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Dance History Pre-1900

by: Melody Posthuma

Dance History Pre-1900 DAN 245 01

Melody Posthuma
GPA 3.94

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This is all the information for the Dance History Pre-1900 course at Grand Valley that you will need, including reading notes, class notes, and study guides.
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This 45 page Bundle was uploaded by Melody Posthuma on Sunday August 28, 2016. The Bundle belongs to DAN 245 01 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Dance History Pre-1900 in Dance at Grand Valley State University.


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Date Created: 08/28/16
Week of 8/25 5 Premises for a Culturally SensitiveApproach to Dance by Deidre Skylar (1) Movement knowledge is a kind of cultural knowledge (2) Movement knowledge is conceptual and emotional & kinesthetic (3) Movement knowledge is intertwined with other kinds of cultural knowledge (4) One has to look beyond movement to get at it’s meaning. What caused the movement to come forward? (5) Movement is always an immediate corporeal experience. What caused the movement to come forward? You have to do it to understand. * Movement embodies cultural knowledge, it’s not just visual & depends upon cultural learning. * We all embody our own particular cultural perspectives. Intro to the Evolution of Theatre Dance • No one knows when it truly began. Dance began in a theatrical form. • We will be picking up the story of western theatrical dance with the Greeks in open-air theatre, Dionysian Festival (song/dancing for the god of wine and fertility), and slaves dancing at dinner parties. Most dancers were amateurs, but some were professional like slaves dancing at the parties. • Rome: Professional dance developed in Rome. In Rome, dance was more about getting a story across. Music was used, but pantomime was the popular way of dancing. • Politics, religion, time period, culture, technical skill, and what they value shape what kind of dancing existed. There has to be some aspect of individual genius to move dance forward. • Similarities to now: both used music, for entertainment, emotional aspect, there are stories behind movement, costumes, pantomime, etc. Week of 9/1 Medicine of the Brave:Alook at the changing role of dance in Native Culture from the Buffalo Days to the Modern Powwow by Lisa Doolittle and Heather Elton (Moving History) • Worshiped the land through dance, and danced about practically everything (ex: for war, peace, healing, life cycles, ceremonial friendship, sacrifice, hunting). The Indians believed that the Great Spirit taught them to dance so they could express thoughts and feelings to him. • Plains culture ended in late 1800s and reservation life began. The dances that they did for about 9,000 years weren’t relevant. The Grass Dance marked the first signs of a switch from sacred to secular and performed it out of context for white audiences. • The Ghost Dance: The native americans hoped this dance would bring about buffalo days. Whites thought it was an uprising and indians were suppressed. Native american culture was suppressed. The Sun Dance is the only traditional dance that is still practiced today. • Dancing became the center of powwows (“rekindle”), a rekindling the spirit of traditional celebrations. Liberalized governments and human rights legislation helped establish annual Indian Days celebrations. Traditional dance/song joined with politics as well. • Powwows vary from religion and year. They all involve ceremonial dances including (Honor dances, Grand Entry Dance, Victory Dance), social dances, and competitive dances. It can last all day or even for days. The dancers move in coordination with the drumbeat, may be choreographed or improvised. All competition dances are solo dances done to the beat of a drum. THE GHOST DANCE: Began on Nevada reservations, with Wavoka, a prophet/magician whose • preachings spread among the indians. The Sioux militarized the dance. The dancing began noon on Sundays with a US flag in the center of the circle. The step was similar to a grapevine. Sitting Bull was killed even after he refused to order the dancing to stop because he was skeptical about the Ghost Dance. Hundreds of indians then fled which led US troops to return them to the reservations (tragedy at Wounded Knee).About 50 tribes participated in the dance but the Sioux headed up this dance. • THE SUN DANCE: Individuals pledge vows to the Spirit in return for help. It contains all of the Plains Indian ceremonies practiced during the year. Performed in a large circle called The Mystery Circle or Hoop for four days in June or July. The cottonwood tree is placed in the middle of the circle (basis for the teepee) and painted white, yellow, green, and black for the four cardinal directions. Symbols of male buffalos and male human, fat, and cherry branches are placed in a special hole at the center of the Mystery Circle. There is a surrounding Sundance lodge around the circle with 28 branches that rest on the cottonwood tree. The circle represents that life is a process of continual change. The number four is the sacred number.After the sun lodge is prepared, a sacred song is sung, people cry, then dance for the rest of the day and night. Next, is the sacrificial section of the dance. Flesh represents ignorance, so when the dancer breaks free from the thong, they are free from the bonds of the flesh. Those who faint are revered because they believe that visions are received. Then they return to the sacred tepee where they eat and rejoice. MODERN POWWOW: Native dance was the closes to the art of theatre. They let go of the myth and • cultural baggage when it was no longer applicable to their environment. The powwow used to be just Plains indian and now it is Pan-Indian. Designs for costumes are no longer associated with dreams. The powwow is where the culture lies. The dances always move forward in the same direction as the sun (clockwise) as not to show fear. The number four is important, the dance is repeated four times. They wear eagle feathers and if it drops, there is a certain way to pick up the feather (it’s like a wounded warrior). Now everyone, not just men, can sing and drum. Some modern dance names include: Owl Dance, Round Dance, crow hop, shake, sneak up, Jingle Dress, Flag Dance, Victory Song, Honor Dance, Grand Entry Song, Chicken Dance, Fancy Dance, Hoop Dance, Long Time Pipe. The competitiveness has taken most the power of dance away. Many dancers are not initiated properly. NativeAmerican Dance (first nations = nativeAmerican =American Indians) Plains Indians - Dance is an integral part of their culture. The Great Spirit was their God who gave them dance as a means of communication and to understand natural occurrences. - Other reasons: nature, illness/death, make peace Late 1880s - Reservations began which was the end of many dances. For example, there was no need to dance for buffalo hunting. Grass dance - It spread from tribe to tribe - the first wide-spread Pan-Indian dance, switching from sacred to secular dancing. Ghost Dance - 1886: Paiute (tribe) profit named Wokova had a vision. Sitting Bull visited Wokova and brought the story back to the Sioux. - It was a peaceful dance, but was militarized by the Sioux (created a sacred costume - pale shirt, red leggings, crescent on face) - Dancers frequently went into a trance state - believed they were visiting the spirit world. Wounded Knee - White authorities wanted the dancing to stop leading to 16 people’s deaths; including Sitting Bull and his son, Crowfoot. - The massacre increased unrest after Sitting Bull’s death.Acould weeks later, US troops were sent to return fleeing Sioux to reservations. This led to the massacre. Sun Dance - Purpose: for tribe and family, 4 days/4 nights, ensures well-being of entire tribe and answers prayers of dancers taking part in the physically painful aspects. - Mystery Circle or Hoop - Many rituals & symbolic acts are performed. - Dancer pierced with skewer attached by rope to sacred tree in the middle of the mystery circle - pull against until the thong is ripped from their flesh. Powwows - Commercialization: became competitive, less sacred, more for show/money - RitualAspects: always a Grand Entrance, Grass Dance usually went 1st, symbolic meaning of costumes (in some cases), music stayed the same - Style of Dance: “Fancy Dancing”, “Traditional Dancing” (story based), “Jingle Dress Dancing” Week of 9/8 COMMONALITIES INAFRICAN DANCE -ANAESTHETIC FOUNDATION by Kariamu Welsh Asante (pg. 144-151) • There are many forms ofAfrican dance but they share the ancestral connection toAfrica through epic, memory, and oral tradition. • Dunham (based on Haitian folklore), Primus, Mfundalai (based on universalAfrican movement) some of theAfrican techniques. Dunham and Mfundalai exhibit the seven senses of theAfrican dance aesthetic. • Foundations that make upAfrican Dance (senses) give its touch, feel, voice, and motion. • “Stylized art” - no longer directly associated with religion or ritual. Differences inAfrican dance are as varied as the ethnic groups (more cultural). • Rural dance is traditional dance and traditional dance is rural dance. Traditional dance in urban areas is more stylized, removed from ritual, and influenced by other nationalities. • There is a lack of documentation and notation aboutAfrican Dance, but oral tradition has been the way to preserve history/African culture. The oral narrative’s speaker becomes the griot, dancer, choreographer, or sculptor. The story that the dancer is portraying becomes his/hers for the moment. The mark of the artist is in his/her creativity. The element of permanence deals with the work itself, not the person of the creator. The artist is considered “chosen” and the rejection of this role is sacrilegious. • Seven aesthetic senses: 
 (1) Polyrhythm: motion sense, most distinguishable ofAfrican dance. The sense of motion initiates rhythms and then polyrhythms 
 (2) Polycentrism: motion spending time, the occupant of a time frame and not the moving point fromA to B, all the various muscles of the body act differently to the rhythms of the instruments. The representation of the cosmos in the body is a goal. The multiple existence of polysenses is signature in African dance. 
 (3) Curvilinear: seen in form, shape, and structure. There is a circular quality inAfrican dance. Curvilinear qualities of dance, art, and music round, curve, and carve out images that are similar and resemble aspects ofAfrican society and mythology. Ex: Watusi use long sculptured movements carving out half-moons, toss their elegant heads, and make small circles in the sky. The structure is always related to experience, message, theme, and feeling. In contrast, the Western society separate church and state and dance is used as a function of entertainment and sometimes contradicts with religious and social goals of that same society. InAfrican dance, the images are mirror-like reflections of history, mythology, and literature. 
 (4) Dimensional: one aspect of depth inAfrican dance is texture. The texture sense is reverberation. The texture sense is the extra shape and vibration that occurs during a dance. IN theAfrican aesthetic, imitation is based on sensation, not materialism. Ex: Chi-wara dance represents fertility with half-man, half-antelope. Tap dance is anAfricanAmerican art form born of experience. Harmony is achieved in the artists to not disturb ,destroy, disrupt the order of the cosmos except by permission. 
 (5) Epic memory: ex: it is not just the pathos (memory) of the Xhosa people singing, but the click itself that renders multiple sounds in one syllable that must be understood. There are patterns that recreate rhythms found amongAfrican people. Memory is the “body” of the work itself. Up North Is a piece that reenacts blacks coming to the US north and is a memory retrieved that delivers to the viewer the pathos feeling, and experience without telling the literal story. It is the image within the structure of the thought that provides for the ethos. The spiritual element is embodied in the epic memory sense. The African artist recognizes the “blessings” of the gods for his intentions. 
 (6) Holism: the parts of a creation are not emphasized or accentuated beyond the whole; neither is the individual. Silence or stillness is as much a part of the music or dance as sound or movement. 
 (7) Repetition: intensifying of one movement, sequence, or entire dance. Intensification isn’t static, but repeats from one level to another until satisfaction is reached. Time is a factor but enough time, not a set amount of time. Repetition is a constant inAfrican Dance. • There are schools and differences among groups within the culture, but the common ground is history, race, and politics for a collective expression. “Traditional Dance inAfrica” pp. 13-28 fromAfrican Dance:AnArtistic, Historical and Philosophical Inquiry by Green • It's relationship to music is what chiefly distinguishes it from any other art form.African dance is a spontaneous emanation of the people translating experiences into movement. The themes of dance can be drafted from many sources, such as legend, war, politics, history, ritual, etc. Ex: Tchitelela dance about an eagle flying over the town stealing the souls of the children. • Another factor that effects the dance is the environment. Ex: Masai people don’t have trees and animals to make their drums so they chant instead and do one main jump. In WestAfrica, where drums accompany the dance, they jump using oppositional gestures of arms and legs following in the musical pattern. Body segmentation is more complex in WestAfrica. • Pelvic contractions are related to the instrumentation of the dance. Ex: in Nigeria, rattles are worn on the body in many dances or in Ghana dance “Bamaya” where it tells the story of men dressing up as women to get food in the marketplace. The dance Ziglibiti found on the Ivory Coast is about pounding corn and is characterized by the rapid stamping action of the feet (rattles worn on ankles). • Work ultimately became the movements of dance. The fishing dance “su” has two parts - a ritual to clear the water and purify it for an abundant catch, and the actual movement of fishermen into the waters. The daily action of eating can be seen in Thie Bou Dien, the national dance of Senegal. The movement of the blades of a fan is depicted in the dance “Ventalateur” popular in Senegal, it is called the “BUTT” in BlackAmerica. • The Wolof dancers use their arms in an alternating fashion, while the Mandinka and Diola are more symmetrical with both arms performing the same movement. There are also dances of possession and dances that are used for the purpose of exorcising evil spirits and curing the sick (N’Deup). • Breakdance and Pop begin with a face-off of the performers where the elbow of the supporting arm is pressed in the pelvic area as the body spins around. Self defense movements in martial arts are common in Nigeria among the Korkoro dancers to demonstrate how they meet opponents in war. • In the regions of Ghana, Ivory Coast, Togo, Burkina Faso, Benin, and Nigeria, group dancing is more common than competitive solo dancing found in Senegal and Gambia. Group dances are performed in lines (more in war dances) or circles (more recreational). • COSTUMES: “Isicathulo (the boot dance) - the Zulu people in SouthAfrica click heels together and slapping the boots with their hanse producing distinct rhythms. “Takai” of Ghana, the dances carry an iron rod, wear leather boots, and a flowing rope & trousers to create a design in space like an umbrella twirling. The Wakwele people of Tanzania have an initiation dance (celebrating puberty) called “Bigililo” or the Ghanan dance “Tokoe” which uses scarves to alarm the people that a girl got her period. Sindimba is a puberty dance which is performed after successful completion of the rites of initiation which are administered in seclusion in bush schools. • Mask Dances: masks have many shapes and sizes (cap, helmet, full body). When the person adorns the mask, the dancer is transformed into the spirit or being his is representing.African masks have many different functions, and different designs. Ex: Dama is a special death anniversary where masks are used to usher the souls of the deceased to their final resting place. In Nigeria, there are Egungun and Gelede mask societies. In Ivory Coast there are Zaouli masks (helmet mask) and the headdress of the forest dancers. Tanzanian and Mozambique masks include Isinyago (cover the entire body) and Midimu (cover the face) often representing animals or beasts. There are masks representing pregnancy. Cowrie shells serve as body coverings or masks during initiation dances of various African groups. Liana covered dancers as well and looks like hay. The Koumpo dance has a stick that emerges from the top of the costume. When the dancer twirls it looks like trees or branches swaying. Stilt dancers are also prominent masquerade figures. Ex: “Gue Gblin” of Ivory Coast, acting as mediators between the world of the living and the spiritual world of ancestors. The Chakaba figure can can be found in WestAfrica and from the coast of Senegal to Mali.Another stilt figure is Gue Gblin, who has an acrobatic/agile routine. • Dance inAfrica is a way of life, a course of communication, and history reenacted through movement. • General Summary: African dance involves the people translating experiences into art. These experiences are from legend, war, politics, ritual, etc. The environment affects the dances (Masai people don't have trees and animals to make drums so they don't use drums). Pelvic contractions relate to the instrumentation of dance but are not sexual. Work ultimately became the movements of dance (fishing, eating, blades of fanAKAbutt dance). There are group dancing and solo dancing and each are more prominent in different parts ofAfrica. The costumes affect the dancing (boot dance). The puberty dance is an initiation dance celebrating the becoming of a woman or man. In Ghana they use scarves to alarm the people that she is on her period. The mask dances have many shapes and sizes (cap, helmet, full body) and when they wear it, the dancer is transformed into the spirit he is representing. There are different functions of masks (death, forest dancers, animals/beasts, pregnancy). Dance inAfrica is a way of life, communication, and history reenacted through movement. Commonalities inAfrican Dance -AnAesthetic Senses ofAfrican Dance by KariamuAsante (1) Polyrhythmic: Multiple rhythms happening at the same time. (2) Polycentrism: movement happening/originating from more than one center in the body (legs do one thing, arms do another). The movements can’t be directly related to one another. (3) Curvilinear: “power” in the circle, seen in shape/form/structure, relates/resemblesAfrican society and mythology + cycles * Lincoln Kirstein was one of the first writers about dance history, his analysis was not knowledgable. He said that it was not technical, butAsante went deep into her writing about howAfrican dance does have technique. (4) Dimensionality: “textured,” extra shape/vibration that occurs from the dancing. There is a texturing, personality, individuality to theAfrican dance. You are trying to make the same feeling happen, not necessarily the same shape happen. (5) Epic Memory: the understood history of the culture and nationality. It has to do with cultural identity - they all know what the movement feels like and what the history behind the movement feels like. The movement has a resonance of some sort. It unearths the emotional/feeling realm and there is a spirituality to it. (6) Holistic: “all encompassing,” the parts are not greater than the whole, neither is the individual. Silence/stillness is just as important. ManyAfrican art isn’t signed by someone, your presence is already in the art, which is bigger than you. (7) Repetition: intensifying of one movement/sequence or dance. Repetition is a part of the building of the energy, intensifying of the moment. It is an intricate part ofAfrican dance. Masai Dance in the Kenya/Tanzania area (EastAfrica) - don’t have drums since they don’t have the trees/ animals to make them. They use their voices for the beat and their dance consists of jumping. They jump so high and do not jump through the feet (all legs). It is traditionally done by all men. In another section of the dance, they have collared necklaces that bounce as you inhale and exhale. It’s a part of a mating ritual - whoever jumps the highest gets the girl. Bamaya Dance in Northern Ghana (WestAfrica): Background story is that men dressed up as a women to go into the market. The dance involves them wearing skirts and shaking their hips quickly, this movement developed off of the story. Ziglibiti Dance of the Ivory Coast (WestAfrica) from the Bete people: they stomp their feet incredibly fast and have rattles on their ankles. You dance holding some dead plant (not sure what it is) and when you are done, you pass it off. Ventilateure of Senegal (WestAfrica): the fan dance, they wear skirts that are supposed to represent the blades of the fan like when they move. They shake their butts quickly and some are able do it one butt cheek at a time. It came toAmerica and was called the butt dance. Senegal Casamance Kando Datock Diola Kumpo Dance: full body mask, covered in grass (raphia) with a spear on top of his head. Gumboot Dance in SouthAfrica: originally done by the Zoolu, have bells on the boots, and is like stomp/step dance seen inAmerica. “Headsipn: Capocira’s Ironic Inversions (pp. 165-173) from Moving History by Barbara Browning - Fight and dance = kicks (martial arts), acrobatics, and congo movements. - Caparista’s take it very seriously. “Doing strange things in the honor of art.” - Capoeira is always played in a roda (circle formation fromAfro Brazilian dance). Two players come in the middle and keep eye contact for the entirety of the game. It always ironizes the notion of Manichean extremes. Just when you think you figured out who is good or bad, it strikes you as an aesthetic issue - can’t tell what is ugly or beautiful. - Caparistas are often inverted keeping their eyes on the other player. - No one generally wins. Humiliation of the other partner is not admired, but there is a point in when provocation occurs. - Before their captivity in Brazil, the Congo-Angola region practiced kicking games for sport and recreation. Though it was banned, they kept practicing it. The roda was a protective circle and the choreographic element and music helped disguise the fight as a dance. They created a rhythm cavalaria to que the Capoeria that the police were coming. - Principles of resistance are the heart of Capoeria. The seeds of the game are inAngola but the intention/strategy developed in Brazil. - The Portuguese tolerated the roda de capoeira because it was merely dance - perceived as motion without purpose or effect, other than aesthetic. - Capoiera: could mean bush and chicken coup. Some said the game resembled a chicken fight. - The Caboclo is an emblem in the afro-Brazilian culture of the refusal to be captive. - The efficiency of Capoiera in defending against invasions is questionable and may have been inflated over the years. - Capoiera has always flourished in highly dense areas Salvador, and New York City (the urban bush) - In major cities, gangs called Maltas used Capoiera in general looting and gang fighting (broken circle). This is the beginning of its association with ruffianism. - Caparistas are mostly black. - They were recruited in the war (1865) with Paraguay. When the circle couldn’t be maintained, the capoiera was dangerous and Caporistas were punished if they performed Capoeira. Bimba helped it be tolerated again as a game and was institutionalized. The Capoeira academies reiterate sometimes rigid technique brought from the police academy. The academies demand that they rethink inclusion and exclusion, cultural containment and liberational pedagogy. - The fight is in the dance and the music itself can be a weapon and can be politically significant. Berimbau is the instrument used in Capoiera and becomes a weapon in violent situations. The music dictates the emotional tenor of the game and its intent, though the dancers don’t have to stay on beat. - Many of the dancers movement are inversions. One fake kicks and the other responds. Defense moves aren’t as much blocks or counterattacks, but ironic negations of the offense. The basic defense position is called the negativa. Many moves are named after animals (sting ray tail, money). These references ironic responses to projections on black culture of stereotypes of innocence. Bimba developed a sock to the head and called it the telefone. - They continue to canibalize gymnastics, kickboxing, ballet, and break dancing. “You have to keep dancing between the blows.” • Capoiera is a game, dance, fight, art, etc. Most people consider it to beAfro Brazilian because there are influences from the CongoAngola region. • The history of Capoiera is complicated. The general idea has been passed down more through oral tradition and it developed in Brazil through the slaves who were forced to Brazil from Congo/Angola. Once in Brazil, music, choreography/dance, the roda, and resistance/trickery was added to Capoiera. When it was banned, it people came up, they all just began doing a Samba. Trickery then became an essential part of Capoiera (ex: barely missing your partner). • One possibility of why this developed was for self-defense and to do it in some way that no one knows what you’re up to. • When it became associated with gangs called Maltas (18th century), Capoiera got a bad reputation since it was used for looting and fighting. Though in 1865, Capoieras fought in the war with Paraguay (it became useful). Once it wasn’t useful, then they banned it again - 1890 it was a capital offense (killed or exiled). Eventually, it became institutionalized. • Involves inversions, eye’s on partner, in the roda with Berimbau playing as music, though the dancers do not have to dance to the beat. Week of 9/15 Bharata Natyam - What are you? pg. 103-113 (from Moving History) byAvanthi Meduri • South Indian classical dance, originating from Natyashastra, a detailed ancient text. It went from a religious dance to being corrupted, but individuals like Iyer saved the dance from extinction. The name of the dance was changed from sadir to bharatha natyam in 1932, Rukmini Devi learned the dance form then established a dance school, and Balasaraswati spread the fame of the dance. The dance is a comprehensive treatise on Indian dramaturgy that includes dance. Bharatha’s attention to • the theatrical unity and aesthetic wholeness evokes in the meditative mind a philosophic, cosmic vision of unity. • Dance, a part of drama, is divided into three distinct categories: natya, nrithya, and nrtta. Natya corresponds to drama, nrithya to mime performed to song and music, and nrtta to pure dance that employs sculpturesque poses and body movements that do not refer back to narrative. • The performer has four means of communication or abhinaya (expression): vacika (speech), agarya (costume), angika (body), and sattvika (psychological states). • There are also religious themes of dance and drama, stories usually from legend and Vedic scriptures. The ideal spectator (sahrydaya), harmonizes differences into unities by the power of his own mind. • Problems: this theatre is an expression of one religious world view which is different than contemporary India. It’s far removed from Bharatha’s religious state of mind characterized by visrati (expansive quiet). Today, Indian dance is in a secular reality. The temple was the natural home for Bharatha’s ancient theatre. • The devadasi (“servant of God”) danced and sang the stories of God to entertain the temple deities and after puberty, she married the temple deity. The devadasi tradition continued into the 18th and 19th centuries but w/o the commitment of the preceding generations (when she was considered as a jewel). Now public disapproval at the devadasi and tradition she represented exists (considered a prostitute). They didn’t like that those who danced the stories of God by day indulged in mortal delights at night. They believed “inner purity” had to synchronize with outer action. Temple dancing was abolished and the women of the south who fought the traditional custodians mastered it.After being abolished, the devadasi were offered a secular stage. Contemporary bharatha natyam: Ordinary men were transformed into little gods. Indian dance fell • into noisy rhetoric. In 1931, South Indian devadasi dancers were featured on the MusicAcademy platform despite public opposition. The devadasi was transformed almost completely into an object, valued only as the repository of the ancient tradition she had mastered. This was the split between inner and outer, self and culture, etc. Questions such as how the Balasaraswati achieve status and prestige under the new system was raised. The middle-class notions of respectability had now become tied up with dance.Also scholars who inquired into the psychology and ontology of the art experience elevated dance and drama to the status of a high religion (vedanta). • The Brahmins brought their own philosophical and ideological biases to bear upon bharatha natyam, altering an ancient art form of the temple and shaping its future. They surrounded it with social ritual and philosophical dogma, investing the new dance with awe and respect, which assured its continuance in a social environment. Balasaraswati lashed out at the cleaned-up, “Brahminized” dance, calling it vulgar. • The beginning of a dialectic in the styles started with Balasaraswati who focused on inner feeling, surrendering to the medium, and Rukmini Devi who approached the same goal through body control, mind, and awareness. She focused on ritual, style, and form. Devi ’s academy helped preserve dance traditions, which actually led to the further sexualization of the dance. The academy’s aim was to educate public opinion and develop good taste through concerts, public lectures, etc. Today, the dancers perform the stories of the gods and offstage, they engage in a competitive secular world. • Rukimi Devi points to the unhealthy relationship between money and the arts. When devadasi dance was corrupted, people invested it with respectability to keep it going. Today, it is respectable to be a dancer, but now dance needs money which various trusts and associations provide to keep it in continuation. It is difficult to be a dancer as money is now needed to be a successful bharatha natyam dancer. Men defines the women’s lives as without their protection, the women cannot survive in India. Hinduism at a Glance • Mainly in India and Nepal, and is the oldest living religion in some ways. It is closely associated conceptually and historically with other Indian religions Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism. It is an extensive history with no single founder= more a way of life or family of religions. • The Term Hindu is derived from the river Sinhu and “ism” was added in the 19th century in the context of British colonialism and missionary activity. • Various beliefs under Hinduism: you have to be born Hindu vs. you can become hindu, you worship an impersonal Supreme vs. you worship a personal god, monotheistic vs. polytheistic, Vedic texts (four Vedas) vs. Sanatana Dharma (eternal order of conduct), caste system vs. social phenomenon, or belief in concepts such as karma and samsara (reincarnation). Most Hindus revere a body of texts as sacred scripture known as the Veda and draw a common system of values known as dharma. The Vedas discuss dharma (code of conduct). The holy days include the Festival of Lights (Diwall). • It originated around the Indus Valley, 80% of Indians regard themselves as Hindu. Most Hindus believe in a Supreme God whose qualities and forms are represented by deities which emanate from him. They believe existence is a cycle of birth, death, and rebirth, governed by Karma. Concepts of Hinduism • Atman: Means ‘eternal self,’the real self beyond ego or false self. The perspective on self can be as eternal servant of God or the self as being identified with God. It supports the idea of reincarnation since the same eternal being can inhabit temporary bodies. The idea of self is spiritual rather than material. • Dharma: duty or virtue. It was revealed in the Vedas and is the power that maintains society. Everyone has different duties so each person has their own dharma (what is correct for one person isn’t always correct for another). Not to act according to one’s own dharma is wrong (adharma). • Varna: a person’s responsibility regarding class and stage of life (ashrama). There are four classes: Brahmins (intellectuals, priestly class), Kshatriya (nobles or warriors), Vaishyas (commoners or merchants), & Shudras (workers traditionally serving the higher classes - artists, musicians, clerks). The top three are known as ‘twice born’since they have been born from the womb and through initiation. The twice born go through four stages of life: celibate student, householder, hermit or wilderness dweller (pilgrimage with wife), and renunciation (gives up the world to seek liberation or develop devotion). • Karma and Samsara: means action, every action has an equal reaction either immediately or at some point in the future.Actions in harmony with dharma will have good reactions and actions against dharma will have bad reactions. The results of your action may be displayed in this life or in a new life. The reincarnation process is called samsara - a continuous cycle in which the should is reborn over and over according to the law of action and reaction. The goal of liberation (moksha) is to make us free from this cycle & from rebirth. • Purushartha: life has different goals according to a person’s stage of life and position. Three life goals include virtuous living or dharma, profit or worldly success, and pleasure (sexual + broadly aesthetic pleasure), and liberation was later added. Brahman and God: Brahman refers to a transcendent power beyond the universe sometimes • translated as God though the two concepts differ. Brahman is the power which upholds and supports everything. They do not worship Brahman. God is an absolute reality who creates, sustains, and destroys the universe over and over again. Most Hindus believe in a Supreme God whose qualities/ forms are represented by the multitude of deities. Each person relates to God in his/her desired form - Krishna, Shiva, or Kali which are aspects of a single transcendent power. - Bhagavan is an impersonal energy, beyond anything that can be said about him. - Bhagavan is a person: God can be understood as a supreme person with qualities of love and compassion towards creatures. - Hindu Denominations: defined by attraction to a particular form of god (1) Vaishnavas: focus on Vishnu & his incarnations who incarnates into the world in different forms in order to restore dharma. Most popular. (2) Shaivas: focuses on Shiva, believes that he performs 5 acts of creation maintenance, destruciton, concealing himself, & revealing himself through grace. (30 Shaktas focus on the Goddess in her gentle forms as well as in her ferocious forms. • Guru: The teacher or master of a tradition who teaches through example and conveys knowledge and wisdom to his disciples. The disciple might become the teacher so the lineage continues. Spiritual understanding is conveyed from teacher to disciple through a lineage when one guru passes away he or she is replaced by usually one or more successor. Deities (Shiva Section) Shiva is the third god in the Hindu triumvirate, whose role is to destroy the universe in order to re-create it. The destruction isn’t arbitrary but constructive. He is the source of good and evil. Looking like a man with a blue face and throat, a third eye, a cobra necklace, the vibhuti (three lines on the forehead), the trident, dressed in animal skin in a yogic position. He sometimes is half man half woman (of his wife Parvati). Shiva is believed to be the Lord of Dance. The rhythm of dance is a metaphor for the balance in the universe which Shiva is believed to hold. Most important dance = Tandav, a cosmic dance of death performed at the end of an age to destroy the universe. Story = Shiva wasn’t invited when all the other gods were to a prayer ceremony and his wife Sati jumped into the sacred fire. Shiva created the Tandav to destroy the world but stopped when Sati’s ashes were scattered over him. He then meditated for years until Sati was reborn as Parvati. Hindu Worship • Puja: involves images, prayers, and diagrams of the universe. • Individual rather than communal: involves making personal offerings to the deity while repeating the names of their favorite gods and goddesses. • Worship at home: shrine where offerings and prayers transpire. Worship should be performed three times a day. Some wear the sacred thread over the left shoulder to the right hip. • Temple worship: different parts have different meanings. Central shrine is the heart of the worshipper, tower is the flight of the spirit to heaven, and priests read the Vedas & twice-born Hindus can as well. • Religious rites: Nitya (daily rituals), Naimittika (occur certain times during year), & Kamya (optional but desirable - pilgrimage). • Worship and pilgrimage: an undertaking to see and be seen by deity. • Kumbh Mela: every 12 years up to 10 million people share in ritual bathing at the kumbh Mela festival, believing their sins will be washed away. • River Ganges: the holiest river. • Varanasi: one of the most important pilgrimage centers, home of Lord Shiva. Those who die there have their ashes scattered on the Ganges, considered to have experienced the best death possible. Class Notes: Hinduism: group of religions, a way of life, didn’t develop into a religion in the 18th and 19th century, the Veda’s is one of their Sacred Scriptures, a supreme God, cycle of birth, death, and rebirth directed by karma. You could get reborn into different places in the caste system, where you will remain for the rest of that life (you don’t need to know the details). The goal is to be released from that cycle. Varna is the responsibility that someone takes on based on their caste placement (basically your darma or duty based on your place).Atman is your soul which is eternal. Brahman refers to a transcendent power beyond the universe sometimes translated as God though the two concepts differ. Shiva is the Lord of the Dance & destruct/recreate the world, he is frequently shown with his wife Parvati. Bharatha Natyam - Brief History: - In the temple, dance was called sadir. It was performed by dancers called devadasis (“servant of God”). It is based on the ancient Hindu text, Natyashastra, written in 300 B.C. - Devadasis were ceremoniously married to the deity of the temple; could not marry mortal man, but could have sexual relations with priest or king. They danced and sang for the temple deities. - In the 1920s & 30s, sadir was opened to the public. This had to do with the British invasion and control of India. Devadasi became synonymous for many in Indian society with prostitute and the name changed from bharatha natyam (1932).As fewer people participated, the devadasi got less food, money, and support, which led to prostitution. The devadasi were not only having sex with priests and kings but others too in order to continue dancing as devadasi.Also, the Britiish/Western world viewed this sort of activity in a negative light. - Due to western influence, schools developed for higher classes to learn the dance form. The great dancer Balasaraswati spread the dance throughout the world (formerly a devadasi). When it became bharatha natyam it was theatrical and taken out of the temple completely. - Characteristics: dance is part of drama with four means of communication/expression: speech, costume, body, and psychological states. While each part has strict rules, the unity of all are what makes them significant. The purpose is to arouse universalized emotional states, called rasas, in the viewer, rasika. There are 8 fundamental rasas (roughly translated): love, humor, pathos, anger, herosim, terror, disgust, and wonder. The focus is on a SHARED experience of performer and audience. - Physical characteristics: it involves extreme physical control! There are 7 movements of the eyebrow and 9 movements of the eyelid detailed in the Natyashastra, a dance manual for Bharatha Natyam as well as other dance styles. There is a sculptural quality, emphasizing the skeleton, joints, and bond structure, versus muscles. There are two type sof dance sequences: (1)Abstract: stress virtuosity and rhythmic improvisation with musicians (drummer, singer, & 2 instrumentalists) (2) Expressive: interprets classical Indian poetry through mime and mudras (hand gestures). - Transition into secular society: while they were independent before with a head over them, now they were controlled by men in a more invasive way. You were a dancer but you no longer had a connection to why you danced in the beginning. It was a sacred art and rules performed in a secular setting.Also, there were class issues since higher classes saw sadie as being too crude and literal; intellectualizing the dance form. It was an upper and middle class dance form since you had to have money in order to learn the dance. Books were written about the dance. Instead of it being based off of the ancient text, other text and rules were added on. Originally, the women performed it for the priests and now it is run by men, funded by men, etc. * You need to know concepts, less the actual names Week of 9/22 Trans and Ecstatic Dance by Erica Bourgignon - The Devil’s Illness: moves and gestures in time to the rhythm of singing and music from a circle of men and women gesticulating frantically. The patient is believed to be possessed by the devil and the dancing is an attempt to cure him and expresses his illness. (in Ethiopia) - In Italy, there was a similar type of illness. People believed that the tarantula bit them and suffer from various emotional and psychosomatic disturbances. The patient is made to dance to exhaustion. In public ceremonies, they meet at the Chapel of St. Paul for cures. - In some towns in Belgium and Luxemburg, such dancing processions are still held annually. Today, they are ritualized, formalized performances, but are still are a part of worship. - Spirit possession may manifest itself in a variety of ways: physical illness, acquisition of supernatural powers for good or for evil, in mental illness, or in states of dissociation or trance. Trance is a state of altered consciousness that is a state in which one or several psychological and physiological changes occur: a change in the perception of time and form, of colors and brightness, of sound and movement, tastes and odors, in sensations of pain, a change in memory, etc. Trance states often are induced by drugs. InAfrica, drugs are rarely used for this purpose, but are part of public ceremonial occasions where dissociated individuals are believed to be possessed by certain spirits and act out the spirits’behavior. Masks represent other groups of spirits, but the difference is that the mask hides the true identity of the wearer rather than impersonating another being. In the case of possession trance, the identity of the impersonator is known to all and the body becomes the mask of the spirit. Possession trance represents an inner transformation, a change in the impersonator’s essence. - Some people use both masks and possession trance to impersonate spirits in different occasions. With theAlaskan Eskimos, they can only look downward with the masks on in order that the spirits do not enter the wearers. - Drug-induced trans is a private experience. - Disturbances of balance are likely to be experienced, involving a loss of control over the body and over the self. This will contribute to the likelihood of the occurrence of trance. Non- possession trance more rarely uses the dance as its vehicle of expression and it’s least likely to do so when drugs are employed. Where spirit possession trance occurs, the trancer impersonates the spirit, but he’s unlikely to utilize masks among his accessories. - In the Biblical dances, there is a heightened sense of participation in the mystic powers of the Devine. These are group dances, forms of collective mysticism. There is only one Spirit and all share his power. - Fire Dancing in Greece: it’s celebrated on the day of St. Helena in memory of the recovery of the True Cross. Now it is a performance (from religion to performance, from ritual to theatre) - Whirling Mevlevi dervishes of Konya: Trance dancing has been outlawed by the government in Turkey and Konya in the 1920s. Now the whirling ecstatic dance is preserved and permitted as an attraction and a museum piece. They still play a role in the religious and religio-medical life of the people. - Two basic types of ecstatic dance: that used as a vehicle for achieving mystic states and that used in the ritual enactment of a role. - Repetitive movement or music can also send people into dissociative states, breathing patterns, hallucenagic drugs, do something until physical exhaustion. 
 Class notes: - Whirling Dervishes (Mevlevi Order): originated in Konya, Turkey. Performed by a mystical sect of Islam called the Sufi order. It was founded in 1273 by Rumi’s followers after his death. He believed in the use of music and dance as worship. Sama is a symbolic ritual in which dervishes “whirl” around the sheikh in the center. The right palm is pointed up towards heaven, left palm faces down to the ground, a spiritual offering and meditation. - Dance of the Indian Snake Deity: State of Kerala in southwestern India. Hinduism practiced in part, but also older gods from earlier religions. Serpent gods and goddesses occupy groves behind certain higher-caste houses, can bring bad luck in form of disease (especially skin disease) and infertility, ritual performed to propitiate the deities by an outcaste group - the Pullavas. The Pullava’s job is to cleanse the community of “pollution” such as disposing of carcasses of dead animals. In doing so, they become “polluted” themselves. Thus, they aren’t allowed to enter Hindu temples and their presence in higher-caste homes would be considered polluting. The ceremony could last for as many as 21 consecutive nights. The length depends on how long since the last ritual and extent of ill fortune in the higher-caste family. The Pullavas arrive to construct ritual space in courtyard. The Mandala is created, which is an elaborate floor painting. The powders are made from ground rice, charred ride husks, spices, and lyme. Offerings are laid on banana leaves around the perimeter. Examples include: rice, coconut, spices, plantain, flower petals, and incense.Ahigher-caste priest blesses the offering and removes stigma from being created by outcastes.Afire massage is a devotion performed by young pullava man - walks around the rim of the mandala. It can include somersaults, rubs lit torches over bare skin, and put out flames in mouth. The final step is the erasing of the mandala. This is performed by 2 young girls - become possessed by the serpent deities, under the influence of repetitive percussive music. If the gods are satisfied, the girls become possessed. While the girls are possessed, members of the sponsoring family may go into trance and express grievances against other family members. The deities, speaking through girls, may suggest remedies. Still possessed, girls erase the mandala by sliding around on their haunches, sweeping their long hair and brushing the mandala with brooms. Yoruba: • WestAfrica - southwestern Nigeria and southern Benin • the dancing body is where the visible world of the living and the invisible world of gods, ancestors, and spirits meet. Dancing is a way of communicating and manifesting ancestors, spirits, and gods. • Ultimate source of life is a divine creator. Underneath this creator are 400+ orishas or gods and goddesses in Yoruba pantheon. Devotees may follow one or several deities. • Egungun is a festival in which dance is a part, performed by the Yoruba. It’s a dance drama. During festivals, family ancestors are honored by maskers who wear elaborate, full-body costumes/masks. The masks are nothing by themselves, but gain full power when they are “danced” - steps and gestures that express the personality of the ancestor. This is not necessarily possession. It is fierce and aggressive for warriors and gentle and graceful for matriarch. You portray the personality of that ancestor.Always men performing this and the honored ancestors are almost all male. They don’t know who it is behind the mask. Women chant praise songs and drums are played to rouse the egungun to action. • Egungun Masks: multiple layers, face usually hidden behind tight mesh netting, new decorations and layers are added every year. Outer layers are usually made of long strips of cloth attached at the top, they fly out when the dancer spins or changes direction. The head of the mask is actually above the head of the dancer. • Egungun Festivals continued: Dancers are treated as the ancestors incarnate. The dancer may become possessed by the spirit of the ancestor, but it isn’t necessary for the masquerade. While in that state, the dancer may speak incantations or give blessings. The ancestor (dancer) may demonstrate ethical or immoral behavior that has occurred since the ancestor’s last visit to the community. The Egungun is the name of the dancer and of the festival. Dance of the Realm, October 7, 2014 - Albert Mawere Opuku: 76 years old, founded Ghana’s national dance ensemble, helped organize a festival of his people at the palace ofAsantehene. He is one of the last of his generation with knowledge ofAsante traditions. He is called “master of music and the drums” (master of the dance). - Fontomfrom drums: used in this dance, made from a tree trunk and is 5 feet tall, with an elephant ear as the drum. They are used for warrior or heroic dances. The drum carries a dialogue with the dancer. - The king ofAsante is expected to dance before his people. The beats in one dance mean: Some men fight, some run away. Which kind of man are you? The king’s movements while energetic, are never hurried or jerky because a king is more majestic when he moves slowly and elegantly. - Asantehene rides in throne made of woven wicker (palanquin). He dances to remind people of victories ancestors have one. He mimes an entire campaign. Chiefs at every level also dance to do honor to their position and pay homage to those higher up in the hierarchy.Anyone is welcome to dance, but if inappropriate they fall victim to “drum censorship” where the drumming falls silent and they shrink back into crowd. - The court ofAsantehene is a center of power, patronage, and pageantry.Acourtier was always on duty – a mark of royal favor and a badge of authority over the less fortunate. Everywhere they went was an occasion to demonstrate rank. Dancing was central to display power. Training is required to do it properly. Courtly ideals survived the demise of the court itself. - The great officers of the kingdom’s patronage was a way to power and wealth, attracting supplicants and followers, but patterns of alliance were ever-shifting. You couldn’t trust anyone. - Survival ofAsante: power of army and political organization. Founder of confederacy was priest namedAnokye (combined feudalism, empire, and democracy). The official currency of the land was gold dust. They expanded by war or by diplomacy, establishing dominance over most of modern Ghana. The British army ended their power in the late 19 century. - The umbrellas used to shade theAsantehene and chiefs and signal their appearance. The umbrella-bearer makes the umbrella dance to the music of the drums and horns in the chief’s entourage. - Achief and his court arrive at the assembly ground for a BigAdae. They carry gold staffs among the umbrellas. - Most of land underAsante control at beg. Of 19 century was tropical rainforest. They built their capital Kumase on a hill. Formal audiences and council meetings took place in a Great Court. The unity of theAsante nation was symbolized by a Golden Stool, carved in wood and encased in gold. TheAsantehene was never an absolute monarch. One each level a place of honor was reserved for a woman known as the “queen mother” who represented the women of her community. If the performance of any chief was found wanting, he could be removed from office by the vote of those who had elected him. - The BigAdae (Ritual Day) takes place at the hilltop palace in the center of Kumase (now 400,000 people. When Ghana gained independence, even now, fewAsante have been welcomed into politics at the national level. - To keep the dance alive: The BigAdae – public part of the ceremonies will be held adjacent to the palace complex on assembly ground. The lesser chiefs go first and most powerful last. Every courtier has a responsibility to pass the traditional songs and dances to the next generation. Aseante children are told stories that make plain the central role that dancing plays (before they learn the dances). - DwoAKA“spiritual coolness” or inner peace. It is a quality of life prized throughout tropical Africa. When you start dancing and you feel cool (not nervous), you feel like the whole world belongs to you. - Java – fourth largest island of Indonesia and Mt. Merapi erupts every 5 years causing destruction. 2 competing royal courts established during 18 century – Yogyakarta and Surakarta, which evolved its own versions of Javenese court dance. It commemorates a 300 old tradition linking royalty and divinity, developed from a unique blend of Buddhism and Hinduism, as well as Islam. While some bedoyos are more sacred than others, all are performed to proclaim glory of the ruler, to affirm court’s ancestral ties to a divine source of power, and to embody clear teachings about the Javanese way of life. Everything suggests the public projection of the disciplined self. It’s danced by 9 women with 9 different aspects of one individual or of some abstract idea or theme. Focal point is a permanent structure. In Yogyakarta, court dances are performed in an open-sided rectangular pavilion. Preparations for bedoyo are elaborate and time consuming. The essence of bedoyo is balance or equilibrium. The basic types are highly stylized and referred to by name. The movements have symbolic significance – transition from asymmetrical to symmetrical represent a change of inner state (conflict to reconciliation of all aspects of the human being). They may depict scenes from the history of the dynasty or Hindu epics. The bedoyo dancers betray no emotion. - Male dancing: one employees abrupt, forceful, expansive movements to portray robust warrior types and ogres and the other marked by smooth, flowing, refined gestures, is reserved for thoughtfultheroes. - Early 19 century: Dutch commercial interests consolidated their political and military hold on Java, so the 2 royal courts redoubled their competition. The heirlooms, or pusaka, were divided between the two courts. There is a paradox in Javanese culture concerning power (connected to specific possessions and is also invisible and pervasive). - The dances of the court were not originally open to outsiders. The bedoyo at Yogyakarta was first performed only by females and was forbidden to teach classic dance outside the palace. When opened to public the goal was to invigorate court arts by exposing them to new influences and to reinforce a historically rooted Javanese consciousness against the modernizing pressures of Western colonialism. Hundreds of performers were recruited from the domain of Yogyakarta to learn the dances, the most accomplished became full-time servants of the court. - When the sultan Hamengku Buwono led to fight against the Dutch for Independence, he worried the dancing would weaken allegiance to the central government, so bedoyo was banned. What kept bedoyo alive was the efforts of former palace servants who now taught outside the court. The current sultan revived performances the palace and gave a new life to Javanese dance in general. The dances represent a tool of legitimacy because they express values – a code of behavior and a spiritual heritage. Once dances were taken out of the palace, some were shortened and simplified and some stylistic elements were added. Romo Sas who considers himself a palace servant, deplores the new emphasis on crowd-pleasing physical virtuosity in dance, at the expense of traditional content that the Javanese see as both practical and spiritual. The etiquette of the dance tells us how to live life. - Japan: In the rush of modernization, the Gagaku Dep. Of Imperial HouseholdAgency was reorganized and performers were required to learn Western music and military marches. Japan’s defeat in WWII almost ended gagaku and bugaku. In 1955, the court musicians and dancers were considered as living national treasures. Court music and dance was passed down from generation to generation. They choose the most talented boys from each generation to be trained. - In theAsantehene’s palace, the people arrange themselves in a U-shaped formation that constitutes a temporary court. There will be 50 of these courts side by side, at the bend of each U are attendants with fancy umbrellas. Everyone faces the narrow aisle b/w the arms of the U and sits as close together to reduce distance b/w the people on the far ends and their chief called Nana. The drummers and musicians stand in a row behind one arm of the U. The people take off of their shoes to respect the chief and enter the U, moving in a counterclockwise direction shifting their weight. They use arm and hand gestures proclaiming: I depend on you, I belong to this land, we are one people. The chief also stands up and dances down the aisle toward the musicians. The entire assembly area (50,000+) becomes one huge dance floor and lesser chiefs pay respects to their superiors. TheAsantehene finally makes appearance in his palanquin in a grand procession accompanied by all the court regalia, do the events of the day come to focus. Place of honor is to the Golden Stool & shaded by several umbrellas + canopy. - Courts come into existence as instruments of political, military, spiritual, and cultural authority. Their primary purpose is to manifest power. Survival depends on ability of a court to reflect needs and aspirations of the population. The court dance typically embodies the hierarchical org. of court itself. They conserve attitudes about life, though they can change in response to societal changes. Bedoyo is encourage to migrate outside the court, as courts and court dances are expensive. In Yogyakarta, the establishment of a dance academy outside court has let loose creative energies. Bugaku has appeared on Japanese TV, but it’s protective status as national treasure restricts opportunities for further development.Asantehe continues to provide a focus for the self-image of theAsante people. Overall, court dances communicate the past glories of a community. 
 Class Notes October 8, 2013 - Military parade, graduation ceremony, ballet: specific costumes, structure, order of events, specific purpose, all come from court structure in Europe. - TheAsantes in Ghana: in westAfrica. * lots of gold (status), those of lower status arrived first and then higher ranks arrived to the BigAdae. They would also approach the king, Asantehini, in order of rank, lowest to highest. * The golden stool came from heaven and was given to the first king, no one sits on it. The height of their power was in the 1800s. If you are a lesser chief, you have your own stool, which has a symbolic meaning. * Matrilineal descent: descended by the mother, how they are identified. * The Queen Mother: counter part toAsantehini, the Asantehemaa. They are all from the same family, but not necessarily the King's wife. They are nominated, and she has ultimate veto power. They are rarely married, because the wives are supposed to serve their husbands. There is THE queen mother, the Asantehemaa, but there are also other queen mothers that are counter parts to the Chiefs. - MOVIE onAsante: * Physical description/court structure: drums are symbols of exhaled status. The king enters covered in gold, and other Chiefs have gold to show their hierarchy. The Chiefs wait their turn to pay homage to the king. It must be unhurried, majestic movement. The drums tell the dancers to go slower by the tone they make with the drum. The hands speak in sign language to demonstrate emotion. 50000+ people. Women's movements were smaller. * Purpose: reaffirm identity of people, pride that you belong to a great people, instrument to express things that are difficult to put into words, honor ancestors and King * Relationship of dance to culture: to be chosen king, you had to be an excellent dancer. Chiefs arrive in order of their importance at court. Each chief brings his own umbrellas, drums, and dancers. Priests bless the occasion with their own dances. No restrictions of who can dance, but only properly trained dancers dance because if it's inappropriate the drummers stop. * Changes in the dance/culture: King chosen not for dancing skills but diplomatic skills. Ceremonial order distrusted by military chief of state (reminder of who holds real power). Court's purpose now also involves resistance and renewal. - Bedoyo: found on Java, an island in Indonesia. Bedoyo originated 300 years ago when the ruler was ceremonially married to the queen of the southern sea.As a gift, she taught the ruler Bedoyo. The number nine is important. There are a lot of earthquakes and volcanoes.. There has to be a cultural attitude to deal with that. There is still a Saltan over Java (more figure heads now, majors/governors) but Indonesia is a modern government with a president. - MOVIE: Palace of Saltan is the still center of universe. Draws strength from culture striving for balance and self control. These values are displayed in carvings of dancers. The atmosphere of the palace is profound tranquility. Dance is also a means of communicating with God, court dance is a gift of the gods. In the Bedoyo, hands are held very specifically and feet are fully used (heel, ball, toe). The 9 dancers are dressed identically as royal brides, in unison movement.Acelebration of selflessness valued in everyday life. They are no longer seen as individuals. The essence of Bedoyo is balance - equilibrium through dance, balance between body and soul.As a performance but also as an offering that controls Java's destiny. - Bedoyo Continued: lots of emphasis o


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