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Membrane Cheat Sheet

by: Luke Holden

Membrane Cheat Sheet BIOL 4610

Marketplace > Clemson University > BIOL 4610 > Membrane Cheat Sheet
Luke Holden

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About this Document

This is a cheat sheet of the membrane components such as the different types of lipids and proteins. The lipids are organized based on structure, base and identifiers. The proteins are organized ba...
Cell Biology
Susan Chapman
Cell, Membranes
75 ?




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This 3 page Bundle was uploaded by Luke Holden on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to BIOL 4610 at Clemson University taught by Susan Chapman in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Membrane lipids LIPID STRUCTURE BASE IDENTIFIERS  Phospholipid  Polar head group   Glycerol (fatty   Amphipathic  and fatty acid/acyl acid tail at   Most abundant  Phosphate  oxygen 1 & 2)   Kind and  backbone  Sphingosine  proportions vary   3 oxygens (fatty acid tail  among  at oxygen 2)  membranes Glycolipid  Sugar head   Glycerol   Form by the   Sphingosine addition of  carbohydrates to  lipids  Most common are  cerebrosides  (uncharged sugar  as head group)  Prominent in brain  and nerve cells   Most located in the outer membrane  layer of animal  cells  amphipathic Sterol  4 rigid & planar,   Eukaryotic  fused ring  membranes  structure contain significant   Hydroxyl group  amount attached to ring   Animals­ structure to help  cholesterol orient within  o Fluidity  membrane and  buffer bond to polar   Plant­phytosterols head  Fungal­ergosterol  amphipathic  The movement of lipids from one monolayer to another (transverse diffusion) is rare o Occur when phospholipid translocators or flippases are present   Membrane fluidity changes with temperature (Tm ­ transition temperature)  Lipids move within their monolayer o Rotation o Lateral diffusion Membrane Proteins PROTEIN WHERE IDENTIFIERS EXAMPLES Integral  Embedded in   Difficult to  Transmembrane Protein Membrane the lipid  remove/isolate   Cross once (singlepass  Proteins bilayer b/c of  from membrane  proteins) hydrophobic   Integral   Cross several times  region monotropic  (multipass proteins) proteins are   Anchored to the lipid bilayer  embedded in one by one or more hydrophobic  layer transmembrane segments  Transmembrane   Example: B barrel  proteins span the Singlepass Membrane Protein membrane and   C & N­terminus on either end protrude on both  of the membrane  sides  Glycophorin   Detergents pull  Multipass Membrane Protein apart the   2­20 transmembrane  membrane and  segments surround the   bacteriohodopsin protein o Micelles  prevent  the  protein  from  breaking  down Peripheral  Hydrophilic   Easy to remove  regulatory protein subunits of many  Proteins and located  from the  ion channels and transmembrane  on the  membrane receptors surface of the  Mostly  bilayer,  hydrophilic but  attached  some  loosely to the  hydrophobic  head regions anchor  them to the  membrane   Electrostatic  forces and  hydrogen  bonding (weak)  Easy to isolate by altering pH or  ionic strength   Chelating agents  are used to  solubilize them  Lipid­ Hydrophilic   Reside on  Fatty acid­anchored membrane  Anchored  and attached  membrane  protein Proteins to the bilayer  surface  Attached to a saturated fatty  by covalent   Linked to fatty  acid, usually myristic (14C) or attachments  acids (isoprenyl  palmitic acid (16C) to lipid  groups) Isoprenylated membrane proteins molecules   Synthesized in the cytosol &  that are  modified by addition of  embedded in  multiple isoprenyl groups  the bilayer (5C) usually farnesy (15C) or  geranylgeranyl (20C) groups GPI­anchored membrane proteins  Covalently linked to  gylcosylphosphatidylinositol  Detergents are used to disrupt hydrophobic interactions and dissolve the lipid bilayer  Proteins can be solubilized and extracted from membranes so that they can be studied o Ionic Detergents  Sodium deoxycholate  Sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS)  Attach/bind around protein  Break hydrogen bonds and straighten the protein out   o Nonionic Detergents  Triton X­100  Octylglucoside   Hello!


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