Comparative Politics semester notes
Comparative Politics semester notes POLC 2300
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Date Created: 08/31/16
Political Economy “Globalism’s Discontent” by Joseph Stiglitz Beneficial Globalization -‐ East Asia has grown the fastest economically and done the most to reduce poverty through globalization o Growth focused on exports o Opened themselves up to multinational companies/created their own enterprises o Success: § Determined its own pace of change § Made sure as it grew that the benefits were shared equitably § Rejected the basic tenets of the Washington Consensus: which argued for a minimalist role for government and rapid privatization and liberalization § Government took active role in managing economy; highly regulated financial markets; regulations promoted growth o 1960s, 70s, 80s, East Asian economies grew rapidly and stably o 1990s trouble: because of the rapid liberalization of financial and capital markets § “countries of East Asia benefited from globalization because they made it work for them; it was when they succumbed to the pressures from the outside that they ran into problems that were beyond their own capacity to manage well” -‐ globalization of knowledge in developing world o improved health and life spans o Today there is the beginning of globalized civil society The Darker Side of Globalization -‐ Countries that have had global ism come naturally to them, such as East Asia, has done well; countries that have had globalization managed for them by the International Monetary Fund haven’t o Problem is with how globalization is managed o IMF pushes ideology-‐ market fundamentalism -‐ that is bad for the economy and politics; it relies on ideas of how markets work that don’t apply to -‐ Globalization is disadvantaging to developing countries and undemocratic -‐ Failed to live up to its potential -‐ Problems come form liberalization of financial a nd capital markets-‐ pose risks to developing countries o IMF gives countries money then takes it away-‐ creating economic devastation o IMF creates a paternalism when saying how important a capitalist market is, saying that they know best -‐ Anti-‐democratic Lessons of Crisis -‐ Historically, economic crises of flow in and out of the country are not the result of factors inside the country o Ex: Argentina faced high interest rates in 1998 because of Russia o Small, developing countries can’t withstand this -‐ Liberalizing capital markets of small countries=setting a loose boat on rough seas o But the IMF pushed for these boats to set forth o Has not brought growth-‐ how can one build factories or create jobs with money that can come in and out of a country overnight? -‐ When a country borrows, they have to set aside reserves equal to the amount of short -‐term lending o Bad for poor countries because interest rates for borrowing are so much higher than the interest rates for lending o High opportunity costs of reserves -‐ could be spent on infrastructure, education, etc. The Cost of Instability/Unpredictability -‐ Capital-‐market liberalization is accompanied by huge volatility -‐ impedes growth and increases poverty o Increases risk of investing in country; investors demand a risk premium o Increases likelihood of recessions -‐ The unfair trade liberalization agenda forces poor countries to compete with highly subsidized developed countries Governance -‐ Globalization: governed by WTO, IMF, World Ba nk do not provide global government and lacks democratic accountability -‐ Ideology: we care a lot more about what we do in our country than what the IMF imposes on foreign markets o Ignores the absence of benefits and overlooks huge costs imposed on these co untries Unfair Trade Agenda -‐ Trade-‐liberalization agenda is made by the North/advanced industrial countries -‐ Less-‐developed countries have been worse off from these agendas o Can buy industrialized countries’ manufactured goods but those countries can’t buy their agricultural goods o Have to compete with subsidies on agriculture of big nations -‐ US wanted China in the WTO even though it isn’t a developed country —just has a big economy Global Social Justice -‐ In countries that have been globalized (Latin America), benefits have only come to the top half, socioeconomically -‐ The North, as well as the World Bank, claims it is going to make reforms -‐ IMF problems: interests of the advanced industrialized countries get more weight -‐ Need a global alliance for reducing poverty and creating a better environment —need an alliance for creating a global society with more social justice “The Bottom Billion” by Paul Collier Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing -‐ Traps o Countries with a combined population of around 1 billion get caught in traps o Landlocked: poor life expectancy, malnutrition, etc. o Development trap o Poverty trap -‐ Role of Growth in Development o IMF averages figures that relate to the size of a country’s economy § Ignores population § Makes poorest countries seem negligib le § Data says that middle 4 billion has been growing rapidly in per capita income § Lower billion was too unstable to take advantage of possibility of improvement -‐ Countries trapped in stagnation or decline are the poorest —and it’ll just get worse Future -‐ History has shown that poor countries who enter the economy can sometimes grow the fastest o Before globalization, China and India were very poor, but they broke into the global economy and are doing very well o European Union o Low income countries grow faste r than developed countries -‐ No way to tell what is in store for bottom billion “A Job on the Line” by Joseph Adler Mollie James loses her place on global assembly line after 34 years -‐ The steel company, Universal, was sold multiple times to big Wall Street firms—finally to MagneTek, Inc. -‐ The plant’s massive machinery was starting to get moved -‐ She loses her job and the machine moves south to Mexico -‐ Outsourcing cheaper labor -‐ She recalls having a million work opportunities in the 50s o town was founded as a business: the home of the country’s first industrial corporation Balbina Duque holds the job in Mexico -‐ Women in their teens and twenties left their homes to work hard, cheap labor -‐ at her home, there was neither water nor electricity and she had to get water from a well; she left her son -‐ she had to wait months to get a job from the Spanish Workers Union -‐ there were improved working conditions but still sexual harassment and discrimination -‐ the city shuns the residents who come for work because they d on’t contribute economically -‐ city breeds disease and toxicity; talks of an environmental wasteland with the dumping of toxic waste —unchecked by regulatory agencies in both countries -‐ there was an outbreak of anencephaly o babies born without brains; many people sued and the company paid them -‐ wages are still low but MagneTek advertises and gives contributions to schools in the area o no help for employee who can barely eat and provide for herself even with working overtime Free Trade Harms Democracy -‐ free trade undermines stable businesses and communities, and exploits workers on both sides of the border -‐ no regulations lead to environmental issues, human rights issues (sexual harassment) Mexico “The Criminal Subversion of Mexico’s Democracy” by S chedler L Causes of Mexico’s Security Crisis -‐ Horizontal threats: societal subversion of democratic elections by criminal violence -‐ Schedler identifies top 3 as the main influences of the drug war 1. Material resource causes a. Money i. Criminal oligarchs can organiz e and equip themselves for violence ii. Illicit wealth sustains organization of violence iii. ½ drug cartel income comes from violence -‐based, illicit activities b. Arms i. Race between cartels ii. Unlimited access to means of destruction iii. Get from US c. Personnel i. Drug industry employs half a million people ii. Many levels in organizations that attracts many people 2. Actor dynamics a. Used to have institutionalized, corrupt exchanges between state and cartel —now there are too many actors b. Leadership decapitation strategy destabilizes the entire cartel system of actors 3. Demand shock in cocaine market a. Market expanded massively in 1990s when cocaine trafficking moved to Mexico b. Illicit wealth sustains organizations of violence 4. Competition of drug-‐trafficking organizations 5. Calderon’s failed policies a. Military doing police work w/o oversight b. Strengthening security w/o strengthening justice system c. Chasing cartel leaders without dismantling networks d. Led to cruel, routinized, and ritualized assassinat ions; many more homicides and disappearances 6. Cartel crime a. Against innocent citizens and state officials b. Kidnapping, human trafficking, extortion 7. State abuse and state collusion a. Abuse: acting with brute force; little actionable intelligence; no oversight b. Collusion: public officials collaborate with criminal organizations Effect on Democracy Indirect 1. Subverts basic human rights, freedom of expression, freedom of association 2. Mexico fails to protect its citizens a. Unable and unwilling 3. State abuse, state collusion with crime, and state indifference towards victims a. Shows state weakness, incapacity, incompetence 4. Systematic impunity of violent criminals a. State grants a license to kill 5. Dangerous for media a. Local/state officials are additional aggressors against media freedom b. Cartels have control of news agenda —captured civil society 6. Civil society a. Remains vibrant because of citizen resilience b. Local movements to achieve recognition that there are victims in the violence Direct 7. Cartel influence in politics —to limit criminal law and enforcement a. Concealment: hide and evade reach of state b. Capture: colonize state through intimidation and corruption c. Confrontation d. Wealth allows them to act like a lobbying group to get the most cooperative candidates i. Criminal competition leads to political competition 8. Candidate capture: cartels coopt members and parties 9. Candidate cleansing: candidates receive threats and attacks 10. Agenda setting: clean candidates must be silent or risk being attacked 11. Voter intimidation: violence constrai ns choices/voting altogether Solution? Schedler thinks it lies in the hands of getting civil society together USSR/Russia – Putin’s authoritarian resilience “Resilient Authoritarians” by Dimitrov J Sources 1. Good economy a. High oil and gas prices b. Putin got foreign investment to come in 2. Promoting nationalism a. Restore Russia to Soviet era world power 3. More assertive in economic affairs 4. Bad past with democracy and Yeltsin a. No rule of law or free market economy b. Corrupt privatization schemes made few rich c. Russians were poor and unhappy 5. Strengthened courts and law enforcement 6. Citizens have a predictable and good standard of living “Can Putin Keep His Grip on Power? by Treisman Sources 1. Response to large protests a. Refer to protesters as “Bandar -‐log” (monkey people from Jungle Book—meaning they were foolish and stupid b. Then he announced political reforms in response to calls for change i. Decentralization and easier registration requirements but didn’t call for new elections…. 2. Reassert control over ruling elit e and rest of society a. Let fights smolder between factions, then slap down parties and assert his supremacy and restore equilibrium 3. Take away powers from Medvedev, who had a following of people 4. Investigate liberals who had advised on Medvedev policies 5. Make it harder for new candidates to gain traction by making them get signatures from 5 -‐10 percent of all municipal deputies in the region 6. Create a new political party, “Popular Front” to separate himself from discredited United Russia 7. Velvet repression: intimidate and distract opposition with drawn -‐out investigations, searches, interviews a. control creative class through coopting, intimidation, and disabling i. Created hip areas for them ii. Increased fines for participating in protests; NGO political activity requirements iii. Closed websites 8. Staged arrests and trials to publicize new order and disable protest organizers 9. Public spending 10. Set decrees after 2012 elections a. Achieve it? Great b. Don’t achieve it? He can blame and fire Medvedev 11. Put mainstream, conservative, “working man” Russians against liberal Muscovites 12. Used Pussy Riot to reaffirm beliefs of conservatism and combat gay activism 13. Puts colorless and unattached professionals in key political positions “Forward to the Past in Russia” by S hevtsova L Sources 1. Makes use liberal civilization —first setting out to “contain it” and then intimidate it 2. “Putin Doctrine” adopted after election related protests of 2011 -‐2012 a. legitimates a harsher rule at home and a more assertive stance abroad 3. One group has political power, vast stores of wealth, and repressive mechanisms of state 4. Mobilized public around leader and state a. Helped by lack of traditional cultural or moral regulators (Confucianism plays a role) b. Individuals compensate for their own helplessness by looking for national successes 5. Military-‐patriotic mobilization a. Deflects attention from its problems —backing pro-‐Russian Ukrainian separatists and annexing Crimea 6. Self-‐selects array of legitimating concepts a. Sovietism, nationalism, imperialism, military patriotism, Russian Orthodox fundamentalism, economic liberalism, etc. 7. Use of foreign policy a. Cooperating with West when its advantageous b. Create Eurasian Economic Union 8. Nationalism a. “Russiky Mir” Russian World: supposed to consolidate ethnic Russians globally on the basis of loyalty to the Kremlin b. strengthen imperialism and rally nationalists 9. Sustains personalized power through great power aspirations 10. Anti-‐west—gain loyalty a. Containment i. Keep the west from expanding politically into Eurasia ii. Encourage it to endorse “spheres of influence” in the region iii. Block channels of influence b. Make Russian elites cut abroad assets and give up Western holding c. Accuse America of being a hegemon 11. Take away constitutional f reedoms a. Barring popular candidates, falsifying results b. No access to media for opposition to compete 12. Take away civil society a. Limits public assemblies; raises financial sanctions; etc. b. Limits internet and foreign media 13. Control private lives of citizens a. School reforms to teach that: the leader is always right b. Information warfare and propaganda; saying Western democracy is a sham China “No ‘Jasmine’ for China” by Dickson J China is fine Response to Jasmine Revolution in Tunisia -‐ Blocked news and increased internet censorship -‐ Chinese Communist Party has expanded reach of repression Reasons for Response 1. Regime fears a “color” revolution a. China’s leaders recognize their vulnerability to mass protest 2. China’s leaders are tightening up for pl anned leadership succession in 2012 a. Tightening began several years earlier b. Not a good explanation 3. Bureaucratic politics: response an effort by security forces to strengthen their political clout a. Justify growth of budgets by claiming to have prevented a threat Sources of Regime Legitimacy 1. Performance legitimacy a. Support for status quo b. Most people benefit from current regime policies c. Economic growth d. National pride e. Must preserve political stabil ity to maintain economic growth 2. Protests are small and are primarily about material issues 3. Citizens experience less state intrusion with opportunities for social mobility, access to information, travel, etc. 4. Listen to public opinion a. Citizens offer opinions on new policies b. Talk to local governments Regime Legitimacy Deficits 1. Less supportive of local governments 2. Don’t see achievement of goals locally a. Why? i. Either central intentions are blocked by local officials ii. Or center doesn’t actually provide resour ces for local officials 3. Corruption has accompanied rapid economic development a. State-‐run media only targets corruption of local officials 4. Perceptions of local government don’t affect perception of center Issues 1. Activists face state oppression and societal indifference 2. State relies on broad-‐gauged repression in minority regions 3. CCP is growing the middle class —will this cause a shift in expectations? We shall see Should China be worried? -‐ Dickson says no—China has growing prosperity, optimism, and patience for political change “Could China be the Next Wave?” by Gilley L China will change Is China experiencing transformations that have preceded democratization in other countries? 1. Pluralization of social values and interests a. Aggressive new media outlets b. Transfer of national discourse into hands of society c. People prefer American political system of divided powers d. bottom up: possible democratization 2. Waning belief of God given right to rule a. Experiments in power shari ng with local legislatures and civil society groups have blossomed b. Increased public participation for political legitimacy 3. International incentives that threaten to bankrupt a regime a. China has a strong capitalist system b. Weakest dimension of possible tra nsformation Other Points 1. Economically: Most countries see democratic pressures at income being $10,000 per capita, China is very close ; all countries that are neither oil -‐states or city-‐states have democratized when incomes have exceeded a certain level— China won’t get there for 20 or 30 years 2. Citizens could mobilize and find allies within the state and support abroad if they got fed up with being treated as political inferiors Democracy in China… 1. Minority areas would have cultural and economic autonomy 2. Would have a unitary state with bicameral legislature with two houses 3. A majoritarian electoral system 4. An administrative state composed of a strong bureaucracy led by a relatively unconstrained executive 5. Gilley says yes—democracy is linked to Chin a’s future Iran “Iran’s Paradoxical Regime” by Milani L Iran will change Sources of Regime Stability 1. Popularly sovereignty and limited government 2. All legitimacy is in the hands of Allah 3. Sharia Law 4. Supreme leader has control over everything; media, representatives in every institution, commander -‐in-‐chief, etc. (good and bad) 5. Uses mass rallies to emphasize regime’s popularity and intimidate competition 6. Uses force and propaganda a. Control over internet and media 5. “repressive tolerance” a. allows private and underground forms of resistance to happen in order to pacify masses and maintain status quo Evidence of Opening -‐ Authoritarian regime ruling a vibrant and defiant society -‐ When a regime tries to control every facet of life —all facets become potential of resistance 1. 1979 Revolution by Khomeini a. the most popular of all “modern” revolutions —led to absolute power in the hands of an unelected, impeachable man b. Oxymoron of Islamic revolution: makes the divine dictates more important than will of the people c. democratic forces didn’t go away, however 2. Supreme Leader issues a. Unchecked power in Supreme Leader, Khamenei’s, hands i. Command-‐in-‐chief, head of judiciary; head of radio and tele vision organization b. Challenging supreme leader i. Top Shia clerics and important political members suggest that a committee of clerics should assume the responsibilities after Khamenei 3. Elections a. show shifting dynamics of authoritarian control and intermitte ntly assertive democratic demands of the people 4. Cracks a. Corruption during Ahmadinejad presidency b. Comments on media and social networks c. As cracks become more apparent, populace has become more vocal 5. Populace cultural growth a. Internet access i. Many people hav e access, Facebook accounts, Instagram, etc. b. Underground activities in everyday life i. Theater groups, musical bands, film clubs, underground university, etc. c. Women are increasingly visible in public life i. Culturally and politically ii. Can divorce iii. But still have to follow dress guidelines and a policy of gender apartheid 6. Severe laws and harsh sentences to intimidate critics are increasingly defied 7. Economic Crisis: from falling price of oil What will happen? -‐ Power and persistence of micro -‐political defiance will break the clerics’ authoritarian grip -‐ Economic crisis, longtime corruption, incompetence, black market profit for the elite is having to face international sanctions and falling prices of oil -‐ Iran needs to institute a rule of law and end corruption, crony capitalism, and the rentier state that subsidizes authoritarian rule Politics of Islam/Arab Spring “The True Clash of Civilizations” by Inglehart and Norris No Arab democracies-‐-‐ why? -‐ Political L Argument by Huntington that Muslim world lacks political values needed for representative democracy 1. Separation of religious and secular authority 2. Rule of law and social pluralism 3. Parliamentary institutions of representative government 4. Protection of individual rights and civil liberties -‐ Cultural J o Both Muslim and Judeo-‐Christian societies favor democracy as the best form of government § Problem lies in traditional cultural: gender equality and sexual liberalization § Democracy isn’t sustainable because there isn’t tolerance and egalitarianism o Muslim societies have greater support for religious authorities than Western societies § Shouldn’t stop democracy! Ex: Latin America § In the US, anyways, 2/5 of public doesn’t think an atheist should be in office § Not as big of a deal o Muslims have a cultural problem with gender inequality and sexual liberalization § Big difference compared to the West; bad § Muslim societies are also less permissive towards homosexuality, abortion, divorce § Broader syndrome of tolerance, trust , political activism, individual autonomy, self-‐expression values, etc. o The way a society views homosexuality is a test to its commitment to equality § To gauge how tolerant a nation really is, find out the most disliked group and ask whether they should b e allowed to participate in teaching, government, public meetings, etc. -‐ Economical J o Modernization changes gender roles § Industrialization brings women to the work force and reduces fertility rates; women become literate and participate in representative government Country examples -‐ China: Undemocratic; believes men make better political leaders than women, despite a party line that has long emphasized gender equality o Discrimination of women -‐ India: parliamentary democracy with a weak rule of law o Has women rights but also domestic violence and prevalent prostitution -‐ Turkey: relatively industrialized Muslim society that shares the same views on gender equality and sexual liberalization as other new democracies (economic reasoning) Widening Cultural Gap -‐ Younger generations in Muslim societies are remaining traditional; Western generations are progressing Result -‐ Cannot simply make governments adopt democratic governance -‐ Need to have a commitment to democratic reform with the fostering of human development “Why are there no Arab democracies?” by Diamond No Arab Democracies—why? -‐ Religion o No: there are non Arab Muslim countries that are democracies o Difference in Freedom House from Arab to non -‐Arab Muslim majorities by almost a point -‐ Culture o Political traditions of Islam: again, No: non -‐Arab, politically traditional Muslim countries have been democratic o Political traditions of authoritarian domination: No: other countries have gotten passed this o Sectarian and ethnic divisions run too deep: No: Iraq and Lebanon, the most deeply fractioned states, are closest to democracy today o Support for democracy? Religious Arabs support democracy as the best political system § But when elections don’t mean anything, people don’t choose to vote § BUT many want Sharia Law -‐ Attitudes o Secular Democracy (40-‐45%): § Middle-‐class liberal intellectuals, professionals, businessmen who pressure for democracy § More liberal with racial tolerance and women’s rights o Islamic form of Democracy (40-‐45%): § Whether Arabs who say the y want democracy and Islamic influence favor minority rights § Almost same as secular with support for openness, tolerance, and equality o Islamic authoritarianism (5-‐10%) o Fears § that alternative to the authoritarian regim e would be an extremist regime § that elections would happen once and then a takeover § that their country would go into a military seized control like Algeria in 1991 -‐ Economy o Economic Level: No: one can find numerous democracies as developed as some Arab non -‐democracies § Many Arab countries hav e high per-‐capita levels § But bad distribution of income § Oil countries look more developed than they are o Economic Structure: YES § Oil and resource curse: distorts the state, the market, the class structure, and the incentive structure § Depend heavily on oil and gas rents “rentier state” § So rich they don’t tax their citizens —so not accountability to public § Oil states are centralized, corrupt, and repressive • a weak and coopted civil society • market economy is distorted • little wealth creation through investment and risk-‐taking § prevent capitalist problems by having vigorous market economies and well -‐developed, accountable states before oil revenues flood in! Arab authoritarianism -‐ Pillars are political o Patterns and institutions by which regimes manage their politics and keep their hold on power o External forces that help sustain their rule -‐ Policies o Uses repression, mixed with mechanisms of representation, consultation, and cooptation o When pressure mounts, the regime loosens its constraints, enabling politic al activity, until political opposition appears too serious § Then the regime will rig elections, shrink political space, and arrest suspects § Ex: Egypt in 2004-‐2005 when Mubarek allowed a contested election (because of domestic and international pressures) that was entirely unfair; opponent was sent to prison o Embrace limited reforms to pursue modernization without democratization o Political pluralism and competition are allowed within rules and parameters drawn so that regime opponents are disadvantaged § Parliaments from this don’t usually have authority o Islamist parties that stand outside the system can get lots of good grassroots support § Secular parties, however, look marginal, halting, feckless; no relevance or influence Geopolitics of Arab Nation -‐ External factors that reinforce hegemony of Arab autocracy 1. Arab-‐Israeli conflict: used to divert pubic frustration away from corruption and abuses of Arab regimes 2. Arab states themselves: reinforce one another in their authoritarianism and their techniques of monitoring, rigging, and repression Will Anything Change? -‐ Arabs won’t be authoritarian forever -‐ Opinion surveys show that Arab nations want more o Social media and internet give them new opportunities to express themselves and mobilize -‐ Factors that could precipitate change: 1. Emergence of a single democratic party in the region a. one that could be seen as a model 2. Change is US policy to engage, assist, and encourage democratic reforms a. not just in electoral realm but also in governmental transparency and freedo ms and civil society b. Need to engage with Islamist actors who want liberal -‐democratic norms 3. Long, deep decline in oil prices a. End Arab political exceptionalism “Has the Door Closed on Arab Democracy” Masoud Arab Spring -‐ 2011 young men and women protest ed for dignity and regime change -‐ showed that autocracies are inherently unstable and small events can end the settled order -‐ Largely confined to six countries; 4/6 saw dictators leave power -‐ Tunisia o Got closest to democracy -‐ Egypt o Demanded resignation of its first democratically elected president, Morsi, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood o Military intervened and rules now -‐ Libya o Held two free and fair legislative elections o Not a functioning state since end of Qaddafi’s regime o Civil war among tribal, Islamist, anti -‐Islamist militants -‐ Yemen o Dictator Ali Abdullah Saleh resigned o No new constitution or new parliament o Quasi-‐failed state -‐ Arab countries haven’t changed that much following Arab Spring considering how big of a deal it was o 7 have stayed the same o 7 have gotten worse o only better ones are Tunisia and Libya Democracy in Decline? -‐ In Arab world at least—yes -‐ Argument that Arab nations are on their way but it takes time o Transitions don’t always take time; post -‐communist world took 2 years o Assuming that democracy is the endpoint of all nations —not really true Why the Arab Spring didn’t work? 1. Too underdeveloped to sustain democracy 2. Culture that thirsts for sharia law and erects illiberal regimes 3. Absence of toleration -‐ Arabs may say they want democracy—but do they really? -‐ Just because one supposedly undemocratic culture defies expectations does not mean that another one will Future of Arab Democracy -‐ Autocrats and militaries are too strong to go down in a revolutionary moment; they eit her crack down or bide their time -‐ Democracy will happen evolutionary, not revolutionary -‐ Possible prospects o countries that weathered the Arab Spring but saw reasons to change in response to it § Ex: Jordan o Monarchies of the Persian Gulf: have used their oil wealth well o In poorer countries with smaller, constrained ruling families Comparative Politics What is it -‐ Study of politics in foreign countries -‐ Scholars examine and compare experiences from various countries to shed light on how politics work for a specific phenomenon and generate conclusions Typical Research Questions -‐ What conclusions/generalizations about political behavior can we draw on the basis of your care(s)? -‐ How are politics structured in different countries? Policy making; organization; structure -‐ What are the outcomes of these various structures? o i.e. does capitalism produce inequality -‐ Why are some countries democratic and why are some authoritarian? Culture, religion, technology -‐ Are regimes a function of culture, economics, history, or social structure? o i.e authoritarian countries have more inequality -‐ is one political system superior to the others? -‐ How do politics and economics interact? Why are some countries rich and some are poor? Politics at elite and mass levels -‐ How people feel about politics How is comparative politics different than international relat ions? -‐ Comparative politics: politics within countries (internal/domestic) -‐ IR: relations among countries o Assumes that states are functionally alike -‐ However, division is thin because of globalization Research Traditions Rational Choice Approach: looks at be havior of individual -‐ Draws from economics -‐ Unit of analysis: individual -‐ Assumes humans are rational and self -‐interested o Self-‐interest depends on context in which actors operate -‐ Ex: US politics: politicians act to get reelected; Sub Saharan village: not pushing for democracy because they are just interested in survival Structuralist Approach: look at broader structures to determine political behavior -‐ Level of analysis: systemic ( structural) level 1. Marxism: economic system determines political behavior; determines who has power and how they can use it. A country’s behavior depends on its position in the capitalist global economy 2. Institutionalism: political behavior is influenced pr imarily by political institutions (both formal and informal) a. Ex: US: two party system influences how people act Culturist Tradition: politics is a function of culture/value systems 1. Political culture: values of a given population on a politics and their re lationship with political outcomes a. Ex: is democracy the best government? 2. Political ideologies: explains politics by looking at ideological basis of regimes -‐ Problems with cultural approach: not as predictive States and Nations The State -‐ The organization that maintains a monopoly of the use of force or violence over a territory -‐ Has a territory; essentially a country; must have defined border to which it makes claim -‐ State has power to make laws and use police force to enforce laws -‐ Sovereignty: the ability t o carry out actions or policies within that territory independently form external actors or internal rivals; state recognizes no power outside itself or interference in internal/external threats o Notions of sovereignty are changing because of globalization o A fundamental principle of international law o External
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