COMM 1 Mullin Notes + Reading Notes
COMM 1 Mullin Notes + Reading Notes COMM 1
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Date Created: 08/25/16
8/2/16 I. Communication is… A. People are the sources and the receivers 1. When someone is speaking, the other is doing nonverbal communication B. Exchanging meaning symbols 1. Symbols could be smiley face, handshake, facial expressions 2. Words are symbols too; can’t exchange meaning without messages 3. Hope that meanings are shared and that you understand what they meant a) Sometimes there can be distortions or misreadings C. With feedback 1. There will always be feedback when you are communicating, whether it is intentional or not D. Through various channels 1. Face to face, mediated (through the phone, tv), digital channels (social media, texts, emails) 2. Channels are disrupted by noise E. A systematic, cognitive process 1. Systematic: grammar, behavioral, expected response 2. Cognitive: encoding and decoding messages a) Thinking about what word choices were used, making sense of it in your head F. Has transactional qualities 1. There is an exchange, they are interdependent, irreversible (can’t undo it, can’t take back what you said), interconnected, and mutually interacting G. Has models 1. Linear Model a) Sender to receiver/one way b) Noise interferes with the channel for the message c) Doesn’t show receiver interpreting/sending feedback 2. Interaction Model a) Communication in two directions b) Noise interference c) feedback between sender and receiver (1) Can be verbal, nonverbal, or both 3. Competent communication model a) Two directions b) Feedback c) Communication is ongoing and a transactional process (1) Transactional process: they exchange messages irreversibly and are interdependent (affect one another) (2) B receives and sends messages simultaneously and A receives and sends as well d) takes into account the role of communication (1) The communicators (2) The relationship among the communicators (3) Situation in which the communication occurs (4) Cultural setting that frames the interaction II. Communication Contexts A. Intrapersonal (intra:within) 1. Communication within a person a) Talking to self, writing a diary, etc b) Thinking about other people and processing information c) Making attributions: judgements we make to explain behavior B. Interpersonal (Inter:between) 1. Communication with another (dyad: pair of individuals) a) Involves selfdisclosure, relational development/intimacy (1) Self disclosure: revealing info about oneself b) Can be facetoface or mediated c) Making friends, becoming close to others C. Intergroup/Intercultural 1. Communication between members of different groups or cultural 2. Interaction and identity influenced by group membership 3. Example topics: ingroup/outgroup comm., ethnicity, gender, age group D. Small Group 1. Interaction among three or more people a) Pursuing a common goal (social or task) (1) Workplace is often studied b) Interact as a group c) Example topics: group decision making (juries, teams), group cohesiveness, peer pressure E. Organizational 1. Communication among members of an organization (or between diff. orgs) a) Formal organization structure (hierarchy, someone has a job title) (1) Formal and informal networks, rules, norms b) Example topics; leadership, org. culture, conversation networks, collaboration F. Public 1. 1 or a few individuals to an audience a) Facetoface but w/ a “distance” b) Relatively oneway c) Example topics: rhetorical strategies G. Mass 1. Messages disseminated on large scale a) Mediated (print or electronic) b) Traditionally professional communicators c) Less immediate feedback d) Example topics: effects on TV on behavior/attitudes, roles of media society 8/3/16 III. Communication in a Digital Age A. Digital communication: electronic media used to send digitally coded signals 1. Pervasive: permeates all over our days a) Almost all Americans now use internet (⅔ have broadband) b) ~ ⅔ have smartphones 2. Rapidly changing 3. New phones, new apps = new adaptations B. How do digital channels affect communication? 1. They offer varying degrees of: a) Synchronicity: ability to coordinate rapid exchanges = conversational (1) FtF (Face to face) = highly synchronous (2) Voicemail: asynchronous (3) Texting/email: synchronous/asynchronous (because response can be either fast or slow) b) Richness/naturalness: how similar to FtF in terms of natural cues c) Privacy and control over messages (1) Texting: lasts and leaves a record unlike phone calls (2) Replicability: less control (people can resend) (3) Must manage “context collapse” infinite audience possible 2. They allow us to harness the power of the “crowd” a) Crowdsourcing (1) Info sharing (2) Social support (3) movements/causes (ex. ALS Ice Bucket Challenge) 3. Challenges: a) Social comparison b) Documenting the moment rather than living in the moment 8/8/16 IV. Verbal Communication (language) A. Important features of language 1. Language is rulegoverned 2. Language allows for displacement (of ideas, time, etc.) a) Talking about things that aren’t tangible (dreams, thoughts) 3. Meanings of symbols/words are arbitrary (based on nothing) a) There’s no natural reason why it means something b) Humanmade convections B. Language and Meaning 1. The Referential Function a) We use language to “refer” to things and ideas b) We categorize things and label them (1) Peach: categorized under shape, color, fuzzy skin, fruit 2. The Triangle of Meaning a) Symbol (word) and object (referent) have an arbitrary connection that is linked to thought (reference). (1) For example, flag is the word and the object is the actual flag while the thought is America, 4th of July) 3. We must recognize two different kinds of meaning a) Denotative meaning (1) Explicit, agreedupon meaning (dictionary meaning) (2) Can have more than one denotation (a) (e.g “rock” has many) (3) We know which denotation is meant because of context, knowledge, experience, relationship, etc. (4) Denotative meanings are typically widely shared among speakers of same language (a) BUT can also have idiosyncratic (peculiar to an individual) meaning (5) Different words/phrase can have the same denotation b) Connotative meaning (1) Emotional, evaluative connections to a word (2) Can have idiosyncratic and/or shared connotations (3) Importance of connotations (a) Compa re (house vs. home) (government spending vs. investment) (b) God terms: widely positive (i) E x. freedom, hope (c) Devil terms: widely negative (i) M ost profanities/swear words, racial slurs 4. Effects of language a) Language can signal our group identities: (1) Age, culture, gender, social status, etc. (2) Accommodation: from Communication Accommodation Theory: “ When people interact they adjust their speech, their vocal patterns and their gestures, to accommodate to ot ers” (a) adjust/ switch their language use w/ others to facilitate understanding (b) Adjust ment usually based on group identity (i) T oward: to gain acceptance and establish belonging (“us”) (ii) A way: to distinguish group or power (“them”) b) Language influences judgements of people (1) Perceptions of traits, motivations, abilities, etc. (2) “Equivocal” language (a) Intenti onal precise language (i) S aying a present is “unique” or “thoughtful” when you don’t really like it (ii) H elps to manage “face” for self and others (3) “Power” of language (a) Degree of fluency and directness (b) “Power less” language: (i) u ses lots of hedges (I guess, sort of), hesitations (um), intensifiers (really), tag questions (right?, don’t you think?), disclaimers (I’m not expert but..) (ii) S hows nervousness, seems unsure, questions credibility, assumes lower social/economic status (iii) B UT may be seen as more polite, likeable, goodnatured (c) “Power ful” language: (i) F luent, direct, and doesn’t use the above “powerless” markers 8/9/16 V. Nonverbal Communication A. Relationship to verbal communication 1. Common misperceptions: a) Nonverbal communication is its own “body language” b) “Truth” is in the nonverbal c) ASL(sign language) and written language is not considered nonverbal communication (has grammatical rules and symbols) d) Nonverbal communication should not be considered facts, but instead cues 2. Nonverbal communication can: a) Compliment verbal (storytelling) b) Substitute for verbal (glare instead saying something rude) c) Regulate verbal (raise hand, pack your bags to have teacher stop) d) Contradict verbal (sarcasm) B. Importance of nonverbals 1. Demonstrate “immediacy” 2. Gauge(measure) others’ reactions/feedback C. Nonverbal Codes (ways of sending nonverbal messages) 1. Paralanguage (paralinguistics) (vocalized sounds) a) Vocalizations (crying, laughing, grunting, clear throat, “shh”) (1) Gives information about emotional or physical state (2) Backchannel cues: “oh” “uhhuh” “really?” “wow!” signal when you want to talk vs. when you’re encouraging others to continue talking b) Voice qualities (1) Pitch (high and low/squeaky and deep) and volume (loud and soft/shout and whisper) (2) Rate and fluency (slow down for emphasis) (pauses, hesitations) (3) Quality (resonance, nasality) (4) Accent (pronunciation) (5) Intonation (rising and falling) (falls under pitch; helps add meaning to words) 2. Personal appearance a) Body displays (hair color/style, piercing, etc.) b) Clothing and accessories (artifacts) (1) Can signal authority, legitimacy, belonging, social and economic class, etc. (a) Rolex vs. tendollar watch (b) Briefca se shows working individual c) Attractive people have certain advantages d) Body shape and size, facial features, skin color, height 3. Proxemics (space, distance, territory) a) Space (1) The way we use space to communicate (2) Professor Edward Hall identified four specific spatial zones that carry communication messages (a) Intimat e (018inches): send intimate messages (i) U sually for romantic partners, close friends/family (b) Person al (18 inches4ft): personal zone where we communicate with friends, relatives, and colleagues (c) Social (412ft): social zone for comfortable communicating in professional settings (d) Public (12ft +): distance between interactants at public speaking events or performances b) Territoriality (1) Claiming an area (w/ or w/o legal basis) through occupation of the area (a) Person al territories: home, care, office (b) Mediat ed territory: social networking page claim as ours by naming, decorating, and adding friends c) Environment (1) layout and decoration of any space you occupy tells a lot about you (a) Neatne ss, scent, color 4. Haptics (touch) a) Use of touch to send messages (affection, control, ritual(handshake) b) Different types of touch (1) Functional professional touch: used to perform a job (dentist or doctor touches you to treat you) (2) Socialpolite touch: polite acknowledgement of other person (handshake) (3) Friendshipwarmth touch: liking and affection between people (hug, pat on back) (4) Loveintimacy touch: romantic partners, parents, children, close friends (kissing, hugging) (5) Sexualarousal touch: intense form of touch 5. Chronemics (time) a) The use of time: way you perceive and value time, structure your time, and react to time b) Time orientation: personal associations w/ use of time (1) Coming to American dinner 10 mins. late to be polite (2) Spending time with friends (3) Deciding timing of a message/response rate 6. Kinesics (movement and gestures) a) Five main categories that convey meaning (1) Emblems: have more definitionlike meaning so they substitute for words (a) Ex. thumbs up, okay signs (2) Illustrators: help visually explain what is being said (a) Ex. holding hands apart to measure the distance (3) Regulators: manage our interactions (a) Ex. raise hand to speak (b) (illustr ator and regulators pair with vocal signals to enhance communication) (4) Adaptors: satisfy physical or psychological need (a) Ex. rubbing eyes when tired, playing w/ hair when nervous (b) More frequent when someone is stress/bored/impatient indicators of negative feelings (5) Affect displays: convey feelings, moods, or reactions (a) Ex. slumping in chairtired or bored, hitting fist on tableangry (b) Facial expressions also display affect 7. Facial expressions a) Seven facial expressions considered inborn: (1) Sadness, anger, disgust, fear, interest, surprise, and happiness b) Masking: replacing an expression to replace true feelings with expression appropriate for situation (1) Smile at customers to hide horrible mood 8. Oculesics (eye behavior) a) Babies stare at people who make eye contact b) Staring directly may signal disrespect in some cultures c) Direct eye contact during interview show confidence D. Channel discrepancy: when one set of behavior says different things from another set 1. Mostly believe nonverbal as true a) Appearance: not put together, didn’t shave (seems like something is wrong); says nothing is wrong (1) Believes appearance more than words E. Functions of Nonverbal Communication 1. Reinforcing Verbal Messages a) Repeating: verbal message and nonverbal message sends same message (1) Holding three fingers when saying “three,” shaking head when saying “no” b) Complementing: enhances the verbal message (1) Pats back while saying “good job” c) Accenting: emphasizing specific information (1) Patting friends hand when saying specific time to meet 2. Substituting verbal messages a) Used often when words aren’t available (1) Spread palm to signal stop b) Signals info you’d rather not say out loud (1) Nudge or raise eyebrow when you want to leave party c) Ignore someone and give them silence as a response (1) When they are annoying you, don’t response 3. Contradicting verbal messages a) Say nothing’s wrong when nonverbal messages show something’s up b) sarcasm /mockery 4. Managing Impressions and Regulating Interactions a) Interaction management: occurs from the first time you meet someone and continues throughout the lifespan of your relationship (1) The way you act throughout the time you meet someone b) Regulate the flow of communication (1) Hold up hand to prevent interruption, pause after “hello” on the phone so other can introduce 5. Creating Immediacy a) Immediacy: feeling of closeness, involvement, and warmth between people (1) Sitting or standing close to another person, smiling, making eye contact 6. Deceiving others a) Deception: act to convince others of something false (1) Deceive to protect others or out of fear F. Influences on Nonverbal Communication 1. Culture and Nonverbal Communication a) Nonverbals are highly influenced by culture b) Contact cultures: depend on touch as important form of communication (Latin America and Eastern Europe)//Noncontact cultures: touchsensitive or avoid touch c) Sex and gender affect nonverbal communication (1) Women focus on both verbal and nonverbal cues more while men focus more on verbal information (2) Women make more eye contact, touch more often, and smile more 2. Mediated Nonverbal Communication a) Facetoface have lots of nonverbal codes, phone calls have a few, but online has very few (1) Online use capitalized letters, punctuation, and emoticons 3. Situational Context a) Publicprivate dimension: physical space that affects our nonverbal communication (1) Touch someone alone at home, but not in class b) Informalformal dimension: more psychological, deals with personal vs. impersonal situations (1) Environment, event, level of touch (2) The formality or informality of situation affects nonverbal communication (a) Flip flop vs. dress shoes VI. Interpersonal Communication Developing and Maintaining Relationships A. Interpersonal relationships: interconnections and interdependence between communicators B. Types of interpersonal relationships 1. Relational network: web of relationships that connects individuals to one another a) Family relationships (1) Family: small social group tied by blood, marriage, adoption, and commitment to care/be responsible for b) Friendship (1) Close and caring relationship between two people mutually satisfied and benefitted (2) Demonstrate fewer aggression and perform better academically (3) Six important qualities: availability, caring, honesty, trustworthy, loyalty, empathy (4) Social relationships: relationships functional for specific context, but less intimate than friendship (a) cowork ers (talk and interact at work, but not outside of work) c) Romantic relationship (1) Love and intimacy (closeness and understanding of partner) d) Online relationships (1) Social information processing theory (SIP): communicators use unique language and stylistic cues online to develop relationships as close as Ftf ones (2) Hyperpersonal communication: communication that is more personal than Ftf (online does not show face or identity, therefore allows for more personal information) 2. Why we form relationships a) Proximity: get close to those around us (1) Classmates, hallmates, coworkers (2) Technology allows for virtual proximity b) Attractive qualities (1) The standard of beauty is different for everyone, esp. based on culture (2) Communication affects perceptions of beauty; repeated interaction with others alters initial impressions of physical appearance (interaction appearance theory) c) Similarity (1) Partners feel that they have much in common, feel similar and attracted (2) Think someone is attractive if they are as attractive as we are (3) When we find someone attractive, we must also have similar other qualities (a) People from same ethnic group tend to help, favor, and form relationships with people of their own ethnic groups d) Personal and social needs (1) Companionship, stimulation, meeting goals (2) Companionship (a) Human feel need for inclusion (be involved, have someone involved in life) (3) Stimulation (a) Intellec tual, emotional, and physical stimulation (b) Interac tions with others frequently provide multiple types of stimulation at once (4) Meeting goals (a) Need to alleviate loneliness or obtain stimulation (b) To help us/inform/cheer us up (i) C lassmate: for help w class 3. Managing Relationship Dynamics a) Costs and Rewards (1) Social exchange theory: process of balancing the advantages and disadvantages of relationships (2) Rewards: elements of relationship you feel good about (a) Extrins ic rewards: external advantages you gain from association (social status) (b) Instru mental rewards: resources and favors partners give (living together to save money) (c) Intrinsi c rewards: personally satisfying rewards (feeling of safety) (3) Costs: things that upset or annoy you (a) Relatio nship too costly b) Reducing Uncertainty (1) Uncertainty reduction theory: when two people meet, their main focus is on decreasing the uncertainty about each other (2) Reduce uncertainty uncover similarities, become better at predicting what they will do or say, develop more comfort (3) Passive strategies (a) Observ ing others in communication situations without actually interacting (i) A nalyze interactions with others when they’re not under a lot of pressure (ii) S ocial networking allows us to monitor others (4) Active strategies (a) Obtain information about person directly by seeking info from a third party (i) A sk friend about someone (5) Interactive strategies (a) Speaki ng directly with the person (i) M ay push people away if questions are too forward or inappropriate c) Dialectical tensions (1) Relational dialectics theory holds that dialectical tensions are contradictory feelings that tug at us in every relationship (a) Tensio ns can be external (between the two and other people) or internal (within the relationship) (b) Three tensions (i) A utonomy vs. connection (a) I ndependence vs. dependence (b) W e want to be our own person vs. connect with the other person (c) S trategy: alternate time together and time apart (ii) O penness vs. closedness (a) S haring information vs. privacy (i) D isclose private info to gain involvement and deep understanding (iii) P redictability vs. novelty (a) S table patterns of interaction (routine dinner) AND new, unexpected behavior (special note in lunch) 4. Selfdisclosure and interpersonal relationships a) Deciding what info to disclose is based on personality type and individual tendencies, situational and relational variables, and culture b) Social Penetration Theory (1) Explains how partners move from superficial levels to greater intimacy (2) Onion as metaphor; each layer contains information that is increasingly more private (a) Outer layer is obvious (appearance, name) c) Communication Privacy Management (1) How people perceive the information they hold about themselves and whether they will disclose or protect it (a) Privac y management requires cultural, situational, and relational rules or expectations (i) W ouldn’t ask company boss for his medical conditions (2) Boundary turbulence readjust your need for privacy against your need for selfdisclosure and connection because there is threat to your privacy boundaries d) Strategic topic avoidance (1) Avoiding topics that are too sensitive (a) You can lie, ignore, change subject 5. Stages of a relationship a) Turning points: pos. or neg. events or changes that stand out in people’s minds as important to defining their relationships (1) Stories about how we met b) Initiating Stage (1) Make contact with another person, say hello, introduce c) Exploratory stage (1) Seeking superficial information (a) Small talk, how many siblings, what school, how old (2) Nothing too deep or personal, testing the waters (3) Ask questions/small talk, observe partner's attitude/behaviors d) Intensification stage (1) Relational partners become intimate and move more towards personal self disclosures (a) Using informal address (honey, darling) (b) “we” (c) Unders tand each other’s nonverbal communication in greater degree e) Stable stage (1) No longer temporary (2) Know a lot about each other, comfortable around each other (a) Integr ating: becoming one (b) People treat you as a pair (c) Bondi ng: share formal, public messages w/ world that relationship is cherished (wedding, engagement) f) Declining stage (1) Relationship begins to come apart (a) Three factors lead to this stage (i) U ncertainty events (a) e vents/behavior that causes uncertainty (i) C ompeting relationships, deception or betrayal, sudden change in behavior, personality, or values (ii) I nterference (a) C oncerning family, work, timing, money (iii) U nmet expectations (a) F orm ideas about what they think will and should happen in relationship (i) W hen expectation not met, problems arise g) Repair stage (1) Improve communication, reinterpret behavior w/ balanced view, reevaluate alternatives to relationship, and finding help from others (2) Focus on benefits of relationship h) Termination stage (1) End of a relationship (a) Passin g away: no efforts to maintain, slowly dies away (b) Sudden death: sudden end to relationship; affair, can no longer tolerate behavior i) Reconciliation (1) Rekindling an extinguished relationship (a) Sponta neous development: partners spend more time together, work together for child (common goal, work together) (b) Third party mediation: someone helps (c) High affect: one person reminds other what was good about relationship; acts as the bigger person (d) Tacit persistence: one or both refuse to give up; persist (e) Mutual interaction: remain as friends after breakup, continue talking (f) Avoida nce: do not see each other (2) Digital Reading: I. Communicating in a Digital Age A. Mediated communication: there is some tech. Used to deliver messages between receiver and sender 1. Handwritten letters, telephone, internet, phone apps. B. Digital communication: using electronic networks to transmit digital data (texts, images, video) C. Technology can boost productivity and increase connectedness D. Digital Origins 1. Early forms were for military communication and research uses 2. Internet Society (1992) developed to promote open development, evolution, and to benefit people worldwide 3. 1990 took 20 mins to download a picture 4. 2000 users in U.S. were mostly white, college educated men who used it to find information a) Mostly emails, but also online chats and shared music 5. Now ⅔ of high access to music, videos, tv, and movies a) No more gender gap, race or income gap b) There is still a generation gap (younger adults use more) c) SNS now dominate the internet d) ⅔ of adults use some form of social email e) ⅔ of Americans have smartphones (1) Camera and video feature increase photo/video sharing social media E. Ongoing Dynamic Changes 1. Successful innovations meets people’s communicative needs and goals 2. Three digital “revolutions” a) Internet, mobile phone connectivity, and social media b) Next revolution is internet of things: everyday activities have internet connectivity (is everywhere) F. Qualities of Digital Channels 1. Synchronicity of messages a) Media synchronicity theory: different channels of communication support different levels of synchronicity: ability to communicate at the same time with a shared pattern of coordinated behavior (1) Ftf communication, VC, and phone calls tend to be highly synchronous (2) voicemails , fax, snail mail are asynchronous (3) Texts, emails, social media can be both (depends on when people reply) b) For communication to be a good “fit,” the capabilities channels we choose and our communication needs and goals must match (1) Group work/romantic emails encourages asynchronous communication c) Recognizing Expectations (1) Texts and social media allow for immediate replies so we expect such, but when we don’t, we make assumptions (2) Social norms make us expect different things depending on the medium (a) Profess ional emails: do not expect immediate response d) Recognizing the Situation (1) Knowing someone has class means them replying late is understandable (2) Having good feelings about someone leads to a more positive reaction (3) When situation involves risk (messaging crush or new friend), uncertainty w/ asynchronous messages lead to negative response (4) Not knowing where someone (your child) is, not getting a response causes great anxiety e) Recognizing the Benefits of Time (1) Asynchronous media gives us time to think about our replies (2) Asynchronous media allows us to become more competent communicators (helps create better impressions, engage in more appropriate disclosure) 2. Media Richness and Naturalness a) Digital channels vary based on how close they are to being Ftf communication (1) VC (skype) allow us to see each other, use nonverbal gestures (2) Textbased messaging is more limited visually and vocally b) Richness: degree of visual, vocal, personality cues, and opportunities for feedback (1) Rich channels: Ftf over paper based written media/email c) Naturalness: similar to facetoface interaction (1) Visual and vocal cues from VS are more “natural” (2) Phone calls are more personal d) Social information processing theory (SIP): textbased media lack nonverbal cues, but we compensate by using other cues (1) Use keyboard to clarify meaning and express emotion (2) Using punctuation, caps, repeating letters simulate change in vocal tone 3. Message Privacy and Control a) Replicability: data are stored and can be replicated b) Context collapse: multiple contexts are collapsed into one and different audiences are brought together c) We have control over what messages we receive (1) Can choose to scroll/reject information or calls/messages d) Digital communication allows us to manage our interactions w/ others G. Power of the Crowd 1. Crowdsourcing: use the power of the crowd to get help (relies on people actually contributing) a) Motivated by enjoyment, recognition, collaboration on ideas, and building social connections 2. Enterprise social media (ESM): webbased platforms that allow works to post and view organizational messages, edit files, engage with team 3. Social Support a) Buddy check 22 (1) Online peertopeer support b) Social capital: refers to valuable resources (information/support) that comes from connections and relationships w/ people (1) Feel good when people like posts 4. Social causes a) Crowdfunding: raising public support and financial backing through online service (1) GoFundMe, Kickstarter H. Overcoming Digital Challenges 1. Digital disparities: low income have limited devices to use for Web 2. Younger adults and people w/ higher incomes/educations take most advantage of online technology 3. Feeding Insecurities and Obsessions a) Comparing oneself to others lower self esteem; leads to sense of isolation and poor wellbeing; feel jealous of those with better lives b) Miss out on important things in lives because we’re too obsessed with online attention (1) Miss the enjoyment of the event itself c) Overcome by being alert to what we are doing, take break from social media 4. Cyber attacks a) Phising: attempt to get information from you by using digital message that seems real (from legitimate organizations) Chapter 9 Communicating in Groups I. Characteristics of groups A. Group: when more than two people share some kind of relationship, communicate in an interdependent way, and collaborate toward a shared purpose 1. Shared identity 2. Common goals 3. Interdependent relationships: behavior affects one another II. Types of Groups A. Primary groups: longlasting groups that form around relationships that mean the most to the members 1. Most common form of group 2. Ex. family, friends B. Groups defined by specific functions 1. Support group: individuals express personal problems and gain support 2. Social group: form relationships 3. Problemsolving group: help manage struggles/have a set mission C. Groups that are taskoriented 1. Study groups: formed to help prepare for exams 2. Team: grou
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