Psych100 section x notes
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Date Created: 03/25/15
What psychologist study 1 Clinical 50 a Clinical Psychologist PhD Most people are involved in a day to day basis Independent practices or mental health centers Graduate school Talk therapy preferred b Psychiatrist MD gets degree in med school Medical orientation rely on drug therapy c Neurotic problems that are anxiety and depression they don39t interfere with the normal function of someone39s life Psychologist treats neurotic problems with talk therapy Deliver psychologist services d Psychotic psychological problems that is extremely severe that needs to hospitalized i Psychiatrist uses medicine therapy to calm the symptoms 2 Academic psychologists a Teach the students to become clinical psychologits do research that identify clinical psychological phenomenon Ex Child abuse rampage killings over control personality b Research on effectiveness of different types of psychotherapy 2 Counseling Psychology work for companies or big institutions dealing with less extreme problems than clinical psychologists more short term therapeutic services 3 Community Psychologist put emphasis on prevention of psychological phenomenon Focuses Prevention for at risk people Ex Teenage moms family of drug addicts and alcoholic 4 Biological specialize in biological and psychological bases of behavior and experience Ex Alzheimer disease aggression emotional experience a Physiological psychologists i Specialize on physiology effects on psychology puberty depression b Psycho physiologists i Specialize on psychology effects on physiology ex gets surprise and how your body reacts to it Become afraid c Psychopharmacologists research on medicine both legal and illegal amount of drug usage effect effects after a certain time on usage short term long term effects cumulative effects precision of the effects on usage of drugs d Comparative specialize studying various forms of behaviors across animal species including human Focus on sexual parental cognitive behavior Ex Humans39 usage of language vs other animals usage of language Ex Protectiveness for children 5 Developmental psychology how humans change as we get older Physical cognitive moral social developments 6 Experimental and cognitive psychology the very basic psychological processesmotivation thinking decision machining sensation learning that allow us to learn and remember and later to use information to pursue various goals 7 Education and school understanding the principles of psychological functioning within an educational setting Ex Tracking aka splitting kids into different groups by their academic performance 8 Industrial organizational Principal of psychology functioning within the work place a Ex Job satisfaction personnel selection effects of organizational structure 9 Social ln units of analysis that is greater than one person Two people small group each individual knows everybody else large group not everyone knows everybody else Cultures interculture relationship Attraction aggression negotiation group problem solving 10Personality focus on individual differences stable character traits 11Quantitative a Psychometricians 3015 specialize in measuring things that are psychological personality test b Math modelers articulating psychological theories in terms of mathematical equation c MISCELLANEOUS A Environmental crowding heat noise pollution Work with architects to design better environment B Sports study the factors that maximize theoretical performance C Consumer how do people allocate asset Ex Brand choice post purchase satisfaction 1 Counseling 2 Community A m39nmonw Biological a Physiological psychologists b psychophysiologists c psychopharmacologists d Comparative Developmental Experimental and Cognitive Educational and School Industrial organizationa Social personality Pattern recognition Bottom up data driven situations go from particular characteristic of a stimulus to a general conclusion Top Down conceptually driven genral to situa Role of Features in Other Domains A Shortterm memory as more trails are done performance will decrease if the the build up of proactive of interference switch category release from proactive of interference B Long term memory quotUnconscious Memoriesquot 1 Tipof the tongue phenomenon Ask a student to think of a word by telling the de nition Even when people can39t think of the word they can still think of a word that rhymes with the word or the rst letter of the word Because it is a bundle of features just like a bike 2 Feeling of knowing experience We know what we know and we know what we don39t know Because we might be able to recall enough of the features of a thing to bring it consciousness C HigherorderJudgments Cuba vs Russia is different from Russia vs Cuba Conclusion The perception of stimulus is in terms of bundles of features Learning 10102013 Two General Issues A The use of humans and other animals in psychological research First 40 years of psyc history research focus on humans After Darwin39s theory people think that it is better to study animals because they are simpler than humans The recent 40 years people started think that they should be careful using research results from animal research and use it on humans B How distinct are humans Language extremely long developmental period20 years humans learning animals instincts II The de nitions of Learning traditional Learning refers to anything relative permanent change in behavior as a function of prior experience contemporary Learning is any relatively permanent change in the organism as a function of prior experience III Associative Learning An overviewlearning that certain events go together A Classical Conditioning 2 stimuli that you don39t have control over go tother Associative Events in the world generally aren39t random they are usually caused by other things Some things in the world goes systematically rather than randomly Passive form of learning we don39t have control over x or y Ex Dark cloudy sky is associated with rain B Instrumental operant Conditioning a response and its consequence go tother A more active form of control of learning because there is more control over x or y EX If I m nice to other people people will be nice to be me If one is rude with towards other people people will be rude to you IV Classical Conditioning A Ivan Pavlov 1927 1 Original research Vary the food fed to the dog and analyze the content of the dog39s saliva 2 Ring the bell and the dog salivates D snoopy drools 3 The dog has learned to salivate when the buzzer sounds B Different Types of Classical cond 1 Simultaneous a Both conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus go and the same time 2 Delayed the conditioned stimulus goes rst then the unconditioned stimulus goes and they both end in the same time MOST EFFECTIVE 3 Trace the unconditioned stimulus would come on rst and 4 Backward UCS goes on and goes off before the cs come on C Basic Phenomena 1 Stimulus Generalization a WHEN the dog hears a new buzzer it will still salivate the more similar the new buzzer is to the old buzzer the more the dog salivates b Not only learn to respond stimuli but respond to all other similar stimuli 2 Stimulus Discrimination Have buzzer with meat powder and without the dog only salivates when buzzer is paired with meat powder V 3 Extinction Present the buzzer repeatedlyCS with no USfood the less the dog salivates 4 Reconditioning After extinction reconditioning occurs more quickly than original conditioning ie it takes much less learning trial to be reconditioned 5 Spontaneous Recovery After a few hours of extinction the dog would salivate again Extinction was suppressing the CR rather than eliminating it Constraints and Extensions 1 Some associations are easeire to learn than others biological preparedness 2 CSUCS contiguity is neither a necessary or sufficient condition a Blocking not suf cient b Taste aversion not necessary 3 CR is not always the same as the UCR Constraints and Extensions 1 Some associations are easier to learn than others biological preparedness 2 CSUCS contiguity is neither a necessary or sufficient condition a Blocking not suf cient b Taste aversion not necessary 3 CR is not always the same as the UCR Palov assumed the cr is the same as the ucr The water in the radiation chamber F Applications 1 Phobias speci c fear 2 Anxiety general fear a Stimulus generalization b Response con ict 3 Fetishes 4 Hypertension 5 Systematic Desensitization Instrumental operant Conditioning A B C Edward Thorndike law of effect BV Skinner Schedules of Reinforcement 1 Fixed radio 2 Variable ratio 3 Fixed interval 4 Variable interval SelfPresentation the public image of self 1 A few basics a De nition the display of social behavior that established maintained or re ned the impression that others have of us b Nature of strategies i conscious or unconsciously ii language complete accurate complete lie or in the middle iii sometimes people change their behavior so they can change the image of what they think of themselves c Goffman sociological approach i Playing different roles in different situation 1 Literal 2 Metaphorical a AUTOMUSNDEPENDENT CHILD do the exact opposite of told b HELPLESS DEPENDENT CHILD asking others to take in charge c Sibling I m here if you need mes d Importance of believability i The image we project isn39t always perceived as accurate e Goal to in uence others to respond to us in desired ways 2 Underlying motives a Strategic selfpresentation efforts to shape people39s image of us in a certain way b Selfveri cation the desire for others to understand us for who people really are 3 Strategic self presentation a Modesty cannot appear to be only concerned with ourselves talk too much about their positive attributes b Selfpresentational matching norms i Positivity when one says something positive in a conversation the other then can also say something positive ii Depth of disclosure match the intimacy of the subject c Consistency norm people should behave in a way that is reasonably consistent across time with our private attitude d Norm of civil attention e Norm of civil inattention popele should not pay undo attenetion 4 Nature of goals a Power politicians b In uence husband buys car magazines so he can establish himself as a car expert so he can have more in uence when it is time to choose the car c Sympathy we subtle to invite people to give us compliment d Approval trophy wives split the tab by paying part in cash and the rest in credit 5 common tactics ingratiation i compliment the others inviting them to reciprocate selfpromotion I BIRG i Basking in re ective glory ii If their football team won the weekend the higher percentage the students wear the school coor shirts iii Associating one with winners disassociating one with losers EXCUSES i My dog ate the hw a Neurotic problems that are anxiety and depression they don39t interfere with the normal function of someone39s life Psychologist treats neurotic problems with talk therapy Deliver psychologist services b Psychotic psychological problems that is extremely severe that needs to hosptaHzed Psychiatrist uses medicine therapy to calm the symptoms Academic psychologists a Teach the students to become clinical psychologits do research that identify clinical psychological phenomenon Ex Child abuse rampage killings over control personality b Research on effectiveness of different types of psychotherapy Counseling Psychology work for companies or big institutions dealing with less extreme problems than clinical psychologists more short term therapeutic services Community Psychologist put emphasis on prevention of psychological phenomenon Focuses Prevention for at risk people Ex Teenage moms family of drug addicts and alcoholic I Biological specialize in biological and psychological bases of behavior and experience Ex Alzheimer disease aggression emotional experience a Physiological psychologists i Speicalzie on physicolog effects on psychology puberty depression b Psycho physiologists Specialize on psychology effects on physiology ex gets surprise and how your body reacts to it Become afraid A general overview of psychology De nition Psychology is the study of behavior and experience Behavior directly observable no need to draw inferences ExTom is engaging in lecturing behavior bc he39s standing in front and standing and babbling on Most behaviors are boring bc they are nondiagnostic Exception Tom s example about him coming back late for class The news about his colleague39s son39s death The kid had a history of depression It never got better When it was time for him to go college he struggled even more After one year of college his parents allowed him to take one year off He goes to Spain bc he loved studying Spanish After one year he returned On his way driving back to college in New York he commits suicide 0 Experience what goes on inside Internal Ex perception issues learning memory emoition o Affective experience emotions that are broadly received Conscious vs unconscious o Alterstate of consciousness ex asleep senses gets dulled internal thought process change Ex being drunk or intoxicated Ex the runner s high after extreme forms of exercise endorphins kick in Methods psychology studies humans and other animals Animals are studied in order to better understand humans Objective is always better understanding of humans The type of animal that is chosen is based on its similarity with human Example only humans are capable of language Study prime mates to nd out bc they are most similar to us Discover the biological basis of learning by studying snails that learn Naturalistic observation systematic and carefully observed Controlled experiments Surveysquestionnaires Units of Analysis what precise question is this experiment designed to explain Sometimes it is describe something smaller than a human being Can be bigger than one human orjust one human Ex an organ brain such as its function development a system hormonal system theory would be about how hormones affect humans a process learning process What Psychologists Study A Clinical 50 a Clinical Psychologist PhD Most people are involved in a day to day basis Independent practices or mental health centers Graduate school Talk therapy preferred b Psychiatrist MD gets degree in med school Medical orientation rely on drug therapy BIOLOGICAL CONT Psychopharmacologists research on medicine both legal and illegal amount of drug usage effect effects after a certain time on usage short term long term effects cumulative effects precision of the effects on usage of drugs Comparative specialize studying various forms of behaviors across animal species including human Focus on sexual parental cognitive behavior Ex Humans39 usage of language vs other animals usage of language Ex Protectiveness for children 0 Developmental psychology how humans change as we get older Physical cognitive moral social developments 0 Experimental and cognitive psychology the verybasic psychological processesmotivation thinking decision machining sensation learning that allow us to learn and remember and later to use information to pursue various goals 0 Education and school understanding the principles of psychological functioning within an educational setting Ex Tracking aka splitting kids into different groups by their academic performance Industrial organizational Principal of psychology functioning within the work place Ex Job satisfaction personnel selection effects of organizational structure Social In units of analysis that is greater than one person Two people small group each individual knows everybody else large group not everyone knows everybody else Cultures inter culture relationship Attraction aggression negotiation group problem solving Personality focus on individual differences stable character traits Quantitative a b Psychometricians 3015 specialize in measuring things that are psychological personality test Math modelers articulating psychological theories in terms of mathematical equann MISCELLANEOUS a b c mmoowgt Environmental crowding heat noise pollution Work with architects to design better environment Sports study the factors that maximize theoretical performance Consumer how do people allocate asset Ex Brand choice post purchase satisfaction Universities 29 Private Practice 29 Mental Health Facilities 24 Schools 4 Business 3 Government 11 Correlational and experimental methods are complementary A Correlational Methods a Advantage good at identifying phenomenon that we want to understand better Correlation method is relatively cheaper Used to investigate a wider range of questions b Disadvantage Weak way of testing any given theory EX There is a correlation btw growing up being abused and abusing one s own children c Scatterplots vs Coefficients a pictorial reprentation of the relationship btw two variables vs numerical representation of the relationship btw two variable d Scatterplots and coefficients are both cover these questions 1 Are two variables related or not 2 How are they related 3 How strongly are they related 4 Is the nature of the relationship btw variables the same or different in different groups 0 no relationship coefficient correlation0 direct relationship inverse relationship Causal inference Fetchm Correlation does not imply causation Just because there is a correlation between two variables does not mean that A causes B to happen Causation does imply some form of correlation 2 groups of people that are absolutely identical except one The two groups have the same average running speed two slightly differences EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Independent variable researcher has control over Its values are independent of everything else in the experiment Ex Drugs that makes people run faster Dependent variable the thing that is assessed measured Ex The speed that people run Experimental group Control group Logic of causal inference Behavior development from a biological perspective Genotype complete collection of genes that we inherit from parents can t be seen Phenotype height skin color eye color hair color physical expression of the genotype Behavior genetics high anxiety consciousness psychological I General objectives a How broad a genetic in uence is b Understanding different types of methods ll Major philosophical positions a John Locke tabula rasa blank slate New born infant at birth is a blank slate At birth we are exactly the same b Rene Descarte nativism At birth we are completely egocentric Society constraint our natural evil sel sh impulses Mechanisms that constrain natural impulses parents most important religious institution norms laws c Jean Jacque Rousseau noble savage A new born infant is the most pure human in life Society corrupts the baby GeneUcin uences General Speci c Intelligence lntroveriextrov Temperament cortical arousal Perceptual speed visual spatial ability Emotionality stuttering lmpulsiveness dyslexic reading disalbities Optimism Normal abnormal helping aggression empathy s moodiness depression mania job satisfaction criminal activity sexual behavior alcoholism l Behavior Genetic Methods listed increasing level of sophistication cost of timemoney a Animal studies i lnbred strains big differences in energy level Different genotype ii Selective breeding b Family studies c Twin studies d Adoptions studies Animal Studies Selective breeding select animals that are extreme on some traits from a large group and have them breed and do the same to their offspring Advantage 1 Study any behavior 2 Extreme manipulation identical environment different genotype 3 How quickly something passes through generation affects the species Disadvantage 1 no matter what you are looking at it is always more simple than what you are looking for 2compare to human behavior animals behavior are always more instinctive Family studies Genes in come with different degree with different blood relatives Do not tell us if an disease is entirely due to genetic reasons or primarily due to genetics more sophisticated than animal studies 1 If heredity affects a given trait phenotypic similarity should be found among blood relatives 2 More similarities with those with more genes in common Twin Studies 1 Monozygotic identical twins one fertilized egg and split apart into two 100 genes in common 2 Dizygotic twinsfraterna genes two eggs becomes fertilized by two sperms Just like any other siblings 50 genes in common 3 Both are going to have virtually identical environment 4 Disadvantage a identical genes always have the same sex fraternal genes can have different sex different treatment to due to the stereotype of the different gender b fraternal twins only have 50genes in common they are more likely to receive paternal attention Adoption studies the degree which adopted kids resembles their biological children and adoptive parents Correlation btw child and biological parents gt correlation btw child and adoptive parents Constraints and Extensions 1 Palov assumed all stimuli are neutral so all associations are equally easy to learn Some associations are easier to learn than others biological preparedness biologically prepared to learn association over another 2 CSUCS contiguity is neither a necessary nor suf cient condition a Blocking not suf cient b Taste aversion not necessary 3 CR is not always the same as the UCR Palov assumed the cr is the same as the ucr The water in the radiation chamber E Applications 1 Phobias speci c fear 2 Anxiety general fear a Stimulus generalization b Response con ict 3 Fetishes 4 Hypertension 5 Systematic Desensitization Learning continued recording 103 V Instrumental operant Conditioning A Edward Thorndike law of effect Any response that is followed by a reward gets stronger over time Any response that is not followed by a reward will die out over time The pressing of the plastic bowl is the instrument B BF Skinner the cat is learning how to operant in the environment The researcher has complete control of the environment skinner box cumulative record re ect how much time elapses between one response and the next Continuous schedule of reinforcement every time there is a critical response it gets rewarded Partial or intermittent schedule of reinforcement not ever critical response is rewarded For partial intermittent schedule All are more resentenced to extinction than continuous reinforcement different partial schedule of reinforcement has different results C D Schedules of Reinforcement 1 Fixed ratio FR10 Fix number of critical responses Ex Pigeons have to peck 10 times before they get a piece of food 2 Variable ratio VR10 Don39t know when is going to be reward 3 Fixed interval Fix time interval gets rewarded every sixty seconds 4 Variable interval Some times sixty seconds sometimes thirty the interval varies Contingencies that are learned Reinforcement increasing the possibility of it happening again 1 Positive reinforcement give someone something that he or she wants 2 Negative reinforcement taking away the something someone doesn39t want Take aspring to deal with headache 3 Punishment the probability of immediate preceding behavior goes down Most common phenomena 1 Escape and avoidance cond Escape the dog can only escape the shock by jumping into the safe compartment It can only minimize the shock Avoidance ve seconds after the buzzer goes off the dog gets electrictuted After the dog learned the dog can avoid the shock if it can jump into the safe compartment 2 Learned helplessness when parents no matter what they do they can39t what get what they want or no matter what they do they can39t avoid what they don39t want Parents make the kids do age inappropriate learning tasks kids fail kids conclude that they are failures in live 3 Lack of selfcontrol People go to therapist to get help to get rid of a bad habbit because they lack selfcontrol Because the positive reward are more immediate than the negative effect Determinants of success in the college student I Reasons for study Success good grades steady progress in the curriculum and they are happy and satis ed Unsuccessful unhappy or behind on their progress in the curriculum A Theoretical critical periods Critical period Being able to speak walk for the rst time have an emotional relationship with someone outside the family puberty College life is a critical period that one experience a large increase in one s level of sophistication Intellectual challenges All the challenges are thrust upon college students all at once B Applied failure rates The rate that college students graduate after four years ll Academic achievement in college A Nature or concerns Academic concerns B Methodology Ill General Intelligence Intelligent one of the important determinants of success in college A Distribution Mean lq score is 100 most common iq is 100 second most frequent 101 and 99 Mentally challenged 70 and below Genius 140 Mean iq score in college 120 B Correlation with Achievement Positive correlation between intelligence and achievement C Restriction of Range the relationship of intelligence and success in college disappears When the range is restricted intelligence is a necessary but not suf cient to make someone successful IV Con dence and selfdoubt 10292013 A The need for con dence and doubt The very best student has a little anxiety and fear of failure However they have the con dent to think that they will succeed Pay attention and learn from the feed back B Common dysfunctional strategies 1 Overcon dence Too much con dence not enough selfdoubt Don39t learn from the feed back 2 Selfhandicapping Too much doubt not enough con dence People who have had great success in the past they are afraid they won39t be able to duplicate the success In the process of that it decreases the odds of the student being successful 3 Defensive pessimism Good students who extrerate the concern for academic They get burned out and higher health problems V How successful and Unsuccessful students Differ A Using time Going to class is necessary but it39s not a suf cient condition to success in college Unsuccessful students sometime spends just as much time as the successful students The successful students make more ef cient use of their time The successful students are better at breaking up large diffuse task into smaller more manageable pieces Mass vs space learning do it all in one time or do a little bit everday The successful student tend to spread out their study time The successful students prioritized and are more organized The successful students try to focus on a thing and try to make meaningful progress before stopping and moving on to the next thing B Reading strategies Different type of material call for different type of reading strategies The successful students reading speed varies depend on their understanding of the material When you already know a lot of something it is will be much easier for you to learn about the same subject than someone who doesn39t know anything about the same subject Successful students are reading actively unsuccessful don39t Sq34 method survey question read recite review C Note taking skills 103113 1 Take notes 2 Concentrate on the main points and how each main point are related to each other The people who take notes are able to tell the difference btw the information and its level of importantce 3 Read notes actively when studying exam D Testwiseness Academic street smart savviness in the acdmemic domain 1 Budget your time 2 Multiple choice read the question and answer it rst before looking at the answer choices 3 Essay exams monitor time carefully spent it wisely Short answers Be concise and to the point Long answers make an outline rst If you know a jargon well use it Pattern Recognition refers to the way in which we conclude that some constellation of stimulus feature represent a single identi able object Cognition thinking broadly conceived represent the rational aspect The majority cognition activity is unconscious The conscious mind is relatively inef cient serial in nature one thing at a time the unconscious is fast accurate ef cient parallel in nature multitasking Template theories rst theories proposed simple Each class of object has a template corresponds topatterns are no described at a unit level Uni ed holistic matter a Assumptions Pointbypoint Pick highest matching score Consider no other information b Major problems i ii iii iv Too sensitive to transformations Small details can have large effects some details are more important than other details Doesn t allow for alternative interpretations No role of context c Possible Solutions Preprocessing standardization standardized the stimulus rotate the stimulus properly if it is a letter that is rotated out of its usual axes Multiple templates Allow for context Excellent descriptors for machine perceptions ll Feature theories to describe stimulate using property list 10313 a Basic idea property list to describe of a stimulate in terms of the most elemental features b Process compare lists c Evidence a b Physiological nature of errors The more features that are in common the more likely that a person is going to mistakenly take one with another stabilized images paralyzed muscles the cells in the eyes will no longer see the object Disappear part by part Effects of similarity of nontargets IV Three aspects of human existence A Cognition thinking broadly conceived B Affect emotion broadly conceived C Conation predisposition to act a different way behavior The social self A Selfconcept congintion B Selfesteemaffect C Selfpresentationconation Selfconcept A De nition the total set of beliefs we have of ourselves behavior is a function of the person and the environment B fPE B Action Identi cation C Overjusti cation D Social comparison E Selfcomplexity SelfEsteem 11713 A De nition people s positive and negative evolution of themselves B A general positivity bias 1 most people kinda like themselves 2 relative to other people most people like themselves more than they like others 3 most people have a mixture of negative and positive evaluation about themselves C Selfperpetuating naturecycle 1 High selfsteem happy successful adaptive in stressful situation If you treat other people they will treat you will high selfesteem 2 Low selfesttem negative expectations high anxieity low effort failure self blame low selfesteem D Selfdiscrepancies 1 Possible selves if discrepancies is small the 2 the excessibbilititiye and the awareness of self discrepancies Four discrepancies Multiple selfrepesentations 1 Actual self 2 Own ought my understanding of what I m supposed to do to all to ful ll my responsibilities to other people in life 3 Others39 ought my understanding of the most important person in my thinks what I m ought to be doing Own ideal what I would be like if you were perfect Others39 ideal my understanding of the most important person in my life consider perfection for me 91 3 E Selfawareness To the degree we direct our attention inward 1 Awareness and reactions to discrepancies When people think about themselves they think about the discrepancies about themselves The discrepancies become salient When we are con dent that we can reduce discrepancies we change our behavior When people become aware of discrepancies but they aren39t con dent that they can change to elimate the discrpeancies They direct their attention outward 2 Flow experiences A lack of selfawareness create enjoyable psychological state Time distortion 3 Checking under pressure Directing your attention inward isn39t only painful but it hurts performance What psychologist study 1 Counseling 2 Community A Biological a Physiological psychologists b psychophysiologists c psychopharmacologists d Comparative Developmental Experimental and Cognitive Educational and School Industrial organizationa Social personality ammoow l Quantitative Psychometricians Math modelers Miscellaneous Environmental Spo s Consumer Unique Characteristics of the Field 91213 A Exceptionally Broad B Multilayered Humans have a tendency to assume single event to have a single cause A single event often has multiple causes Hence the explanation for the event will be multilayered C Nomothetic versus ldiographic Nomothetic laws are general laws they are thought to apply to all people at all times in all situations Ex A general law of learning motivation to maximize pleasure and minimize pain Idiographic laws are laws that are designed to explain each individual39s uniqueness Psychology is aspired to simultaneously nomothetic and idiographic Ex People all want to minimize pleasure and minimize pain but have different ways of doing this
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