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Notes from week 2

by: Tran

Notes from week 2 Geog 140


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lastpart of chapter 1 and first part of chapter 2
Introduction to Human Geography
Dr. Rebecca Buller
Human, geography
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This 6 page Bundle was uploaded by Tran on Friday August 26, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Geog 140 at University of Nebraska Lincoln taught by Dr. Rebecca Buller in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Geography in Geography at University of Nebraska Lincoln.


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Date Created: 08/26/16
Chapter 1 cont’d IV. Basic Geographic Concepts cont. (continue 5 themes) 5. Regions  Features of Earth’s surface tend to be concentrated in particular areas (regions)  Understanding the regional geography of a place allows us to make sense of much of the info we have about places  Formal region: area that has a shared cultural or physical trait o Ex: Spanish-speaking region of Europe  Functional region: area that contains a set of social political, or economic activities/ interactions o Ex: suburbs and city, urban area  Perceptual region: area that is created by ideas in our minds, based on accumulated knowledge of places and regions, that defines an area of “sameness” or “connectedness”; stereotypes o Ex: Australia = kangaroo riders Core vs. periphery regional relationships…characteristics of people  Core(“haves”) people who have … o Foci of human activity that function as leading regions of control & change o Concentration of privilege, power, and control  Ex: capitol of a country, teacher  Periphery (“have-nots”) people who do not have o Foci of production (of goods & services) for core o Often unstable and @mercy of core Scale: 2 meanings in Geography 1. Distance on a map compared to the distance on the Earth 2. The spatial extent of something a. understanding individual, local, regional, national, and global interrelationships b. What happens @ the global scale affects the local (vice versa), but also affects individual, regional, & national areas 8/25_Geography140 III. Divisions continued  Geographers are able to answer complicated questions by (spatial technology): o Amount of data digestible in GIS o Power of the location analysis that can be undertaken on a computer platform o The ease of analysis that is possible using GIS software applications o ex: Geography 412 used GIS to find new sites that would be good for community gardens 3. *Remote Sensing: a method of collecting data or information through the use of instruments (ex: satellites) that are physically distant from the area or object of study  images can be incorporated in a map  absolute location (precise point) can be studied over time by plotting change in remotely sensed imagery over time o ex: UNL’s CALMIT & National Drought Mitigation Center use remote sensing for agriculture  Dr. Jim Kalbert was head of CALMIT @UNL…passed away IV. Basic Geographic Concepts A. The 5 Themes of Geography (there’s no specific:order) 1. Location a. Highlights how geographical position of people and things on Earth’s surface affects what happens and why b. Helps to establish context within which events and processes are situated 2. Place Based on experience a. sense of place: infusing a place with meaning and emotion i. ex: fun vacation in California…you will see California as a fun place b. perception of place: belief/understanding of what a place is like, often based on Based on what books , movies, or pictures ; stereotypical and usually inaccurate you’ve heard/ideas i. creates mental maps: maps in our minds of places 3. Human-environmental Interactions a. Understanding relationship between humans & physical world i. Ex: Asking locational questions about reciprocal relationships between humans & environments b. Cultural landscape: the visible human imprint; the material character of a place i. Geographers regularly read the land“What is that, and why is it there?” 4. Movement a. Involves the mobility of people, goods, and/or ideas from a hearth to other areas b. aka diffusion: idea of movement from one place to another *one of many definitions used in geography i. ex: expansion, hierarchical (idea moves from one power to another) , relocation, contagious (moves to closest subject…the common cold) c. spatial interaction between places depends these factors: i. distances among places ii. accessibility of places iii. transportation & communication connectivity among places (networks) *one of many definitions used in geography Chapter 2 Population 8-30 I. Geodemographic Themes & Concepts a. Thomas Malthus i. An Essay on the Principles of Population (1798) warned that population was growing faster than food supply 1. Population grew exponentially 2. Food supply grew linearly ii. His predictions did not materialize 1. Global food supply sources expanded 2. Agricultural productivity increased b. Doubling Time: number of years for a population to double in size i. decrease in means comparative rapid growth ii. increase in means comparative slower growth iii. equation: 70/natural increase rate of that year=#of years it will take x country to double Word means rate of death…no need to say rate c. Diseases that Can Affect Life Expectancy & Mortality i. infectious diseases: spread from person to person 1. types: a. vectored: spread through intermediary, such as insect(malaria) b. nonvectored: spread directly from person to person (HIV/AIDS) ii. chronic or degenerative diseases: diseases of middle & old age (heart disease) iii. genetic/inherited diseases: passed through genes from one generation to the next (hemophilia) d. natural increase rate (NIR): difference between births & deaths i. does not include immigration & emigration ii. ex: 1. high: most African & Asian countries 2. low: developed countries 3. zero/negative: Eastern Europe a. population implosion implications II. Major World Population Clusters a. East Asia i. ¼ of world population ii. Mainly in South Korea, Japan, China Spatial patterns iii. Ex: China= 1.5billion+ 1. Population concentrated in eastern cities & along major rivers, basins, lowlands b. South Asia i. Confined region with rapidly growing population 1. 23% of world’s population on 3% of world’s land Spatial patterns ii. Population clustered in cities, coasts, and rivers 1. Ganges River, Bangladesh(156 million people on area size of IA) iii. Physical geography barriers separate population clusters 1. Himalayas Chapter 2 Population 9/1/16 c. Europe (western specifically) i. 715 million ii. Population especially concentrated in cities and along coal fields iii. Highly urbanized (city area) 1. Ex: 80% in UK, 78% in France, 73% in Germany d. North America (eastern portion specifically) i. 335.6 million ii. Largest urban center (megalopolis) from Boston to Washington DC (BosWash) 1. More than 20% of U.S. population First 5 Highest Population 2016 1) China (1,373,541,278) 2) India (1,266,833,598) 3) United States (323,995,528) 4) Indonesia(258,316,051) 5) Brazil(205,834,665) III. Studying Population Composition & Dynamics a. Important to understand components of a population’s composition i. Gender distribution ii. Age distribution b. Demographic Transition Model: multistage model of changes in population growth exhibited by countries undergoing industrialization i. takes into account changes in birth, death, and natural increase rates ii. decline in death rates followed by decline in birth rates, resulting in a low or stable growth rate iii. factors limiting population growth (famine, epidemics, plagues, wars) iv. factors enhancing population growth 1. (agricultural advances, industrial revolution, sanitation, vaccinations) Model of Demographic Cycle: Stage 1: low growth Stage 2: increasing growth Stage 3: population explosion Stage 4: decreasing growth Stage 5: declining population c. Population pyramid: graphic depiction of a population by % in each gender’s age group i. Generalizations of Shapes 1. Evergreen tree shape (poorer countries): a. Youngest age cohorts make up largest share of total population b. Small populations in older age groups c. Usually associated with poorer countries that have: -High fertility, high infant mortality, short life expectancy, short life expectancy, rapid population growth 1. Lopsided vase (more developed ): a. Middle age cohorts make up largest share of total population Chapter 2 Population b. Associated w/ wealthier countries that have i. Low total fertility rate, low infant mortality, long life expectancy, little/no growth IV. Governments Affecting Population Change a. Various policies that are viewed as radical: i. Expansive: policies that encourage large families & raise the rate of natural increase 1. U.S.S.R. & Mao’s China 2. Tax incentives in some modern European countries (paid leave) 3. Ulyanovsk Province, Russia’s National Day of Conception (Sept 12) ii. Eugenic: policies which favor one racial/cultural sector of the population over others 1. Promotion of birth control among certain groups (Nazi Germany) 2. Can be covertly practiced through discriminatory taxation, biased allocation of resources, and other forms of favoritism iii. Restrictive: policies designed to reduce NIR 1. Numerous formats a. Toleration of officially unapproved means of birth control  (India sex specific abortions –aim @ female) b. Prohibition of large families (China’s One Child Policy)  1970s NIR= 3% Today NIR=.7%  Unintended consequences (too many male)  Relaxed policy in 1990s


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