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Stats Week 1 lecture notes

by: Khaila Coissiere

Stats Week 1 lecture notes CRJU 3610

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Criminal Justice > CRJU 3610 > Stats Week 1 lecture notes
Khaila Coissiere
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Chapter 1
Stats Analysis in Criminal Justice
Dr. Daquin
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This 42 page Bundle was uploaded by Khaila Coissiere on Thursday August 25, 2016. The Bundle belongs to CRJU 3610 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Daquin in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Stats Analysis in Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at Georgia State University.

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Date Created: 08/25/16
Chapter One: Why the Criminal Justice Researcher Uses Statistics I. The Nature of Criminal Justice Research i. Variables – characteristics that differ or vary from one individual to  another or from one point in time to another ii. Unit of observation – the element that is being studied or observed iii. Hypothesis – an idea about the nature of social reality that is testable  through systematic research iv. Independent variable – presumed cause v. Dependent variable – presumed effect vi. Most useful research methods employed by researchers for testing their  hypothesis are the experiment, the quasi­experiment, and the survey b. The Experiment i. Experiment is distinguished by the degree of control a researcher is able to apply to the research situation ii. Manipulation occurs when independent variable (aka experimental group)  is assigned to one group and withheld from the other group (aka control  group) c. The Quasi­Experiment i. Quasi experiment research design that doesn’t approach the effectiveness  of the true experiment with respect to systematically manipulating the  independent variables  ii. Quasi­experiment – no control group d. The Survey i. Survey research is retrospective ii. Surveys can also be more representative e. Meta­analysis i. Meta­analysis combines the results obtained in a number of previous  studies that have addressed the same hypothesis and subjects all of them  collectively to a single statistical test ii. Effect size – a measure of the extent to which a relationship exists in the  population  f. Other methods i. Participant observation – researcher actively participates in the daily life  of people being studied, either openly in the role of researcher or covertly  in a n undercover role, observing events, interaction, and conversation as  they happen, and questioning people over some period of time II. Major Data Sources in Criminology and Criminal Justice a. Surveys i. Most of the data in criminology and criminal justice is produced by  surveys ii. Largest and prominent of these is National Crime Victimization Survey  (NCVS) conducted since 1973 by US Department of Justice Bureau of  Justice Statistics b. Police Reports Chapter One: Why the Criminal Justice Researcher Uses Statistics i. Another major source of crime information is reported Uniform Crime  Reports (UCR) ii. National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS) planned in mid­1980s as replacement for UCR c. Why Test Hypotheses? d. The Stages of Criminal Justice Research i. Carefully planned and executed research includes: 1. Problem to be studied is reduced to a testable hypothesis 2. An appropriate set of instruments is developed  3. Data is collected 4. Data is analyzed for their bearing on the initial hypotheses 5. Results of the analysis is interpreted and communicated to an  audience III. Using Series of Numbers to do Criminal Justice Research i. Measurement – use of a series of numbers in the data analysis stage of  research  ii. Numbers have at least 3 important functions for researchers 1. Classify of categorize at nominal level of measurement 2. Rank or order at ordinal level of measurement 3. Assign a score at interval level of measurement b. The nominal level i. Nominal level of measurement – naming or labeling placing cases into  categories and counting their frequency of occurrence ii. Mutually exclusive – categories that don’t overlap can’t occur at the same  time iii. Exhaustive outcomes – a set of outcomes that cover all possibilities c. The ordinal level i. Ordinal level of measurement – to order his/her cases in terms of the  degree to which they have any given characteristics ii. Ordinal level of measurement yields information about ordering of  categories but doesn’t indicate the magnitude of differences between  numbers d. The interval (and ratio) level i. Interval and ration levels of measurement – indicate not only the ordering  of categories but also the exact distance between them  ii. Interval and ratio measures employ constant units of measurement that  yield equal intervals between points on the scale e. Treating ordinal data as interval i. Simple classification – nominal ii. Ranking – ordinal iii. Scoring – interval f. Further measurement issues i. Discrete data takes only certain specific values can be expressed only in  whole numbers from 1 and up Chapter One: Why the Criminal Justice Researcher Uses Statistics ii. Continuous variables present an infinite range of possible values IV. Functions of statistics i. When researchers use numbers they quantify their data and are likely to  employ statistics as a tool of description or decision­making  b. Description i. With help of statistical devices such as grouped frequency distributions,  graphs, and arithmetic average, it is possible to detect and describe  patterns or tendencies in distributions of scores that might otherwise have  gone unnoticed by the casual observer ii. Statistics – set of techniques for the reduction or quantitative data to a  small number of more convenient and easily communicated descriptive  terms c. Decision making i. Population (universe) – any set of individuals who share at least one  characteristic ii. Sample – a smaller number of individuals taken from some population iii. Small sample is hardly reliable iv. Larger sample allows us to generalize the population  v. Many points of data allow us to make decisions with a high degree of  confidence vi. Statistically significant difference – a sample difference that reflects a real  population difference and not just sampling error vii. Statistics – set of decision­making techniques that aid researchers in  drawing inferences from samples to populations and in testing hypotheses  regarding the nature of social reality d. An important note about rounding i. Round a final answer to two more decimal digits than contained in the  original scores  ii. General rule for intermediate steps don’t round until it is time to determine your final answer  Practice Problems – page 20-21: 1-4, 7, 8, 10B-E 1. B) Ordinal – keyword was rank 2. C) interval/ration – keyword was score 3. A) nominal – keyword was classification  4. B) fear of crime 7.  a) nominal; b) nominal; c) ordinal; d) nominal; e) nominal; f) interval/ratio;  g) interval/ratio; h) ordinal; i) nominal; j) nominal  8. a) ordinal; b) interval/ratio; c) nominal; d) nominal; e) ordinal; f) ordinal; g)  interval/ratio; h) interval/ratio; i) could vary; j) could vary  10. b) rehabilitation programs; c) nominal; d) reoffending – re­arrest; e)  interval/ratio 


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