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Introduction to Psychology

by: Sara Michel

Introduction to Psychology PSYC 1010

Marketplace > University of Akron > Psychology (PSYC) > PSYC 1010 > Introduction to Psychology
Sara Michel
University of Akron
GPA 3.35

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These notes cover introduction to Psychology chapters 1-2, 4-7, 9-10, 12, & 14. I do not have information for the other chapters missing. Chapter 1: Intro to Psychology Chapter 2: Neuroscience an...
Introductory Psychology
Lisa Morrison
Psychology, IntrotoPsych, learning, memory, Gender, sexuality, social, psychological disorders, thinking
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This 46 page Bundle was uploaded by Sara Michel on Friday August 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to PSYC 1010 at University of Akron taught by Lisa Morrison in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Akron.

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Date Created: 08/26/16
Chapter 1: Intro to Psychology  Science of behavior and mental process  Philosophical writers o Aristotle  Interactive dualism= Descartes (1600's) o They have the body and mind to influence each other  Nature vs. Nurture; Heredity vs. Environment o Intelligence mostly comes from nature, but distance in learning comes from nurture  Physiology o Scientific methods could be applied to human behavior and thinking  Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) o Founder of Psychology o Wrote "Principle of Physiological Psychology" o 1st Psychology research lab o "Study of Consciousness" o Experimental methods  Edward Titchener (1867-1927) o Structuralism  Conscious experiences made from structures of conscious thoughts o Introspection  Procedure to ID elements of conscious thought  Unreliable and stopped being used  William James (1842-1919) o Functionalism  How behavior functions to let us adapt to environment  Study how psychology is applicable to education, child rearing, and work environment o James Students  G Standley Hall  Brought 1st psychology journal to USA  1st president of APA  Mary Calkins  1st woman president of APA  Margaret Washburn  1st woman to receive PhD in psychology  Francis Summer  1st black man to receive PhD in psychology  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) o Psycho-analytic Theory  Unconscious conflicts  Sexual/aggressive in nature  Past experiences are important  Basis for psychoanalysis  Behaviorism (Early 1900s) o Observable behavior/conditions in environment o Measurable and verified o Goal: discover fundamentals/processes of learning o Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936)  Research influenced behaviorism  Discovered basic learning processes associated with stimuli o John B. Watson (1878-1958)  Rejected studies of mental processes  Championed behaviorism  Classic conditioning of people o B.F. Skinner  Shaped behavior of animals in experiments  Behaviorism dominated America for 50 years  Reinforcement= increase behavior  Punishment= decrease behavior  Humanist Psychology (1950s) o Emphasized:  Free will  Determinism  Psychological growth  Be the best possible o Came about to disagree with Freud o Carl Rogers (1902-1987)  Founder  Conscious experiences  Psychological growth and self-direction  Self-determination, free will, choice o Abraham Maslow (1908-1970)  Theory of motivation- emphasized psychological growth  Contemporary Psychology o Biological perspective  Looks at physical basis for our behavior  Nervous system  Brain, neurology, etc. to look for defect  Endocrine system  Emotional imbalance  Immune system  Genetics o Psychodynamic perspective  Unconscious influences  Early life experiences  Interpersonal relationships o Behavior perspective  How behavior is acquired and modified by environment or learning  Classical conditioning- ex: fear of the dentist  Operant conditioning- ex: sticker chart o Humanist perspective  Motivation to grow psychologically  Interpersonal relationships influence on self-concept  Choices and self-direction o Positive psychology perspective  Study: positive emotions and psychological states  Positive individual traits  Social institutions (ex: school)  Focus: Health and well-being o Cognitive perspective (took off in the 1980s)  Process and remember information  Develop language  Problem solving skills  Thinking/thought process o Cross-culture perspective  Differences among cultures  Influence of cultural effects on behavior  Culture= attitude, values, beliefs, and behavior associated with a group of people  Ethnocentrism= Own culture is standard  Individualism= individual above group  Collectivistic= group above individual o Evolutionary perspective  Influenced by Darwin  Principle of evolution explain behavior/psychology (natural selection)  Enjoys discussing phobias o Specialty areas in Psychology  LOOK IN BOOK  Empirical psychology o Relies on evidences from:  Observation, experiments, and measurement o Not a popular opinion or pseudoscience  Critical thinking o Assess claims; form objective judgment o Based on well-supported reasons o Not based on emotions or anecdotes o Guidelines:  Be willing to ask questions and to wonder  Define terms  Examine evidence  Analyze assumptions and biases  Avoid emotional reasoning  Don't oversimplify  Consider other interpretations  Tolerate uncertainty  Goals of psychology o Describe behavior o Explain behavior o Predict behavior o Control/influence development  Scientific Method o Hypothesis to test empirically  Relationships between variables  Variables= change in observable and measurable ways  Operational definition= how they're measured and manipulated o Design study and collect data  Descriptive method= observe/describe behavior  Experimental method= cause and effect shown  Analyze data and draw conclusion  Statistics= mathematic method  Statistically significant= not by chance  Meta-analysis= result of many studies analyzed  Report findings  Precise details  Replications (could be possible)  Professional conferences; Psychology journal  Research Strategies (Descriptive vs. Experimental) o Naturalistic observation  Record behavior as it occurs in natural setting o Case study  Intensive investigation of one or a few individuals o Survey  Questionnaires or interviews  Experiences, beliefs/attitudes, behaviors  Data from large groups in a quick fashion  Honesty??  More honest when computer admin o Correlational study  How strongly 2 variables are related  Positive= factors go in the same direction  Negative= factors vary in opposite direction  Cannot prove causality o Experimental study  Independent variable= varied (treatment)  Dependent variable= measured for change  Experimental group- receives independent variable  Control group- not exposed to independent variable  Random assignment= equal chance of being in the experimental group or control group  Placebo effect= still respond believing they received actual medication  APA Ethics in psychological research o Respect dignity and welfare of participants o No physical or emotional harm o Approval from ethics panel o Key provisions:  Informed consent; voluntary participate  Students- more sensitive to desires  Deceptions- tell participant at eh end  Confidentiality  Debriefing  Evaluation of Media Reports o Skeptical of sensationalistic claims o Anecdotes are not science o Source of publication o Funding o Methods and operational definitions o Correlation vs. Causality o Skeptism is healthy Chapter 2: Neuroscience and Behavior  Biological Psychology o Biopsychology, Psychobiology o Scientific study of biological reasons for behavior and mental processes  Neuroscience o Scientific study of nervous system  Nervous System o Neurons (Carries the message) o Communication units – 3 types o Sensory-senses o Motor-movement o Interneurons-helps sensory and motor communicate o Glial Cells (Support unit) o Structural support and nutrition o Help with communication o Remove cell waste  Neuron o Cell Body o Nucleus  Proteins and nutrients for energy o Dendrites  Receive info o Axon  Carries info o Myelin Sheath  Increases transmission  Found in axons o Synapse  Point of communication o Synaptic Transmission  Neurotransmitters released by one, received by another  Major Neurotransmitters o Serotonin – sleep, appetite, mood, sensory perception  Low levels lead to depression o Dopamine – voluntary movement, learning, memory, emotion  High levels lead to addiction o Acetylcholine – memory, emotion o Norepinephrine – learning, memory, emotion o Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA) – major inhibitory neurotransmitter, muscle tone o Glutamate – most abundant; excitatory neurotransmitter, learning and memory  Neural Transmission and Drugs o Increase/decrease neurotransmitters are released  Getting bitten by a black widow o Change neurotransmitters. time in synaptic gap o Block reuptake – prolongs/increases effects  Drug clogs arteries from dendrites increasing serotonin levels o Mimic neurotransmitter (agonist)  Nicotine acts as if it’s acetylcholine o Prevent effect of neurotransmitter (antagonist)  Drug that blocks heroin, opiates, etc.  Central Nervous System o Brain and Spinal Cord o Cerebral Spinal Fluid  Helps protect you from injury o Neuron – transmitter of messages  Peripheral Nervous System o All nerves outside CNS o Somatic Nervous Syst. o Receives/communicates sensory info  Tells you to take your hand off the hot stove o Info from CNS for voluntary muscle movements o Autonomic Nervous Syst. o Involuntary functions o Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Nervous System  Endocrine System o Hypothalamus – link to Nervous Syst. o Glands throughout body o Secrete hormones into blood o Slower communication  Hormones o Chemical messengers; interact with nervous syst. o Metabolism, growth, digestion, BP, sexual development o Impact respond to stress and emotions  Pituitary Gland o Produces hormones that affect growth o Controls hormone production in other glands o Controlled by hypothalamus o “Master Gland”  Adrenal Glands o Involved in human stress response o Adrenal Cortex – immune syst. o Adrenal Medulla – epinephrine and norepinephrine (Key in fight or flight thoughts)  Gonads o Ovaries, testes o Secrete sex hormones that regulate:  sexual dev.  Reproduction  sexual behave.  Pineal Gland o Makes melatonin  Helps sense when to go to bed and when to wake up o Helps sleep-wake cycles  Thyroid o Controls metabolism rate  Pancreas o Blood sugar and insulin levels o Hunger  Phrenology o Early study of brain; 1800’s o Shape of the skull gave clues to personality, abilities, characteristics  Plasticity o Neuroplasticity (AKA Plasticity)  Ability to change function and structure  New Neuron forming  Functional Plasticity  Shift functions from damaged to undamaged areas  Structural Plasticity  Physical change in response to environment  Neurogenesis  Development of new neurons  Hindbrain o Pons  Connects medulla to o Cerebellum; “bridge”  Breathing, body movement., balance o Medulla  Automatic, vital functions o Cerebellum  2 sided  Muscle coordination, balance, posture o Reticular Activating System  Center of medulla  Arouses cortex; screens info  Midbrain o “Relay Station” o Auditory and visual info o Substantia Nigra – dopamine production and motor control  Cerebral Cortex o Outer layer of Forebrain o Most higher processing o 2 Cerebral Hemispheres o Corpus Callosum o Most folded in humans o Gray Matter; White Matter o Occipital Lobes  Primary visual cortex o Parietal Lobes  Somatosensory cortex o Temporal Lobes  Primary auditory cortex o Frontal Lobes  Emotion, planning, creative thinking  Primary motor cortex  The Limbic System o Hippocampus – learning, forming new memories o Thalamus – processes all sensory info except smell; Awareness, attention, motivation, emotion o Hypothalamus – autonomic nervous system and behaviors of survival; o Control of pituitary gland o Amygdala – Memory and emotional responses (especially fear)  Cortical Localization o Different areas assoc. with different functions o Lateralization of Function o One hemisphere has more control of particular function o Ex: aphasia  Broca's Area o Lower left frontal lobe o Broca’s Aphasia  Speech production problem  Comprehension is OK  Wernicke's Area o Left temporal lobe o Wernicke’s Aphasia  Meaningless speech  Comprehension for language NOT ok  Split Brain Operation o Cut corpus callosum (bundle of nerves connecting left hemisphere and right hemisphere of the brain)  Stopped the seizures people had o Robert Sperry research (1981 Nobel Peace Prize)  Reconfirmed specialization of language in left hemisphere  Research Findings o Left Hemisphere  Most involved in language abilities, speech, reading, writing o Right Hemisphere  Nonverbal emotional expression  Visual-spatial tasks  Faces  Maps, copying designs, drawing  Music Chapter 4: Consciousness and its variation  Consciousness o Personal and immediate awareness of: o Mental activity o Internal situations o External stimuli o Planning / problem solving o Still study today!  Attention o Selective focus of senses and awareness on: o External environment (noise in the hallway) o Internal thoughts/sensations (thoughts, feelings, etc.) o Limited capacity, and selective (won’t hear or see everything) o Inattentional blindness (not noticing something going on around you) o Inattentional deafness (not hearing everything being said) o Change blindness (don’t notice a change)  Perils of Multitasking o Doing 2 or more things at once o Divides attention o Cell phones – of special concern!  Circadian Rhythms o Cycle over 24-hour period o Regulate many body functions  Alertness, pain, awareness, etc. o Biological AND Psychological process o Suprachiasmatic Nucleus – cluster of neurons in hypothalamus that govern timing of circadian rhythms  Melatonin and sunlight  Sleep Onset o Beta Brain Waves – Alert o Alpha Brain Waves – Relaxed; drowsy o Hypnagogic Hallucinations o Vivid sensory phenomena o During sleep onset o Ex: Myoclonic Jerk  Sleep o REM o Rapid eye movement, dreaming o No voluntary muscle movement; most relaxed o Visual and Motor neurons active o Sexual arousal o NREM o Quiet, dreamless o No rapid eye movement  Sleep Pattern Changes o REM  Increases and plateaus in adulthood  Decreases in late adulthood o Typical 90 min cycle by age 5 o Wakefulness after onset o Sleep latency  Functions of Sleep o Restorative Theory o Body wears out during the day o Sleep needed to put it back in shape o Adaptive Theory o Evolutionary o Preserve energy and protection during time when dangerous to interact with environment  Sleep Deprivation o Microsleeps o Mood and mental ability disruption o Reaction time o Perceptual skill o Motor skills  Sleep Restriction o Same as with decreased sleep o Increase urge to sleep o Hormone level changes (stress) o Immune system o Metabolism  REM Sleep Deprivation o REM Rebound o Related: NREM Rebound  Dreams o Dream (most happen in REM) o Unfolding sequence of perceptions, thoughts, emotions experiences as series of events o Vivid, detailed o Sensory and motor sensations o Sleep Thinking (in NREM) o Lacks vivid details; bland o Like daytime thinking; ruminations o Lucid dreaming o Know you are dreaming  Dream Content Research o Dreams usually reflect waking life o Women dream of male and female equally o Men have more male o Negative things more common o Aggression more common o More likely to be victim than aggressor o Men - more physical aggression o More emotion - women o Sexual behavior is rare o Apprehension/fear most reported emotion  Nightmares o Vivid, frightening or unpleasant anxiety dreams during REM o Aggressively attacked or pursued o Daytime stress, anxiety, emotional difficulty o More women o Mid to late childhood – most frequent o 10% adults – weekly o Genetics partially implicated  Common Dream Questions o If I fall off the cliff and don’t wake before hit bottom, will I die? o Do animals dream? o Do blind people “see” when they dream? o Can I control my dreams? o Do dreams predict the future? o Are dreams in color or black/white? o Do seemingly long dreams only last a few seconds?  Theories of Dreams o Psychoanalytic Interpretation – Freud o Fulfilled wishes o 2 Parts:  Manifest Content  Latent Content o Activation-Synthesis Model o Dreaming = activation of brainstem o Arouses sophisticated brain areas o Synthesizes internally generated sensory signals and imposes meaning o Synthesizing/integrating of memory fragments, emotions, sensations o Neurocognitive Theory o Like daytime thinking BUT:  No external stimuli  No voluntary control  Dyssomnias o Problem in the amount, quality, or timing of sleep o Insomnia- problem of quality of sleep or duration of sleep o Sleep Apnea- Stop breathing in the middle of the night o Narcolepsy- They fall asleep at any time of the day for different lengths  Parasomnias o Undesired arousal, actions during sleep o Tends to happen during non-REM sleep o Brain partially awake (sleep waking) o More common in children o Genetic predisposition? o Triggers: sleep deprivation, stress, erratic sleep schedule, medications, stimulants, pregnancy o Sleep terrors- physiological arousal o Sleep-sex o Sleepwalking o Sleep-related eating disorder o REM Sleep Behavior Disorder  Hypnosis o Cooperative social interaction o Characterized by:  Highly focused attention  Increased responsiveness to suggestion  Vivid imagery  Willingness to accept distortions of logic  Voluntary acceptance  Alteration of sensation and perception  Posthypnotic Suggestion  Hypnosis and Memory o Posthypnotic Amnesia  Can’t recall info/events o Hypermnesia  Enhanced recall  Research doesn’t support o False Memories  Increased confidence in pseudomemories o Age Regression  Not supported by research  Limits o Must be willful o Behavior must be in value/moral system o Cannot make you stronger or more talented o CAN enhance motivation/concentration  Explaining Hypnosis o “Special” State o Neodissociation Theory – consciousness split o Ordinary Psychological Process o Imaginative Suggestibility o PET Scan Studies  Meditation o Sustained concentration that focuses attention and heightens awareness o Improve concentration, perceptual discrimination, and attention o Increase working memory in American Marines o Improve emotional control and well-being o Reduce stress and minimize its physical effects o Effects of Meditation  Lowered physiological arousal  Decreased heart rate  Decreased BP  Change in brain waves  Alpha  Psychoactive Drugs o Depressants—inhibit brain activity  Alcohol o Opiates—pain relief and euphoria o Stimulants—increase brain activity o Psychedelics—distort sensory perceptions o Common Properties:  Addiction  Physical dependence  Tolerance  Withdrawal symptoms  Drug rebound effect  Drug Abuse o Recurrent o Disrupt academic, social, or occupational functioning o Legal or psychological problems o Change in reward circuitry o Depressants  Alcohol  Reduce tension, anxiety  Concentration, memory, speech  Muscle coordination, balance  Lessens inhibitions  Delirium Tremens  Barbiturates  Induce sleep  Relax, mild euphoria, lessen inhibitions  Loss of coordination, impaired thinking, depression  Unconsciousness, coma, death  Tranquilizers  Relieve anxiety o Opiates  Pain relief, euphoria  Mimic the brain’s endorphins  Addictive  Heroine  Krocodile – Homemade heroine o Stimulants  Addictive; Increase brain activity  Caffeine  Mental alertness; wakefulness  Nicotine  Mental alertness; reduces drowsiness  Amphetamines  Elevate mood; suppress appetite  Cocaine  Euphoria, self-confidence, alert  Stimulant induced psychosis o Psychedelics  Perceptual distortions, alter mood, distort thinking  Mescaline  Psilocybin  LSD  Marijuana – THC (tetrahydrocannabinol)  Brain has receptor sites  Anandamide – may reduce pain  No tolerance or physical dependence for most  Flashback reactions; psychotic episodes o Designer Drugs  Ecstasy(MDMA)  Feelings of euphoria, increased well-being, love and openness  Dehydration, hyperthermia, tremor, rapid heartbeat, muscle tension, clenched teeth  Long term effects  Dissociative Anesthetics  Deaden pain, stupor or coma, hallucinations  PCP; Ketamine  Dissociation; depersonalization  Long term effects Chapter 5: Learning  Learning- Enduring change in behavior or knowledge because of experience  Conditioning- learning associated between environmental events and behavioral events o Classical Conditioning- Stimulus triggers automatic response  Unconditioned (Neutral) Stimulus- produces a response without prior learning  Unconditioned Response- unlearned, reflexive response  Conditioned Stimulus- originally natural, eventually elicits reflexive response  Conditioned Response- learned, reflexive response  Terms of Classical Conditioning  Extinction- learned, condition response goes away for a period of time  Spontaneous Recovery- learned, condition response comes back  Generalization- organism takes conditioned response and pairs it with similar stimuli  Discrimination- when the organism can tell the difference between 2 stimuli  Other C.C. Examples:  Little Albert  Pavlov's dogs  C.C. Arousal- perfume/cologne of romantic partner  C.C. Drug Effects- stimuli has to reliably accompany drugs (ex: coffee, caffeine, sugar)  Placebo Response- response to fake treatment  C.C. Contemporary Views  Cognitive component  Taste aversion- become ill after exposure  Biological Preparedness- associate certain stimuli with certain response o Operant Conditioning- Acquired new voluntary action  Learning of active, voluntary behaviors that are shaped/maintained by consequence  Edward Thorndike (1874-1949)  Cat box experiment  "Law of Effect"- behavior followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" is strengthened, while an "annoying state of affairs" is weakened  Operant- active behavior/ act on environment to generate consequences  Observational Learning- acquired new behavior by observing actions of others  Reinforcement will always increase future behavior o Positive- behavior followed by a reinforcing stimulus o Negative- behavior followed by a removal of aversive stimulus o Primary- naturally reinforces (ex: food, water, sex, etc.) o Conditional- has acquired reinforcing values cause paired with a primary reinforcer Chapter 6: Memory  Memory o Group of related mental processes involved in acquiring, storing and retrieving info o Encoding o Storage o Retrieval  Stage Model o Sensory Memory  Lots of info very briefly  Attention o Short-Term Memory  Temporary; about 20 seconds  Conscious of; Active processing  Maintenance Rehearsal – beyond 20 seconds o Long-Term Memory  Storage for potentially a lifetime  Also involved in routine tasks  Elaborative Rehearsal o Focus on meaning of info o More effective than Maintenance Rehears. o Relates new info to other info already know  Long Term Memory o Explicit Memory – conscious, intentional recall o Episodic Memory – events o Semantic Memory – general knowledge and facts o Implicit Memory – automatic o Procedural Memory – motor skills, actions o Organization of Long Term Memory  Clustering - organizing info into related groups  Semantic Network Model  Complex network of associations  Activation can spread  Metaphor; not actual structure  Retrieval o Accessing stored info in LTM o Retrieval Cue  Prompt that allows access o Retrieval Cue Failures  Can’t recall info due to inadequate cue  Tip-of-the-Tongue Experience  Know it is in LTM, but can’t get to it o Testing Retrieval  Recall  Get info without aid of cues  Cued Recall  Remember because of cue  Recognition  ID correct info  Serial Position Effect o Recall beginning and end of list o Primacy Effect o Recency Effect o Ex: 2011 Super Bowl  Encoding Specificity Principle o IF conditions of retrieval are like conditions of encoding then, retrieval more likely o Context Effect  Retrieve in same setting o Mood Congruence  Mood evokes memories with same mood  Encoding Failures  Insufficient encoding for storage in LTM  Absent-Mindedness  Attention is divided  Prospective Memory  Remembering to do something in future  Retrieval cue failure; post-its, timers  Flashbulb Memories o Recall specific details of significant personal event o As accurate as other, common memories  Forgetting o Can’t recall info that was once available o Memories - Less accurate as time goes on o Can occur at any memory stage o Forgetting Curve  Hermann Ebbinghaus's  Much is lost soon after learning  Rate slows  How quick we forget:  How well info was encoded  How meaningful  How often rehearsed  Decay Theory o New memories create memory traces o If not used, will decay o Lacks research support  Inference Theory o One memory competes or replaces another o Retroactive Interference  New memory interferes with old memory o Proactive Interference  Old memory interferes with new memory  Motivated Forgetting o Motivated to forget o Unpleasant/disturbing memory o Suppression  Deliberate, conscious effort to forget o Repression  Info blocked from conscious awareness o Controversial  Déjà Vu o Brief, intense feeling of remembering o But, 1 time experience o Causes:  Similar features in existing memory = Source Memory Disruption (source amnesia)  Inattentional Blindness – unconsciously process info about event  Temporal lobe disruptions  Imperfect Memories o Memories are actually constructed o Retrieved info is actually rebuilt  Misinformation Effect o Loftus Study – New info can distort reconstruction of memories o Existing memories can be distorted by misleading info  Source Confusion o True source of memory is forgotten, or attributed to wrong source o False Memory  Distorted or inaccurate memory that feels real  Often accompanied by all the emotions of real memory  Schema Distortion o Schemas - organized clusters of info about specific topics o Problem: Tendency to fill in missing detail with info consistent with existing knowledge o Scripts – typical sequence of actions/behavior  Imagination Inflation o Vividly imagining an event increases confidence that the event occurred o False Familiarity o Repeated imagining leads to the familiar o Source confusion!!  Blending Fact and Fiction o Vivid, authentic detail adds to believability of fake event  Vivid Details o Simple Manipulations:  Suggestions  Hypnosis  Imagination exercises  Vivid memory cues  Photographs Chapter 7: Thinking, language and intelligence  Thought o Cognition  Mental activities in acquiring, retaining, and using knowledge o Thinking  Manipulation of mental representations to draw inferences and conclusions  Mental Image o Representations of an object/event not present o Visual picture of some other sense  Concept o Mental category based on shared properties o Formal concept  Formed by learning rules o Natural concept  Formed by everyday experience o Prototype  Typical instance o Exemplar  Individual instances  Problem Solving o Thinking and behavior towards attaining a goal o Trial and Error  Trying a variety of solutions and eliminate ones that don't work o Algorithm  Follow a step-by-step method that always produces correct answer o Heuristic  Follow a general rule-of-thumb to reduce possible solutions  Create subgoals to get a little bit done at a time  Backwards working to solve problem  Insight and Intuition o Insight  Sudden realization of a solution o Intuition  Reach conclusion without awareness of thought processes  Guiding stage  Unconsciously perceive pattern of info  Integrative stage  Consciously aware of pattern  Functional Fixedness o Can't see an object as having a function other than its usual one  Mental Set o Persist with solutions that have worked in the past o Well established habit of thought or perception  Decision Making o Different cognitive strategies used o Depends on type and number of options given  Single-Feature Model  Focus on one feature  Good for minor decisions  Additive Model  Consider important feature of each alternative  Ex: List Pros and Cons  Elimination by Aspects Model  Rate choices based on different features  Usually starts with what's most important to you  Start to eliminate items that don't have your important factors  Availability Heuristic  Judge probability of something happening by easy recollection of previous events  Ex: Overestimate probability of death by shark attack  Ex: Underestimate probability of death by asthma  Representativeness Heuristic  Judging something will happen based on the prototype  Persistence of Unwarranted Beliefs o Belief is established o Contradictory evidence has little impact o This could strengthen belief  Belief-Bias Effect  Only accept evidence that supports the belief  Reject/ignore all other evidence  Confirmation Bias  Search for info that confirms belief  No search for info that might disapprove  Fallacy of Positive Instances  Remember uncommon events that confirm belief  Forgets events that don't support  Overestimation effect  Overestimate rarity of events  Language o System for combining arbitrary symbols to produce an infinite number of meaningful statements  Characteristics of Language o Generative  Create an infinite number of words, phrases, and sentences o Displacement  Communicate about things in the past or future, not present or immediate future  Language and Thinking o Language and social perception  Nuances of words influenced social perceptions o Gender bias in language  Masculine generic pronouns cause people to think "male"  Animal Communication o They do communicate with each other o Not really considered language, or is it?  We have years until we can understand them and vice versa  Intelligence o Global capacity to:  Think rationally  Act purposefully  Deal effectively o Intelligence testing o Measure general mental abilities  Alfred Binet (1857-1911) o First intelligence test- 1905 o Works with memory, attention, similarities and differences o ID kids who needed assistance with learning o Mental age could be different than actual age  Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale o Lewis Terman o Used on the military  Lower scores were front line men, captains or officials were higher score men o Modified Binet-Simon scale in 1916 o IQ: Mental age x 100 Chronological age  Most score 100 or 15 above/ below; above 115 or below 85 is significant o Terman Study  1500 people got 140 or above and he did a study on them  These people were seen as doing well in everything they did  Wechsler Intelligence Scales o More popular and was created in 1955 o WPPSI for preschoolers o WISC-III for elementary level children o WAIS-III for adults- most commonly given test  Good Tests o Achievement tests- particular area o Aptitude tests- capacity to benefit from education o Standardized (everyone gets the same test the same way) o Norms (how people normally function) o Reliable (Same results or scores are around the same level) o Valid (Measuring what it's supposed to measure)  Standardized scores of Wechsler tests o Raw scores converted to standardized scores o Normal distributions o Mean =100 o SD =15  How valid are IQ scores? o Does the test correlate with other measures of the same construct? o School achievement o Prestigious positions o On-the-job performance  Theories o Spearman  G factor- general intelligence o Thurstone  7 primary mental abilities  Verbal  Perceptive  Mathematic  "Pattern" more important than G factor o Gardner  Multiple intelligence  Defined within ones’ culture o Sternberg  Triarchic Theory of Intelligence  Analytic  Creative  Practical  Nature vs. Nurture in Intelligence o Both are important o Research shows:  We are born with potential range  Environment can influence outcome  Heredity and environment o Heritability  How much of variation due to genetics? o Environment  How much of variation due to environment?  Twin studies o Genetic traits o Identical twins raised together- very similar IQ scores o Identical twins raised apart- IQ's slightly less similar than identical twins raised together o Fraternal twins raised together- IQ's less similar than identical twins raised together  Group differences o More variation within than between o Cannot compare unless environment is equal o IQ scores gap between discriminated- against group vs. dominant group  Burakumin of Japan o Stereotype Threat- fear you will confirm the results  In Closing… o IQ scores result of genetics and environment o Environment more likely to account for between group differences o Environment + genetics equally influence within group differences o IQ scores reflect what IQ tests are designed to measure Chapter 9: Lifespan Development  Developmental Psychology o Study of how people change physically, mentally, and socially thru lifespan o Look at multiple factors o Stages of development o Critical periods o Changes unfold gradually o Nature vs. Nurture  Prenatal conception to birth  Infancy 0-2  Early Childhood 2-6  Middle Childhood 6-12  Adolescence 12-18  Young Adulthood 18-40  Middle Adulthood 40-65  Late Adulthood 65+  Genetic Contribution o Zygotes- single cell formed at conception o Chromosomes- twisted strands of DNA; have 23 pairs o DNA- chemical basis for heredity o Gene- unit of DNA instruction o Alleles- different forms of particular gene o Sex chromosomes- 23d pair; determine biological sex; XX- Female or XY- Male o Genotype- underlying genetic makeup o Phenotype- characteristics that are displayed  From Genotype to Phenotype o Egg and sperm- 23 chromosomes each that form you genotype o 20,000 to 25,000 genes o Dominant genes- expressed if present o Recessive genes- not expressed unless received in a pair (both mom and dad carry the gene) o Most characteristics involve multiple genes o Most genes are dormant, but are turned on/off based on environment/experience or internal forces  Prenatal Stage o 3 stages  Germinal period- first 2 weeks; zygote  Embryonic period- weeks 3-8; embryo  Fetal period- week 9-birth; fetus o Prenatal influences  Nutrition, anxiety, health, age o Teratogens- causes birth defects  Radiation, viruses, nicotine o Prenatal environment- lifetime influence over health and intellectual abilities  Infant Abilities o Immature visual system  Prefer faces o Other senses are developed  Taste (prefer sweet instead of salty), hearing o Infant reflexes- innate; disappear and replaced by voluntary behavior  Rooting  Moving their heads and opening their mouth  Sucking  Sucking and swallowing  Babinski  Fanning toes when born  Grasping  Putting something in their hand and holding on to it  Moro  Startle reflex  Infant physical development o Brain- 75% adult weight thru infancy o Cephalocaudal Pattern  Head first pattern for physical and motor skills o Proximodistal Pattern  Center of body first pattern for physical/motor skills o Sequence of motor skill development in universal o Average ages different across cultures  Temperament o Inborn predisposition to behave/react in certain way o Biological basis; can be modified by environment  Ex: Trauma, culture o Thomas and Chess study  Easy  Regular eat and sleep pattern, happy and content  Difficult  Not happy or content, no regular eat and sleep pattern  Slow to warm  Slowly grow with the change, low activity levels  Average  38% of kids fell in this category, would change daily  Attachment o Emotional bond that forms between infant and caregiver; affects physical and psychological dev. o Multiple attachments o Ainsworth “Strange Situation” Research:  Secure: Ok, distressed, then ok  Insecure Avoidant: Avoids, distressed, then acts coldly  Insecure Anxious-Resistant: Clingy, cries, cannot be soothed  Day Care: quality is key  Language o Similar development for all people o Noam Chomsky – biological disposition o Infant-directed speech o Comprehension v. Production o Pattern:  Coo – 2-4 months  Babble – 4-6 months  One word – 12 months  Two word – 24 months; telegraphic  Cognitive Development o Piaget – Stage Theorist (4 Stages) o Children go thru all stages o Thinking is qualitatively different o Heredity and environment o Schemes o Assimilation o Accommodation  Sensorimotor Stage (1) o Birth-2 years o Learn through action on environment o Focused on sensory info/bodily movements o Cannot reason yet o Object Permanence  Signals next stage  Preoperational Stage (2) o Age 2-7 o Symbolic thought o Cannot understand abstract or mental operations o Egocentrism o Centrism o Animism o Artificialism o Conservation  Lack understanding of  Concrete Operational Stage (3) o Ages 7-12 o Increasingly logical thought o Concrete experiences and concepts o Understand conservation, reversibility, and causation o Less egocentric, but cannot think hypothetically or abstractly  Formal Operational Stage (4) o Ages 12-adulthood o Abstract Reasoning (Hypothetic Deductive Reasoning)  Compare ideas  Reason about situations of others  Future  Systematic problem solving o Personal Fable, Imaginary Audience  Adolescent egocentrism displayed  Piaget Critique o Underestimated cognitive abilities o Underestimated role of social and cultural environment o Overestimated ability to achieve formal operational thought  Vygotsky’s Theory of Sociocultural Influences o Learn thru interactions with others  Culture  Language o Zone of Proximal Development o Knowledgeable members of society important  Adolescence o Puberty until adulthood o Puberty – sexual reproduction o Menarche, Spermarche o Extreme Adolescent Turmoil – not common o Peer group influential – reflect goals and traits o Externalizing – boys; Internalizing – girls o Growth spurt; early maturation o Suicide increase in boys  "Adolescent Brain" o “Raging Hormones” – little evidence that causes emotional problems o Neuronal pruning surges o Prefrontal cortex last area to prune o Responsible for executive cognitive function (reasoning, planning, organizing) o Full maturity of pre-frontal cortex – mid 20’s  Early Maturation o Early Girls  Negative feelings of body changes  Embarrassed of attention  Higher rates of sexual behavior, substance use, delinquency  Risk of later unhealthy weight gain o Early Boys  Usually positive impact  Social Development o Overall positive relationship with parents o Conflict increases o Friend/Peers – more influence o Romantic relationships o Social/Cultural factors influence romantic relationships  Identity Development o Sense of self, including:  Memories, Experiences  Values and Beliefs that guide behavior  Erikson’s 8 Stages of Psychosocial Development Stage Age Info Trust v. Mistrust Birth–1 Basic needs must be met Autonomy v. Shame & 1-2 Independence without doubt Doubt Initiative v. Guilt 3-5 Control impulses Competence v. 6-12 Time when need to master life Inferiority skills Identity v. Role 13-19 Identity crisis Confusion Intimacy v. Isolation 20-40 Must be able to share self Generativity v. 40-65 Continue to have creativity and Stagnation renewal Ego Integrity v. Despair 65 and Wisdom, spiritual tranquility, up acceptance  Adult Physical Development o Strength peaks in early adulthood o Strength/endurance, reaction times gradually decline in mid adulthood o Decline further/faster in late adulthood o Lose lean muscle, increase body fat, weakened bones o Proper diet/exercise  Menopause o End of reproductive cycle o Hormonal changes o One year after end of menstruation o Late 30s too early 50s  Andropause o Gradual change to reproductive capability o Decline in testosterone o Erectile dysfunction o Reduced sexual motivation, function  Social Development in Adulthood o Generativity – important in middle adulthood o Fewer friends than adolescents o Female relationships  Will confide in each other about emotions, relationships o Male relationships  Will talk about common activities o Marriage  Men: 28 Women: 26 o Children  Changes in Adult Social Development o More couples living together o Rise in single parent homes o Divorce and Second Family o Gay and lesbian couples  Work o 1/3 switch occupational field o Increase in dual-career families o Women still perform most of childcare o Multiple roles improve self-esteem, happiness and competence  Late Adulthood o Life Expectancy: 75 years’ men, 80 years’ women o Myth: poor health, inactivity, decline o Decline in mental health linked to lack of experiences o Activity Theory of Aging  Stay active, making you happier and healthier  Cognitive Changes o Mental abilities stable till 60ish o 70s and beyond – decline in memory, perceptual speed, fluency o Knowledge/vocab – stable up to 90 o Neuronal communication less efficient o Stay active and involved!!  Social Development- Late Adulthood o Disengagement Theory o Activity Theory o Ego Integrity – Erikson o Despair – only some  Death and Dying o Anxiety peaks in middle adulthood o Kubler-Ross’s Stages:  Denial  Anger  Bargaining  Depression  Acceptance Chapter 10: Gender and Sexuality  Definitions o Sex- The biological category of male or female; sexual intercourse o Gender- Cultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity or femininity o Gender Roles- Masculine/feminine behaviors, attitudes, and personality traits o Gender Identity- Psychological sense of being male or female o Sexual Orientation- Direction of emotional and erotic attractions  Gender Role Stereotypes o Beliefs and expectations regarding typical characteristics and behaviors of men and women o Women thought to be more emotional, nurturing, patient o Men thought to be more aggressive, decisive, logical o Characteristics associated with males tend to be stronger and more positive  Gender Differences o Personality  No significant differences  Women:  More nurturing and people oriented  More socially sensitive, friendly, concerned with other's welfare  More emotionally aware  Experience/express more sadness, fear, and guilt  Men:  More thing-oriented; assertive  Dominant, controlling, independent  Experience/express more anger and hostility o Cognitive abilities  No differences for most  Verbal, reading, and writing- Women  Spatial skills- Men  Math skills- Men, but not statistically significant o Sexual attitudes and behaviors  Less pronounced since the 1960s  Men vs. Women  Men  More permissive sexual attitudes  More sexual partners  Earlier age of 1st intercourse  Higher incidence of porn and masturbation  Mostly similar scales though  Honest responses concern for both  Gender Role Development o 18 months-2 years= differences in behavior o 2-3 years= can ID self and others as girl/boy; gender role stereotypes emerge o Toddler girls- dolls; willing to ask for help o Toddler boys- trucks and wagons; more active o After 3 years- consistent differences in toys and activities o Boys: more rigid toy preferences; Girls: more flexible o Behavior mirrors stereotypes  Social Learning Theory o Gender roles learned through reinforcement, punishment, and modeling  Gender Schema Theory o Mental categories for masculinity/femininity o Influence thinking about gender-relevant behavior, and what to remember about them o Perceives members of own sex more favorably o Qualities and attributes that aren't concrete  Gender Identity Variations o Significant minority: Gender ID and anatomy not consistent o Development of reproductive organs affected o Intersex- biological gender is ambiguous o Transgendered- gender identity in conflict with biological sex o Sex reassignment surgery o Gender identity disorder  Extreme psychological discomfort with biology  Human Sexuality o William Masters and Virginia Johnson- 1950s and 1960s o First people to study sex; what happens with it, how it happens, etc. o Critics: dehumanized sexuality  Human Sexual Response o William Masters and Virginia Johnson  Four Stages of sex  Stage 1: Excitement- beginning of sexual arousal  Blood rushes to genitalia  Sweat beings forming  Stage 2: Plateau- increased physical arousal  Ultimate height of arousal  Stage 3: Orgasm- male ejaculation, female vaginal contractions  Blood pressure at the highest  Stage 4: Resolution- arousal subsides  Blood pressure goes down  Heart rate goes down  Refectory Period- male  Cannot harden after ejaculation  Women have 3 possible responses; men normally have 1 response  Evolution and Mate Choice o Gender differences: evolution based? o Men: Youth and physical attractiveness  Health, high-quality genes  More opportunity to create offspring o Women: Financial security, material resources, education, financial future  "Good genes": healthy, attractive  Children need to survive- financial variable o Evolutionary Psychologist: reject notion that we are powerless to overcome evolved tendencies  Sexual orientation o Direction of a person's emotional and erotic attractions o Heterosexual- sexual attraction for the opposite sex o Homosexual- sexual attraction for the same sex  Gay- typically used to describe male homosexuals  Lesbian- typically used to describe female homosexuals o Bisexual- sexual attraction for both sexes  Determination of Sexual Orientation o Genetics  Twins research shows, higher similarity between identical twins than fraternal twins o Prenatal Environment  Successive male children might trigger immune response o Brain Structure  Hypothalamus and amygdala differences o Complex issue with no clear answers  General Research Findings o May emerge as early as 6 years’ old o No consistent relationship between orientation and childhood experiences  Believed for a while abuse changed orientation o Typical pattern of gender-specific behaviors in childhood less likely for homosexuals  More homosexual men as children reported as kids they would play with girls more, and enjoyed real-life situation games o No longer considered a sexual disorder o In every occupation and socioeconomic level o Children are equally well-adjusted  Except more bullying/teasing happened towards children of gay families  No more likely to be gay/lesbian  Sexual Behavior o National Survey of sexual health and behavior  Sexual practices for Americans ages 14-94 (2010) o National survey of family growth  Ages 15-44 (2005) o National social life, health, and aging project  Ages 57-85 (2009)  Sexuality in Adulthood o Early adulthood (Was 17-19; Now 20-30)  Intimate, committed, long-term relationships  Males  Desire and have more sexual partners  Females  Desire and have less sexual partners o Most adults ages 25-44 (more than 70%)  0 or 1 sexual partner in the last year (marriage factor) o Age of marriage  Men: 28  Women: 26 o Today, sex is earlier, marriage is later, and more sexual partners  Sexual Frequency o 35% men, 40% women- no sex in the past year o 15% men and women- few times in the past year, to monthly o 30% men and women- few times per month to weekly o 15% men and women- few time per week o 4% men and women- 4 or more times per week o Married/cohabitating- more active than everyone else  Sexual Satisfaction o More men reported recent experience enjoyable (85% men to 66% women) o 85% men said female partner reached orgasm; only 64% women agreed  Sexual Activity


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