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Business Ethics

by: Melody Posthuma

Business Ethics MGT 438

Melody Posthuma
GPA 3.94

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This is all the information for the ethics course at Grand Valley that you will need, including reading notes, class notes, and study guides.
Business Ethics
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Date Created: 08/24/16
REVIEW FOR EXAM 2 All quiz questions are potential exam questions. ASANTE COURT DANCE • WHEN: 1800s, West Africa • CHARACTERISTICS: gold (status), lower status arrive 1st to Big Adae, they would approach the king (Asantehini), Golden Stool came from heaven & was given to 1st king, no one sits on it! Every chief has their own stool. Matrilineal descent, Queen Mother is counter part of Asatehini called Asantehemaa (from same family, not necessarily King’s wife). She has ultimate veto power & rarely married. There are queen mothers to lower chiefs. • COURT STRUCTURE: king enters covered in gold & other chefs also wear gold to show hierarchy. When paying homage to king movement must be unhurried & majestic. Enter with drums, which tell the chief pace they should walk. Hands used for sign language to demonstrate emotion. 50,000 + people, women’s movement is smaller. • EVOLUTION: Then… to be chosen king, you had to be an excellent dancer, chiefs arrive in order bringing their own umbrellas, drums, and dancers. priests bless occasion with their own dancers. No restrictions on who dances, but if dancing inappropriately the dancers stop. Now… king chosen for diplomatic skills, ceremonial order distrusted by military chief of state (reminder of who holds power). Current purpose = also resistance & renewal. • PURPOSE: reaffirm identity, pride of belonging to great people, instrument to express things that are difficult to put into words, honor ancestors & king. BEDOYO • WHEN: Java (Indonesian island), 300 years ago. • CHARACTERISTICS: number 9 is important (9 dancers in unison showing 9 aspects of one individual, 9 desires, 9 constellations, 9 orfices of body, etc), balance (equilibrium through dance, balance b/w body and soul) & self control displayed in carvings of dancers, emphasis on order, uniformity (shouldn’t try to look better than another), selflessness - dancers are no longer seen as individuals, hands are held specifically and feet fully used. • COURT STRUCTURE: The palace is very tranquil - if you were higher in rank you sat closer to the saltan, walked in pie so that you were lower than them. • EVOLUTION: Then… when ruler was ceremonially married to queen of southern sea. As a gift she taught the ruler Bedoyo. The islands banded together to overthrow Dutch. The Saltan was concerned if they focused on own culture they wouldn’t have national identity. Thus, bode was banned and only survived since it was taught outside court system. Now… The current Sultan revived it in court system reclaiming original identity. It is much more simplified now, but they used to be much longer and complex (costumes would take hours to put on). There is still a Saltan over Java (more figure heads now, majors/governors) but Indonesia is a modern government with a preseident. Palace of Saltan is the still center of universe. • PURPOSE: Dance is a means of communicating with God, court dance is a gift of the gods, express stories or teachings, entertainment and offering, achieve balance b/w body and soul. It’s a performance but also an offering controlling Java’s destiny. Now: shows relationship to culture/how it’s changing (court and dances open to all). COURT BALLET • WHEN: Italian Renaissance 15 & 1600s, France civil & religious conflicts (Catholics & Protestants) in 1500s. Ballet began in Italian courts, developed fully in France in 1500s. • HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENTS: brought to France by Catherine de’ Medici who married King Henry. She was a patron of the arts, from Florence, loved dance, including dance in royal entertainment. The Academy of Music and Poetry in Paris united poetry, music, dance, and design. In early-mid 1600s, pantomime dancers became popular + acrobatic skills, increasing use of professionals rather than solely by rank. The proscenium stage developed to allow for elaborate stage effects such as use of machines. • PURPOSE: Ballet was a political tool designed to reinforce power of the king and the strength of France + part of the education of a gentleman. • CHARACTERISTICS: 
 - ballet is up toward heaven, formed when Christianity was religion in Western culture, based on Western mythology. Revered animals (not pigs, etc.), concepts of morality, court order (Principles, soloists, demi-soloists, core, apprentices, trainees).
 - Important elements: sense of time, manor/attitude while dancing, awareness of available dance space, beginning the vocabulary/steps of ballet. The barre was a chair back or a stretched rope. 
 - Dancing master taught steps, etiquette to members of French court. Performed by noble amateurs often led by king or queen. Steps were low to ground and more about grace than strength and agility. It was a part of education for people of royal court. 
 - Costumes were to impress not allow for movement + they wore masks. The productions could last for 4-5 hours.
 - Librettos: story lines of what the ballet is about, extended program for audience Spoken or sung verses were in librettos. 
 - At the end, everyone including audience danced (grand ball) to encourage community. It was performed in a long hall with people on three sides. The dancers always recognized the front where King was seated. • Ballet des Polonais: first court ballet?, more stylish walking, created to honor Polish ambassadors rising paris. Italian Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx was the choreographer hired by de’ Medici. It was an hour long danced by 16 women representing the provinces of France. It was more symbolic than a story line. • Ballet Comique de la Reine: Comedy Ballet of the Queen, first ballet to unit poetry, music, dance, and design. It was choreographed by Beaujoyeulx, plot from Odyssey involving enchantress Circe, who transformed men into animals. It was for entertainment + symbolism. Circe represented civil war, ending with Circe being brought before the king and queen, captured and defeated. • Ballet A Entrees: a popular form of court ballet into mid-1600s. M. de Saint Hubert published How to Compose Successful Ballets (royal ballet should have 30 entrees, a fine ballet at least 20, small ballet 10-12. Wanted a new subject matter, music composed to fit subject matter and dance, dancers cast according to skill - don’t need best dancers for every entree. Costumes, steps, figures, and machines should be appropriate to subject matter). • Louis XIV “the sun king,” court ballet reached height and decline during his reign. Ballet de la Nuit was the most famous ballet during his reign. It had 45 entrees, the Sound god’s role was portrayed and Louis XIV was forever associated with that. Important during his reign: Pierre Beuchamps (dance master for king) + Jeane Baptiste Lully (composer + dancer). • The Masque: British Version, developed in England in late 1500s, leading role performed by Charles I. The dance was a social and political tool, not surviving past Charles’ reign. COMEDIE-BALLET, TREGEDIE LYRIQUE, & OPERA BALLET • WHERE: mid-late 1600s - early 1700s in France. • CHARACTERISTICS: Women appeared in court ballets not just in ballroom/social dances. Technical feats beyond amateur level. The proscenium stage developed a distance b/w audience and performer. • Academie Royale de Musique et de Danse: AKA PO, Lully was its director and Beauchamps the ballet master. Opera and ballet weren’t yet separate art forms. Louis XIV officially established a permanent group of dancers at PO w/ own school of dance. Beauchamps defined 5 positions of feet + arms, developing a form of dance notation written about in Choreographie. Lully and Beauchamps developed a theatrical form that used dance and song to convey a dramatic plot called Tragedie Lyrique (much still conveyed by singers + masks). • Moliere: • Mademoiselle de Lafontaine: first principal ballerina (Le Triomphe de l’Amour). The dance style was more sedate. • Louis Pecour: developed Opera Ballet, combination of dancing and singing. Each act was an independent entity, light in subject matter, exotic locales. Reached its height with composer Jeane Philippe Rameau’s most famous ballet Les Indes Galantes - a series of love stories in each entree set in exotic locales. Dance still serving primarily as a decorative function. BALLET D’ACTION • WHEN: 1700s in France. Ballet tells a story in terms of movement advancing ballet’s expressive and dramatic potential, looking to greek, Roman, and pantomime as examples. Flowing dresses, flat-heeled sandals or slippers. • John Weaver: English choreographer, Essay Towards an History of Dancing - first ever written history of dance in England, The Loves of Mars and Venus - uses poses and gestures to convey meaning, first ballet d’action. • Marie Camargo and Marie Salle’: both students of Francoise Prevost. Camargo was known for brilliant technique, noticeable b/c shorter skirts, fancy footwork. Sale was known for dramatic potential + first female choreographer of note where dancers wore Greek robes instead of corsets, petticoats, etc. • La Barbarina: skilled ballerina in technique and acting, better technique than Camargo. • Jean Georges Noverre: wrote Letters on Dancing and Ballets - reform, dance should speak to soul, logical plots followed via the action, collaboration b/w choreographer, composer, set & costume designers, machinists, etc., anti-masks, lighter fabrics, well- rounded education for choreographer, expressive dancers through movement. Taught Marie Antoinette who helped him become balletmaster at PO where he was disliked as his reforms weren’t always welcome and ballets weren’t always popular. Thus he left there after 5 years. • Jeane Dauberval: he + Pierre Gardel took over as co-ballet masters of PO, but Dauberval soon let and created La Fille mal Gardee. (the poorly kept daughter). It used peasant characters and has a peasant theme portraying them with warmth and sympathy. *mixes folk dances with ballet* 2 excerpts: clog dance & chicken dance. More on plot • Pierre Gardel: took over PO and maintains it after French Revolution. He didn’t allow experimental choreographers to set work causing artistic isolation for dancers. ROMANTIC BALLET • WHEN: early-mid 1800s in France. • CHARACTERISTICS: French revolution + romanticism - imagination over reason, emotions over logic, intuition over science. Focus on human struggle and internal emotions/conflict. Interest in/importance of nature. Themes dealt with supernatural usually feminine creatures (sylphies, nymphs, fairies, etc) + exotic locales + romantic ideas of love and heroism. Style of romantic ballet included pointe, tutu (romantic style not pancake), weightlessness and effortlessness, and ballerinas were the stars! • EVOLUTION: costume reform (you can move, legs get higher), greater turnout, more machines used including wires to fly dancers, gas lights for moonlight. Internationalization of ballet with traveling ballerinas, resident choreographers, and restating works. • Charles Didelot: anticipated Romantic Style, notable for use of flying machines, used first flesh-colored tights. • La Sylphide: first romantic ballet, choreographed by Filippo Taglioni at PO for his daughter Marie Taglioni. Plot • Marie Taglioni vs. Fanny Elssler: Taglioni was the Christian dancer and Elssler was the Pagan dancer. Baglioni was more modest while Elssler was more expressive and fiery. Taglioni’s was danse ballonne (grand allegro) & Elssler was danse tequetee (petite allegro). Taglioni was known for La Sylphide and Elssler was famous for La Cachucha (Spanish Dance). • Giselle: only Romantic ballet that has survived in continuous performance. Choreogrpahers: Jean Coralli for ensemble and Jules Perrot for title role played by Carlotta Grisi. The music was by Adolphe Adam who used leitmotivs - themes from the music tied to specific characters that are brought back. The score was original not borrowed melodies. Plot: A prince dresses as a peasant and Gisells falls in love with him. He ends up getting engaged to a noble woman and Giselle dies. She comes back in the second act as a Wili to save her love Albrecht. Giselle taught the dancers the importance of acting. • Jules Perrot: choreographed La Esmeralda w/ Grisi as Esmeralda. He developed a style of ballet focused on technique rather than story line displayed in Pas de Queatre where Taglioni, Grisi, Fanny Cerrito, and Lucile Grahn were the ballerinas. • August Bournonville: imported ballet to Denmark after studying in Paris. Directed Royal Theatre in Denmark, had a romantic style but kept demonic element of Romanticism under control, allowing human values to triumph + importance of male dancer. • Carlo Blasis: Italian, teacher and theorist, focused on impeccable technique. Ex: Pierina Legnani executed 32 fouttes and took it to Russia where it was incorporated in Swan Lake. • Arthur Saint-Leon: last big choreographer of Romantic Ballet, choreographed The Little Humpbacked Horse (focus on Russian themes) and Coppelia. He created a system of dance notation called stenochoregraphie. • Role of Travesty dancer: • Roles of men and women in ballet/why changes occurred: WALTZ • WHEN: 1780, in Vienna. Initially controversial because it was the 1st dance to be closed (dancers weren’t just side by side) + movement in circle could make you dizzy/feel out of control. • Problem: there is a male female connection, the male leads, the woman is the accessor yin the Waltz rather than the male being the accessory in ballet, romantic, dreamy, enchanting, etc. • Objections from reading: BELLY DANCE • WHEN: in Middle East. • CHARACTERISTICS: belly dancing done by women for women, in midst of child birth. Some believe it may serve a physical role in prepping a woman for child birth. Lots of movement of hips, torso, and shoulders. • Ghawazee: gypsies from India and moved into Afghanistan, Syria, Lebanon, Turkey, Greece, Egypt, Spain, etc. • Islam is the primary religion. In this religion, professionals perform in front of men. In traditional settings, they are considered to have loose morals. • Development of belly dancing in Egypt: Awalim (highly educated & respected, originally danced for other women only) & Ghawazee (public performers). The common Awalim were associated with prostitution, performed for lower classes. In 1800s, Awalim became known as the singers and dancers and Ghawazee were the dancers and prostitutes. Spread of sexual diseases along with other reasons led to the government intervening. When it was prohibited, the dancers went to upper Egypt (which was actually southern Egypt) and the distinction between the two types of dancers was lost. Many became prostitutes in order to support themselves. In 1850s, the ban was lifted and they came back but were only allowed to perform in music halls (not publicly). There, the dancer’s job was to fraternize with the customers. In 1950-70s, the dancers had to be licensed to perform (be able to sing and dance + costuming rules - no slits and no belly showing, no talking with the customers). As a result, waitresses and hostesses took the role of sitting with the customers. At weddings, dancing used to be segregated but then it was unsegregated. Today, working in the night club is still synonymous with stripping and prostitution. In Islam, the women’s voice is considered a form of seduction (can’t even listen to them on the phone). Dancers are considered even worse because it is the movement of your body. CLASS NOTES CHAPTER 1 * Blooms Taxonomy (a list of a specific purpose): create, evaluate (appraise, argue, support, defend), analyze (differentiate, compare & contrast), apply (demonstrate, illustrate, employ, use), understand, remember. These are levels of behavior with remember as the lowest and creating as the highest. * Genius: intersection of your talent with theory. * Goal: for us to make our own models. Ethical scandals often are due to multiple participants actions. * * Cynicism: where’s the trust? Is it healthy to be cynical? Are orgs. responsible? What about “winning at any cost reinforcement?” As we become more informed, we will become less cynical. * MBA Oath: defines purpose to lead people and manage resources to create value, designs affect others, they promise to employe: loyalty, care, obey laws, refrain from corruption, protect human rights, honestly report performance risks, invest in yourself + others. They take the oath freely and upon their honor. * Characteristics of an individual (individual differences and cognitive biases) go to the process of individual ethical decision making behavior. Characteristics of Organizations (group + org. pressures, org. & culture) also go into this behavior. The process is moral awareness, ethical judgment, which goes to ethical behavior. * Who influences you to act ethically? * Ethics = principals, norms, standards of conduct governing an individual or group. * Relationship b/w ethics & law is a venn diagram. * Why be ethical? Who cares? CHAPTER 2 - A PRESCRIPTIVE APPROACH * Ethical dilemma: when values conflict, either 2+ right values or personal conflict with org. values. * Prescriptive = (1) Consequences (2) Duties, obligations, principles (Deontological Theories) (3) Virtue Ethics - Consequentialism: Utilitarianism, identify all actions and consequent to stakeholders for each option, choose greatest benefit to society for the greatest # of people. Identify the stakeholders that are immediate and distant. Ex: train hits 5 or 1 person, your choice by flipping a switch. You choose the 1 person since that maximizes the well-being b/w the 2 options. - Duty: decision based on abstract universal principles, focus on doing what’s right rather than on maximizing well-being. (1) Kant’s Categorical imperative: what if everyone behaved like this? Would you want to live in that world? (2) Golden Rule: assuming that both parties are ethical. (3) Rawl’s Veil of Ignorance: for fairness, what would the decision be if the decision makers knew northern about identities/status?, “justice is blind” (4) More thoughts: which values apply? What are my ethical duties/obligations? - Focus on Integrity (Virtue ethics): focus on integrity of the moral actor rather than the act. Considers character, motivations, intentions, character defined by one’s community, thus you need to identify relevant community. Disclosure rule. What does it mean to be a person of integrity in this situation, profession, etc? What ethical community standards would hold me to the highest ethical standards? Do carefully developed community standards exist? What would the broader community think if this were disclosed (NY Times Test)? What would my harshest moral critic expect me to do? What would my ethical role model expect of me? What do I want my professional reputation to be? - 8 Steps to Sound Ethical Decision Making: Gather the facts, define the ethical issues, identify affected parties, identify the consequences, identify obligations, consider your character and integrity, think creatively about potential actions, check your gut. Each of these have elements of the 3 approaches. - Murphy’s 5 Steps: (1) KISS Principle - how to explain the ethical situation to a child. (2) Legal Challenge - contact those in the legal field and make sure that the decision you’re making is legal (3) Win-Win - make sure that your solution is a win-win solution (4) Out-of-the- closet - if on front page of newspaper, would you be okay with it? (5) Gut Check - Seneca Model? Am I happy in what I am doing? Is what I’m doing adding to the confusion? What am I dong to bring about peace and contentment? How will I be remembered when I am gone? Chapter 3 - Ethical Awareness goes to ethical judgment goes to ethical action. - Influences on Ethical Awareness: if peers agree that something is wrong, ethical language used, if potential for serious harm is recognized. 
 A. Ethical Decision-Making Style: Idealism (a person’s concern for the welfare of others, consequences-focused) vs. Relativism (a view that ethical principles are situationally dependent, rationalization). 
 B. Cognitive Moral Development: Level 1 (Pre-conventional): stage 1 of obedience and punishment orientation, stage 2 of instrumental purpose and exchange. Level II (Conventional): stage 3 of interpersonal accord, conformity, mutual expectations. Stage 4 of system maintenance, upholding duties and laws. Level 3 (post-conventional or principles): stage 5 of social justice contract and individual rights. Stage 6 of theoretical stage only. Most people reason at the conventional level and are open to and looking outside themselves for guidance. Cognitive: thinking intertwines with moral and thinking behaviors. 
 C. Locus of Control: an individual’s perception of how much control he or she exerts over events in life. Internals are more likely to see the connection between their own behavior and outcomes and therefore take responsibility for their behavior. Therefore, internals are often more likely to do what they think is right. vs. External: others control you. Tale Genitore, Tale Figle - “I was born this way,” my parents made me who I am. 
 Moral Disengagement - tendency for some individuals to deactivate their internal control system to feel okay with doing unethical things. + Know the 8 mechanisms used 
 * Cognitive barriers to ethical judgment: Barriers to fact gathering (over-confidence, confirmation trap), barriers to consideration of consequences (reduced number, self vs. others, ignore consequences affecting law, underestimate risk, illusion of optimism and of control consequences over time - escalation of commitment), script processing - cognitive frameworks guiding thoughts and actions), cost-benefit analysis ( no moral dimension, to simplistic way of analyzing). Moral Instinct CORE article: Were you born with it or does it develop over time? Suggest we carry around a switch of disengagement, use switch to rationalize or vice versa (moral or amoral switch). We all have natural instinct - fight or fight, relativism - idealism survey. What used to be wrong is right and vice versa, ex: smoking decreased, weed, same sex marriage, and clothing increased. Walk-Ons: Walmart & treatment to suppliers, Mike Huckabee using FOX to announce that he’s seeking election - exploiting campaign?, Unethical stock options at Walmart Individuals’ Common Ethical Problems Voicing Your Values: * Your purposew : hat are your personal and professional goals? What do you hope to accomplish? Risk: are you a risk taker, or are you risk averse? What are the greatest risks you face in your * line of work? What levels of risk can you live with, and which ones can’t you live with? * Loyalty: do you tend to feel the greatest loyalty to family, work, colleagues, your employer, or other stakeholders, such as customers. * Self Image: As idealistic or pragmatic? 
 Fairness: (1) Equity: Do People working equally hard receive equal wages? (2) Reciprocity: If you do this, I’ll do that. (3)Impartiality: are you unbiased? (4) Discrimination: on what basis might it occur? Sexual Harassment: (1) Quid pro Quo - sexual favors are a requirement or seem to be a requirement, for advancement. (2) Hostile Work environment: a worker feels uncomfortable because of unwelcome comments or behavior of a sexual nature. Conflicts of Interest: overt bribes & kickbacks, subtle bribes, influence, privileged information. Customer Confidence issues: confidentiality, product safety, truth in advertising, special fiduciary responsibilities. Employer-Employee Contract: Expectations, rights, and consideration. Use of Corporate Reputation: will not give you a letter of rec. on letter head due to legal concerns. This is difference than a personal reference. Blowing the Whistle: How strongly do you feel about this issue? What are your intentions? Think about power and influence. Weigh the risks and benefits, consider the timing, develop alternatives. 
 * Case of Jill Osiecki: worked in pharmaceuticals, she was directed by sales manager to give incentives to doctors to buy certain drugs even though illegal. She ended up going to the police and they said they needed a warrant unless she just wore a mike. She ended up receiving millions. Whistle blowing is a valid process. STAGES: When porn we were totally dependent, we evolved to inter dependency, then to counter dependency (“you’re not the boss of me”, high school years often), independence EXAM 1 SG CHAPTER 3 - DECIDING WHAT’S RIGHT THROUGH A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH * Ethical awareness - Ethical judgment - ethical action. (1) They think their peers consider ethical issues (2) Ethical language: neutral lang. (makes action seem less problematic), euphemistic lang. (makes us feel okay with what you’re doing) (3) Triggers ethical thinking: more likely to find morally intense issues as ethical issues (when consequences are immediate & likely), also higher chance of harm, the higher the ethical issue * Ethical Decision-Making Style: Idealist (concerned for welfare, tend to have more ethical intentions) vs. relativism (principles depend on situation) 
 (1) Cognitive Moral Development: Kohelberg’s moral reasoning theory (how people think & decide what’s right with three levels and 2 stages in each). 
 Level 1: Pre-conventional: stage 1 is obedience to avoid punishment, Stage 2 personal reward and satisfaction 
 Level 2 Conventional: Stage 3 interpersonal, trust & social approval, Stage 4: perspective to society, duties & rules for common good, law exists for good reason, level 2s look outside themselves for moral decision-making 
 Level 3 Post-conventional: Moved beyond other’s expectations to act autonomously based on justice and rights. Stage 5: still rules but b/c they represent social contract, willing to change social laws for moral laws. *It’s important managers are principled thinkers & levels higher than employees, training can help increase levels, most adults at level 2 
 (2) Locus of Control: internal (you decide events in life, tend to take responsibility for actions + help others) vs. external (fate or others do, prone to obey authority), your locus of control can change over time.
 (3) Machiavellianism: unethical action, “ends justify the means”, do good but commit evil if you must, self-interested actions 
 (4) Moral Disengagement: allows individuals to engage in unethical behavior w/o feeling bad about it. 3 categories (1) makes bad behavior seem acceptable through euphemistic lang. + moral justification & advantageous comparison (comparing behavior to a worse behavior) (2) Distorting consequences of reducing personal responsibility for bad outcomes through reducing accountability by looking to others & distorting consequences (thinking they are less serious) (3) Reduces person’s identification with the victims of unethical behavior through dehumanization. Moral disengagement have reduced empathy, cynicism, unethically, reduced moral identity. * Facilitators of & Barriers to Ethical Judgment: cognitive weaknesses + biases exist to reduce uncertainty & simplify the world 
 - Thinking about & fact gathering: facts often biased, overconfidence makes you fall to keep searching, confirmation trap (influence what facts you gather + where to look) 
 - Thinking about consequences: (1) reduced # of consequences to simplify decisions which can be serious (2) consequences of self vs. for others: cost + benefits to society - people tend to choose in self-interested manner. 
 - Consequences as risk: underestimate risk b/c illusion of optimism, less susceptible to risks illusion of control, don’t think rationally about risks (try to confirm decisions we prefer - confirmation bias). 
 - Consequences over time: escalation of commitment, decisions aren’t isolated choices but from a series of choices, if others are involved we try to justify original decisions. 
 - Thinking about integrity: illusions of superiority or of morality - think we are more ethical than most. Virtue ethics suggests you ely on ethics of your profession. If using excuses to support decision = bias! 
 - Thinking about your gut: your gut/strong emotional responses to ethical situations can be better than conscious deliberative approaches
 - Unconscious Bias: people prefer straight over gay, young over old, etc. 
 - Emotions in Ethical Decision Making: emotions often lead to right action - especially w/ human life. Parts of the brain associated w/ satisfaction activated when we consider retaliating against someone who has treated us unfairly. Empathy + guilt helpful but moral outrage can lead to justice or revenge. * Toward Ethical Action: strong ethical awareness = more likely to make ethical choices, ethical language to label situation + recognize others may see it as unethical (some are more prone to behaving ethically & others are not). We are ALL prone to cognitive biases. * Reflections on Pinto Fire Cases: He simplified overwhelming info as recall coordinator through scrips used as cognitive shortcuts - similar situations dealt the same. Pinto problem didn’t fit an existing script (not a pattern) & accidents not initially traceable to specific component failure. Decisions tend to made in best interest of corporation - greatest good for greatest # through scripts. Your identity gets influenced by corporate identity. For us: develop ethical basis now, recognize everyone is a victim of cognitive structuring, scripted routines seldom include ethical dimensions, be aware of how strongly or subtly your role/org. culture affects the ways you interpret info. (affects ways you make scripts) & be prepped to face responsibility. 
 - Script Processing: scripts are cognitive frameworks guiding humans through and action with info about sequence of events in routine situation - doesn’t require active thinking. If symptom not par of script it’s likely to be overlooked. Ethical decision requires active consideration & are custom decisions, tailored to complexities of the case. 
 - Cost-Benefit Analysis: National Traffic Safety Assoc. approved cost-benefit analysis assigning a dollar value for human life. Life was $200,00 then and now $3 million. Tank design costs were = $137 million or $11/vehicle, the benefits of not altering the tank design were $49,530,000. Didn’t account ethics/morals. Pinto Fire ex. shows it’s important to have multiple ethical people involved. Scripts help efficiency, so make ethical considerations part of the script by concentrating on ethical dimension of corporate culture + emphasizing ethics prior to script modification. Possibly require groups to justify decision making process in moral & quant. terms. “It’s Not You, It’s We: Why Values Alone Aren’t Enough for a Sustainable World” by Joss Tantram * Most sustainability approaches suggest appealing to people’s values to persuade bus. or take action, often revolving around idea of sin & guilt. * Context is everything: 2 determinants for things to transpire is opportunity & capability. If both exist, change occurs - context determines opportunity & capability. Values rise out of a mix of factors such as human psychology & physical reality, political & economic norms, etc. Differences in behavior expressed in infrastructure of societies. People make choices contextually - choices arrive from availability, economic, cultural, & industrial infrastructure. A moronity acts on values when difficult, majority makes easy/obvious options. * Fertile Ground for change: conceptual & physical infrastructure are factors in whether values for sustainability moves from intent to action. Intent & action supported/enabled by value systems, prioritization, production & supply. Intentions need fertile ground to thrive (ex: intention to buy but must have supply available). * Turning the tide: Make sustainable choices the norm rather than the exception. Involves an evolution of value due to our consumption of initiatives that offer conventional & unstable initiatives. Ex: put the value of nature on agenda of business, explore new models of money & markets for a sustainable economy with a point & a purpose, provide humanity with sustainable access to necessities for human existence. Sustainability must become a natural outcome or side effect of being alive. We need economics & capitalism to provide opportunity. The Moral Instinct Articles: * We are all susceptible to moral illusions, use those illusions to unmask a 6th sense - the moral sense. Moral goodness gives us the sense that we’re worthy beings & disrespect for morality is blamed on daily sins & history’s worse atrocities. * The Moralization Switch: how moral judgments differ from other kinds of options of behaving. Moralization is a thinking to deem actions immoral, it’s rules are to be universal & that those who commit immoral acts should be punished. When moralization switch flips = righteous glow, recruit others to the cause. Behaviors have been moralized (neg. view on smoking) while others moralized (homosexuality). The flip isn’t just how it harms us - double standard since people tend to align moralization with their lifestyles. * Reasoning & Rationalizing: the way we arrive at moral judgments matter - engaging in moral reasoning vs. moral rationalization, beginning w/ conclusion, affected by emotion, justifying decision. Ex: flipping train switch to kill 5 vs. pushing man off bridge. Killing w/ hands - part of brain lights up regarding emotions & registering a conflict b/w an urge from one part of brain & advisory from another. When hands off dilemma, brain involving rational calculation lights. * A Universal Morality? Morality emerges in childhood (ex: hitting a girl not okay even if allowed) - no genes for morality, but evidence. Children with severe injuries to frontal lobes can grow into tough irresponsible adults. Moral sense may be rooted in design of human brain, though moral judgments can’t be universal (variety of views). Varieties of Moral Experience: harm, fairness, community, authority, & purity (5 Haidt * spheres) are themes that are primary aspects of moral sense (when involved/violated, it repels people). Genealogy of Morals: other possible spheres like reciprocal altruism (being nice evolves as * favor helps recipient more than it costs giver, recipient returns favor) or community (sacrifice w/o expectation) possibly rooted in nepotistic altruism - empathy we feel toward relatives. * Juggling Spheres: how’s moral sense universal & variable at the same time? Moral spheres ranked differently + which is brought in to moralize diff. areas of life. * Is Nothing Sacred? diff. cultures appeal to diff spheres b/c relativism. Reciprocal altruism - rationale behind fairness - doesn’t mean that people do good in expectation for repayment. Selfishness gene doesn’t always mean selfishness - natural selection through competition to be or appear the most generous partner around. Fairness & generosity is an asset & must be backed by commitment. * Is morality a figment? distinction b/w right & wrong is also a product of brain wiring. Who decides distinction b/w green and red, collective hallucination? How do you decide what’s right? God is in charge (moral truth), moral realism (rational, self-preserving social agent in a moral direction), rationality cannot depend on the egocentric vantage point of the reasoner (can’t do anything in a way that privileges interest over another). Core of idea: interchangeability of perspectives - keeps reappearing in history’s best moral philosophies. * Doing better by knowing ourselves: morality is larger than our inherited moral sense though the implications for our moral universe are profound. Common ground in conflict: recognition that other is acting from moral reasons. Moral sense also alerts us to ways our psychological makeup can get in the way of moral conclusions. What gets in the way? moralizing problems, merging them with intuitions of purity & contamination, & resting when we feel we have right feelings. Moral sense helps us see through illusions that culture has created in us & to focus on goals we can share and defend. CHAPTER 4 ADDRESSING INDIVIDUALS’ COMMON ETHICAL PROBLEMS * Identifying your values & voicing them: Pre-scripting thinking can lay groundwork for ethical actions. Personal narrative: what aspects give you courage to do right, what experiences, questions of risk, questions of purpose, voice your values with behavior reflecting unique personality, test ability to make good choices, identify arguments you’re trying to counter, what’s at stake for participants, most powerful argument. You can redefine yourself post-mistakes. * People Issues: consider fairness in issues, shared responsibility, exchanges & impartiality. Discrimination (something other than qualifications affects how an employee is treated), beyond legal protections b/c it’s at the core of fairness in workplace, violations bring suit under tort or contract law + morale of victims suffer. Valuing diversity means treating people equally while incorporating diverse ideas - difference doesn’t mean deficient or less. Harassment, Sexual, etc. unwelcome sexually orientated behavior that makes someone feel uncomfortable at work, 2types quid pro quo (sexual favors requirement for advancement in workplace) & hostile work environment (made to feel uncomfortable b/c unwelcome actions or comments related to sexuality). Difficult b/c sexual harassment to one may not be to another - determined from a viewpoint for a reasonable person + harasser’s intentions not considered. ONLY how it’s interpreted by victim. Harassment is a form of discrim. (unfairly focuses job satisfaction, advancement on a factor other than ability). Victims can bring suit under tort or contract law, employer held liable for employee’s activities if they had knowledge, investigation or firing. Innocence results in counseling or transitioning to different area. Sexual harassment lawsuits expensive, office relationships can lead to dangerous results/accusations, Use discretionary rule (want front page or no). Conflicts of Interest: your judgment or objectivity is compromised. Appearance can be just as damaging. If cust. offers favors, is it or does it appear more than just business? Ex: bribes (gifts & entertainment), trading of influence or privileged information. Most businesses have gift policies & if not, if you can’t reciprocate them it’s probably inappropriate. Relationships can be conflict of interest - if so, you can be a part of deacons but not the decision-maker. Can’t leave a company and do work for its competitor, 2nd job can’t compromise work of 1st & both employers must be aware. Always alert manager if you have a close family or friend working for competitors - full disclosure removes risk. Deal with this: consequentialist, veil of ignorance, discuss ideas with others. Conflict of int. can erode trust. Professionals with special obligations are trust professions (religion, banking, law, accounting, medicine). Costs may include inspection, termination, or arrest + reputation, fines, damages. Customer Confidence Issues: confidentiality, product safety + effectiveness, truth in advertising (don’t exaggerate a G or S for benefit), personal responsibility (reputation!) & special fiduciary responsibilities (law & judicial system recognizes trust professions & the code of ethics for those professions, they have to protect cust. assets meaning they have to know their customers - assessing behavior, saving cust. from themselves, must seek help under confidentiality contraptions if clear sign of cust. incompetence). When 3rd parties ask, it’s never okay to discuss private info with 3rd party that would identify specific customer. Sometimes you can’t even publicly acknowledge cust. relationship. Ethics as an Organizational Culture - Chapter 5 Interview questions pg. 166 Influences of Org. Culture on Individuals: Ethical culture goes to ethical awareness, ethical judgement, & ethical action. Individual differences goes into ethical judgement and ethical action. Org. Culture: Expresses shared assumptions, values and beliefs & is the social glue that holds the org. culture together. It’s “how we do things around here.” Strong: assumptions, values, beliefs widely shared, Weak: subgroup norms more influential, strong subcultures exist and guide behavior that differs from one subculture to another. How Culture Influences behavior: socialization and internalization. - Employees are brought into org.’s culture through enculturation or socialization. It can occur in formal training or mentoring or just norms of daily behaviors. People behave in ways consistent with the culture b/c they feel they are expected to do so, not because it’s consistent with personal beliefs. - Individuals may behave according to the culture for another reason - internalized cultural expectations. With internalization, individuals adopt the external cultural standards as their own. Their behavior is consistent with culture and their own beliefs. Either the co. already has their values or they internalize the cultural expectations over time. - Most people prefer to behave ethically: employees behave ethically when they join an org. with strong ethical culture - messages about honestly and respect resonate with personal beliefs and are internalized. Though most employees can be socialized to behave unethically. Ethical Culture: A Multisystem Approach: * Formal Systems (executive leadership: selection system, policies/codes, orientation/training, performance management, authority structure, decision processes) goes to Ethical/Unethical behavior * Informal Systems (Role Models/Heroes: Norms, Rituals, Myths/Stories, language) goes to Ethical/unethical behavior What is the alignment between formal and informal systems? It’s a fine balance between the 2 * and depends on the org. * To create a consistent ethical culture message, the formal & informal systems must be aligned (work together) to support ethical behavior. The systems must be sending employees consistent messages that point in the direction of ethical behavior. Out of alignment: when the formal statements say one thing while the company actions and rituals say another. Leadership: executive leaders create culture, leaders maintain or change org. culture, they influence formal structure by creating and supporting formal policies with resources and influence informal culture by role modeling. Senior executives must develop a reputation for ethical leadership by being visible on ethics issues and communicating a strong ethics message (especially since most employees will not know them personally). Types of ethical leadership and ethical cultures: ethical (strong moral manager and moral person), unethical (weak moral manager, weak moral person), hypocritical (strong moral manager, weak moral person), or ethically neutral or “silent” leadership. Executive Leadership Reputation Rests on Two Pillars: (1) Moral Person: tells followers how leader behaves. 
 - Traits: honesty, integrity, trust 
 - Behaviors: openness, concern for people, personal morality 
 - Decision-making: values based, fair (2) Moral Manager: tells followers how they should behave and hols them accountable
 - Role modeling: takes visible ethical action
 - Rewards/discipline: hold people accountable for ethical conduct 
 - Communicating: sends an ethics and values message
 * Leadership style should align with your ethical framework. 
 - Ethical Leadership: The moral person dimension represents the ethical part of the term ethical leadership. The executive first demonstrates individual traits (honest, integrity, etc). Being a moral person isn’t enough to be perceived as an ethical leader. Being a moral person tells employees how leader is likely to behave, but not how he expects them to behave. So, executives must also be moral managers - focus on “leadership” part of ethical leadership by making ethics & values an important part of their leadership message and by shaping firm’s ethical culture. 
 - Unethical Leadership: reputations as weak moral persons and weak moral managers. 
 - Hypocritical Leadership: strong on communication aspect of moral management but isn’t an ethical person - doesn’t walk the talk, using a “do as I say not as I do” approach. 
 - Ethically neutral or “silent” leadership: not strong leaders either ethically or unethically - don’t provide explicit leadership in the crucial area of ethics, employees aren’t sure what the leaders think about ethics, if anything. An ethically neutral leader isn’t clearly unethical but is perceived to be more self-centered than people oriented. On the moral manager dimension, he is thought to focus on the bottom line without setting complementary ethical goals. Other Formal Cultural Systems: 
 - Selection systems: formal systems in place for recruiting and hiring new employees, vital to hiring people who fit culture of the firm. Some questions asked may include: how have you handled choosing b/w what’s right and what’s best for the company, describe your current employer’s ethics (good and bad), give example of ethical decision you’ve made at work and how you handled it (what factors did you consider), what is a past work behavior you’ve regretted (how would you act differently now), have you ever felt the need to exaggerate the truth to make a sale, have you had to go adjacent co.’s policies to accomplish something, how have you handled managing an employee who misled a client, what’s your philosophy of how to think about policies (follow to the letter?). 
 - Value & mission statements: general statements of guiding beliefs, easy to make statement but difficult to implement it on a daily basis.
 - Policies and codes: longer and more detailed than broad values and mission statements, they provide guidance about behavior in multiple specific areas. Ex: treatment of others, conflicts of interest, expense reporting, gifts, relations with suppliers. Most companies with codes now distribute them widely rather than just posting them on their websites. 
 - Orientation and Training programs: a way that org. cultural values and guiding principles can be communicated. Often includes ethics training - must be consistent with other ethical cultural systems. 
 - Performance management systems: the formal process of articulating employee goals, identifying performance metrics, and providing compensation structure that rewards individual and team effort in relation to those goals. They also include formal disciplinary systems that are designed to address performance problems when they arise. Plays essential role in alignment or misalignment of ethical culture b/c people pay attention to what is measured, rewarded, and discipline. Since people do what’s measured and rewarded to design a performance management system, spend time identifying which factors drive the results the org. strives to achieve. Have to recognize short-term financial results + non financial factors (what bus. results are delivered and how results were achieved). First, an org. needs to focus on mechanics then marry what with the how - that’s where an org.’s articulated vaults come in. For an ethical culture to be in alignment, poor performance against stated ethical goals must be addressed quickly and fairly. Also employees should be disciplined equally across org. and performance levels - all must be disciplined for knowingly breaking the rules. The bottom line is that perf. management systems are important in themselves b/c they provide guidance about expected behavior and people look to them to reflect the “real” message about what is valued in the org. - Org. authority structure: 
 * Authority, Responsibility, & Ethical Culture: Authority figures serves important bureaucratic roles - direct work, delegate responsibility, conduct performance appraisals, make decisions abut promotions and raises. The more a firm demands unquestioning obedience to authority, the higher the unethical conduct among employees. Some managers create a structure designed to help them avoid blame. 
 * New org. structures: designed to remove bureaucratic layers, push responsibility down, and empower individuals to make decisions at every org. level. 
 * Structures to support reporting of problems: such as phone or intranet systems to answer employees’ concerns and take complaints and reports about observed wrongdoings. An ethical org. should find ways to make such activity safe and encouraged. - Decision making processes: 
 * Over-reliance on quantitative analysis: can contribute to unethical behavior by relying solely on quantitative analysis and financial outcomes. 
 * Burden of proof: since it’s easy to alter decision-making processes to support whatever decision managers have already made, it is important to design formal decision-making processes in good financial times before a crisis occurs. 
 Informal Cultural systems: role models & heroes (most socialization about ethics from them, personify org.’s values), norms: the way we do things around here (accepted as appropriate by members of a group, powerful influence on individual behavior, formal rules often inconsistent with informal norms and are frequently the most influential behavior guides and clues to culture), rituals (tell people symbolically what the org. wants them to do and how it expects them to do it, affirm and communicate culture in a tangible way - annual picnics, ceremonies, parties, etc.), myths and stories (informal communication network, stories that characterize the organization give meaning and explain the org. culture, may convey importance of ethical culture or to enhance ethical culture, best stories are simple and based on real people and experiences that tap into company’s values and employees’ pride, stories that exemplify the org. culture), language (in strong ethical culture, ethics becomes a natural part of the daily conversation in the org., ethical language leads to ethical decisions, without use of ethical language business managers are reluctant to describe their actions in ethical terms (moral muteness). Org. Climates: Fairness, benevolence, self-interest, principles: employees’ perceptions of broad climates within an org. are influential - tend to cross cultural systems. Ethical cultures, people think climate for fairness. Benevolence climate is one that cares about multiple stakeholders (much more likely to be ethical in an org. where one cares). Self-interest climate (little attention given to social consequences of one’s action, unethical behavior, protect own interest above others). Rule-based climate - people view org. as one following laws and org. rules when making decisions, more likely to have formal and informal systems aligned. Ethical Cultural Change (part of the team project): Developing or changing multiple aspects of the org.’s ethical culture - alignment of all relevant formal and informal org. systems to focus on ethics. It has to be fully supported by senior management. Changing org. culture is more difficult than developing it. The human tendency to want to conserve the existing culture is known as cultural persistence or inertia. Culture components can’t be altered w/o affecting cherished values and institutions. Pressure to change can come from the outside (stockholders, gov., regulators, outside stakeholders), bad publicity or lawsuits, or from within. There needs to be a unique plant designed to fit their firm’s needs and culture. 
 * Audit of the ethical culture both formally and informally to determine aspects of current culture not aligned to support ethical behavior. * Cultural systems view: relies on idea that to be successful any attempt to develop or change org.’s ethics must take the entire cultural system into account. It argues against any short-term quick-fix solutions targeting only one system. 
 * Long-term View: alterations from both formal and informal org. systems that take time to implement and take hold - reinforced though training programs, rites & rituals, and reward systems. 
 * Diagnose: the ethical culture audit: auditing content of decision making, coding the content or org. stories, holding open-ended interviews w/ employees of all levels. Systematic analyses of formal org. systems such as structure and criteria for rewards and promotion. diagnose/audit, intervene evaluate. Org. systems can be analyzed through surveys, interviews, observation at meetings, orientation and training, org. documents, perceptions of how formal org. systems encourage or discourage ethical behavior. Auditing informal systems: identify org. heroes, daily behaviors that are reinforced through stories, rituals, and language - especially for small orgs. that don’t have formal policies and decision processes. Ethics Audit: See Tables 5.1 and 5.2 on text pages 192-192, why not apply the questions in audits back to the interview process? Ethical Culture change intervention: post-audit, data should be discussed with employees who can develop cultural change intervention plan - guided by diagnosis and multi system framework. Changing formal systems is more straightforward than informal systems. Informal systems require the art rather than the science of management and are consistent with ideas about importance of symbolic management (managers encouraged to create rituals, symbols, and stories to influence those they manage). The results of the change should be evaluated to pinpoint any potential problem areas and to ensure it’s viewed as a positive outcome by the culture. Managing Ethics & Compliance Risks Inside and Out Core Article: - culture should make everyone aware of their responsibility to act with integrity - Corporations are being held accountable for their conduct & for the conduct of third parties with whom they contract. This means addressing 3 aspects of corp. ethics & compliance critical for success: (1) Establishing and actively promoting a culture of integrity that’s evident in every aspect of the co. (2) Ensuring your co. has adequate policies and processes in place to manage ethics and compliance risks (3) Understanding the extent to which you are accountable for the behavior of your business partners & preparing yourself accordingly. - Culture of Integrity: (1) A code of conduct clearly articulating the co.’s values & expectations (2) Reward those whose behavior reflects the code (3) Take corrective action against code violations + training & communications that are appropriately designed & evident incorporating “acting w/ integrity” in a meaningful way into performance objectives. - Adequate policies & procedures: identify risk areas like potential encounters with gov. officials and have effective programs in place to manage bus. partners - recognize risk that doesn’t stop at company’s door. Regulators in US are holding co.’s and executives accountable for bus. partners’ illegal actions - one of the biggest changes in ethics & compliance arena. - What you can’t do yourself, you can’t do through others: 3rd party action can affect a company’s reputation, cust. loyalty, productivity, business continuity, etc. Thus ask: Is it clear what the bus. partner will do for your company? What’s the expected value the third party will provide? What geographic scope with the 3rd party have in representing the company? Will this third party interact with gov. officials? Can you perform this work internally? Do you fully understand who owns and manages the 3rd party? Will the 3rd party act in your company’s name? Did you perform risk raking and adequate due diligence on 3rd party? Do they adhere to your Code of Conduct or comparable standards? Is it clear who is responsible for managing your relationship with the 3rd party? - Act with Integrity: steer clear of “more is better” - instead, have effective and lean ethics & compliance program by creating a culture that makes others ware of their responsibility to act with integrity. Don’t be lulled into complacency by a strong internal culture. As you bus. expands, management of 3rd party ethics & compliance risks increases in importance. Managing Ethics and Legal Compliance - Chapter 6 STRUCTURING ETHICS MANAGEMENT: 7 requirements for due diligence and an effective compliance: (1) Establishing compliance standards reasonably capable of preventing criminal conduct (2) Assigning specific high-level individuals w/ responsibility to oversee compliance standards (3) Exercise due care to ensure that discretionary authority isn’t delegated to unethical individuals (4) Take steps to communicate the standards and procedures to all employees (training and manuals) (5) Steps to achieve compliance w/ written standards (monitoring, auditing, and other systems designed to detect criminal conduct, including a reporting system) (6) Consistently enforcing standards through disciplinary mechanisms (7) After offense is detected take steps to respond/prevent future similar conduct. Making ethics comprehensive and holistic: making ethics/values central to how they do business, begins with strong executive commitment, then communication to every employee, and compliance measured and rewarded. Managing ethics: the corporate ethics office: large firms often find that ethics initiatives need to be coordinated from a single office to ensure that the program’s pieces fit together and that all US Sentencing Guidelines’ requirements are met. The requirement of assignment of specific high-level individuals with responsibility to oversee legal compliance standards led to the role of corporate ethics and compliance officer (position usually at the corporate level and report to a senior executive such as the CEO, board of directors, audit committee, etc., they provide leadership and strategies for ensuring that the firm’s standards of business conduct are communicated and upheld throughout the org., the Ethics and Compliance Officer Association (ECOA). It may be an insider (benefit: trusted, knows company’s culture and people) or outsider (benefit: fresh eye, problem: difficult to gain credibility). It has been called the “newest profession in American business.” Most important thing is to earn employees’ respect by being fair, trustworthy, credible, and discreet. There are a variety of backgrounds, job is often assigned to someone in corporate secretary’s office, office of legal counsel, audit, or HR. Law was the most common background for this position. Ethics Infrastructure: ethics offices can be centralized, decentralized, or combo depending on structure of the firm (whether other functions are decentralized, different ethics management needs, etc. Decentralized can be difficult to manage effectively b/c they must communicate w/ each other constantly to ensure consistency and commitment to the org.’s key values. Regardless of infrastructure, ethics officers agree that the ethics officer should directly report to CEO. Corporate Ethics Committee: some orgs. have a corp. committee staffed by senior level managers from a variety of functional areas. It helps provide ethical oversight and police guidance for CEO and management decisions, it represents an affirmation that the top management cares about ethics. US Sentencing guidelines: established in 1991 for companies being sentenced or reaching settlements, apply to all companies, can be triggered by the activities of one employee, give judges latitude to impose additional fines, “Death Penalty” is also an option, government forces company to divest all assets and be liquidated, do not apply to Equal Employment Opp. Commission (EEOC) violations (discrim, sexual harassment, etc, EEOC has its own penalties). US Sentencing Commission guidelines (1991): (1) Companies must “self report” wrong-doing (2) Companies must cooperate with any investigation (3) Companies must have an “effective” compliance program in place (defined, well communicated policy, specific executive named to manage ethics and compliance, care taken (re: hiring and promotions), ethics/compliance training and communications for all employees and agents, compliance & reporting systems, care taken (re: future offenses), consistent discipline). COMMUNICATING ETHICS Communicating Ethics: • Basic communication principles: (1) align formal and informal communication systems, one way to determine corporate credibility on various issues is to compare the messages from each system. (2) Analyze the audience: you must first analyze the needs of your audience when designing a communication program. Three main types include: good soldiers: understand and follow the rules and policies of the org., good ethical compasses, loose cannons: may have good ethical compasses but they don’t know their corporations policies or the general ethical standards in businesses, inexperienced or transfer from an unrelated industry, Grenades: neither ignorance or benign, may or may not know the rules, but don’t care either way, have their own agenda, lack company loyalty. Good soldiers need support b/c good people often feel pressured to compromise in order to fit in, loose cannons need to be educated, and grenades need to know that ethical lapses won’t be tolerated. Challenge: design effective ethics communication programs is meeting the needs of all types of employees. (3) Evaluating the Current State of Ethics Communications: (1) What kinds of ethical dilemmas are employed likely to encounter? (2) What don’t employees know? (3) How are policies currently communicated? (4) What communication channels exist? • Multiple Communication Channels for Formal Ethics Communication: Websites, social media, recruiting brochures, campus recruiting, orientation meetings and materials, newsletters and magazines, booklets. Interactive approaches to ethics communication: a “mini-case study” approach gives employees an opportunity to learn about “real” ethics cases in an ongoing manner and it sustains the focus on ethics in the organization. • Mission or values statements: a succinct depiction of “how we do business” - the corporate principles and values that guide how business is to be conducted in an organization. A mission statement is a short description of the orgs. reason for existence = “here’s what we do.” Value statements are the next step in the process of explaining an org. = “here’s how we do it.” It’s a codification of essential corporate behavior. Needs to be short, memorable, and in plain language, and employees have input b/c it must accurately reflect org. culture. • Organizational Policy + Manuals: policy is the rules of the organization. It is important to communicate relevant rules to the people who need them, prioritize policy, make it understandable, and make it come alive (communicated in creative ways that highlight important rules, also in many venues such as in person, staff meetings, orientations, and training). ??


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