adverse health efects from a lifelong exposure SMCLs - Secondary max contaminant levels Nonenforceable limits for contaminants that afect aesthetic qualities in drinking water Water water treatment Law - Used wastewater must be treated Break the potential vicious cycle of wastewater entering the general water cycle Tier treatment and reuse system Septic system - rural residential areas Water treatment plant for towns and cities Innovative ways for recycling and reclaiming wastewater New technologies for innovative wastewater treatment Prinicipal cause of septic tank failure - bad soil Exxon Valdeez 1989 Hurricane in NC Chapter 15 Mineral resources Mineral resources Backbone of modern societies Availability of mineral res as a measure of the wealth of a society Important in peoples daily life as well in overall econ Processed materials from minerals account for 5% of US GDP Min res are nonrenewable Min res and reserves Min Res usable economic commodity (profitable) extracted from naturally formed material (elements, compounds, minerals, or rocks) Reserve portion of a resource that is identified and currently available to be extracted legally Defining factors geologic, technological, economic, and legal factors Types of mineral res Based on how we use them Materials for metal production and tech Construction materials Ag industry fertilizers Mineral res for chem industry Others (precious gemstone, cosmetics, food) Energy mineral res Min Res problems Nonrenewable res Finite amount of min res and growing demands for the res Supply shortage due to growing global industrialization, with more developed countries consuming disproportionate share of mineral res The erratic distribution of the resources and uneve consumpti of the res. Highly developed countries use most of the resources Responses to limited availability Find more sources Find a substitute Recycle Use less and make more efficient use of what is available Do without Geology of Mineral Res Metallic ore useful metallic min that can be mined for a profit Varies depending on Technology, economics, and politics, emphasis on profitability, technological feasibility, and political demands Concentration factor concentraion necessary for profitable mining Varies over time Plate tect and min res Plate tectonic boundaries related to the origins of many ore deposits Plate tectonic processes (high temp, high pressure, and partial melting) promoting release and enrichment of metals along plate boundaries Common metal ores along the boundaries are Fe, Au, Cu, and Hg Min Res and Env impact Env impact From mineral exploration and testing From mineral mining From mineral resources From mining waste disposal The impact depends on many factors Mining procedures Hydrologic conditions Climate factors Types of rocks and soil Topography Impact of Min Exploration and testing Mineral exploration and testing Surface mapping, geochemical, geophysical, and remote sensing data collection Test drilling Impact Generally minimal impact More planning and care needed for sensitive areas (arid, wetlands, and permafrost areas) Impact of Min Extraction and processing General impact Direct impact on land, water, air, and biological environment Indirect impact on the environment topographic effect, transportation of materials Impact on social environment increased demands for housing and services Mining towns are boom and bust economy Impact from mining operations Land disturbances from access, surface mining Waste from mines 40% of the mining area for waste disposal, mining waste 40% of all solid wastes Special mining eg Chem leaching from gold mining (Mercury and cyanide) Mining drainage during mining and postmining Water pollution such as smelting emissions of SO2 and cyanide heap leaching Trace elements leaching out into water, such as Cd, Co, Cu, Pb, Mo, Zn Flooding of abandoned mines Acid mine drainage from tailings Acidic and toxic mining wastewater Biological environment Minimizing the impacting of mining Knowledge and technology transfer developed countries to developing countries Env Regs Forbid bad mining practices, Clean Air Act, and on and offsite treatment of wastes Land reclamation about 50% of land used in mining industry reclaimed Use of new biotechnology in mining Biooxidation, bioleaching, biosorption, genetic Recycling Min Res Why recycle? Consider the impact of the wastes Toxic to humans Dangerous to natural ecosystems Degradation of air, water, and soil Use of Land for disposal Aesthetically undesirable Waste contains recyclable materials Saves energy, money, land, raw mineral res from more mining Saves energy and money when recycling instead of refining raw ore materials Recycling has been proven to be profitable and workable Most recycled metals Iron and Steel, 90% by weight Onethird as much energy needed to produce steel from recycled scrap as from original ore More than $40 billion produced from recycled metals in 1998 Other recycled metals Lead (63%), aluminum (38%), and copper (36%) Min and Sustainability Sustainability long term strategy for consuming the resources Find an alternative materials for the metal, glass fiber cable for copper wires Use raw materials more efficiently More R&D on innovative substitutes Evaporite through evaporation Concentration factor how much to make money Strip mining is cheaper than deep hole mining Smelters can cause acid rain
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