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Class notes

by: Mark Wolterman

Class notes 12601

Mark Wolterman
GPA 3.475

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All you do in class is take notes.. Here they are
Dance as an Art Form
MaryAnn Black
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This 33 page Bundle was uploaded by Mark Wolterman on Wednesday August 31, 2016. The Bundle belongs to 12601 at Kent State University taught by MaryAnn Black in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Dance as an Art Form in Theatre and Dance at Kent State University.


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Date Created: 08/31/16
World Dance Thursday, January 21, 2016 8:19 AM Dance- an art form is displayed through the human body using the medium of movement  Dance has a primary purpose to be the expression of inner feelings and emotions  However, dance is often performed for social, ritual, entertainment, and other purposes Value of dance  the fact that dance has existed for thousands of years is clear evidence of its value (Paleolithic and Neolithic age has rock and cave paintings)  Dance is a means of communication o In the absence of language, people used bodies to express thoughts, feelings and actions Dance as a way of life:  Birth  Coming of age  Wedding  Death (New Orleans funeral)(second line-dance/walk and twirl parasol or handkerchief in the air as they follow the band) Dance as a way of life: Magical Powers  Hunting  Planting  Harvesting  Fertility  Invocation of and/or protection from elements: sunshine, rain, snow, wind Ritual or ceremony  Rituals were used to worship and appease the gods  Ceremonies were more structured and stylized and the dance was seen as an artistic product Functions of dance  Emotional experience  Nonverbal communication  Means of establishing social unity  Expressive of the unconscious of a society o Grows out of history, traditions of myths, legends and fairy tales  Reflection of political climate and social commentary Aesthetics:  Of or pertaining to the beautiful  As distinguished from the merely pleasing, the moral, or the useful;  Responsive to the beautiful in art or nature  Are defined by o Culture o Ethnicity o Social status o Economic background o Age, gender o Time Aesthetics effect on society  Henrik Isben- his plays were hated by the Europeans until he died  Igor Stravinsky- Rite of spring audiences booed and hissed  It is not the art that becomes better or worse over time but they simply look different and have different values as society changes Primitive period to 3000B.C.  Verbalization  Rock and cave painting/drawings o Paleolithic age  France, Giza, Sicily  Used basic movements (locomotor movements)  Walking, running, hopping,, jumping, leaping  Imitated animals, forces of nature, the gods  Conscious of internal rhythms o Beating of the heart o Rhythm of walk or run  External rhythms in nature, such as a cycle of day and/or seasons Ancient period 3000BC-400AD Dance in China  Has records of early dance  A wall painting from the Henan Province about 200c.e. depicts large scale banquets with juggling, dance, taking place between the rows of guests  Much of what is known about dance in China comes from the Beijing Opera In India  Has one of the oldest and richest histories of dance in the world  Bharata Natyam(500-300BC) o Bharata -One of the oldest known dances o A dance which evolved as a sacred Hindu dance o Includes elements of sensuality o Sexuality/sensuality viewed extremely different from most Western religions o Usually a solo dance o A fire dance Japan 3 classical forms- the dances and dance dramas of Japan and India were influenced by China 1 Bugaku- Oldest form, began in 7th century a When first developed, reserved for nobility and important guests b Performed exclusively by men, they serve as both dancers and musicians c Entertainment for the imperial palace d Accompanied by type of music gagaku 2 Noh- 2nd oldest dance drama form a Combines dance, music, and acting b Distinguishable trait- uniquely slow way performance unfolds c Added the acting component 2 Kabuki- 3rd oldest Japanese dance form a Combines dance, drama, and music b Employs very stylized movement, quicker, more acrobatic than predecessors c Spectacular presentation i Elaborate scenery, costumes, makeup b Has allowed contemporary ideas to be introduced i Not exposed to the world until WWII Africa  Most countries regardless of region: o Bare feet- gliding, dragging, shuffling steps o Crouch, knees bent, body bent at waist  Imitates animals  Improvisation  Hip movements  Most significant performed to propulsive rhythm/drums Ancient Greece/Rome  Sometimes called the classical period  Both culture have a direct connection to the development of the arts in Western Civilization (Europe and US)  Both cultures held dance in high esteem Greeks  Known for their art, theatre, drama, and dance  Divinely inspired  Linked to the stars and the planets  Dance was an integral to all aspects of life o Education o Theatre o Military training  Western theater still utilizes specific elements related to Greek theater Popular as entertainment  Pantomime  Juggling, singing, music  Acrobatics  Bull dancing  Wild and passionate dances  Olympics The roman Empire 27BC-395AD  Adopted many of its customs: dance and theater  Early educated Romans spoke Greek  Had tutors in arts and literature directly from Greek culture Military conquerors  Great organizers and lawmakers vs. artists and creators Cultural decadence  Dance/entertainment reflected this; spectacles would include torture  Arenas held up to 350,000 people  Emergence of Christianity; taken as slaves  Gladiators  Chariot races  Lions/Christians  Fire  Thumbs down Dance in Western Religion  Dance is the least represented art form in Western religion  Direct result of persecution of Christians by Romans  Who reveal in pantomime and dance  Shunned by the Church because it is the specific  There are references, that dance did exist on some level in Christianity Dark Ages 6AD-400AD  Human development at a low point  A transition between great civilization  Economic structure was at a minimal  Church was sole custodian of learning, educations and the source of morals  Development of dance almost non-existent in the Church Medieval ages  Bubonic/Black plague- killed half the population  Preoccupation with death/dying  Superstitions; witchcraft  Dance epidemics to ward off evil spirits  A healthy reaction of the people against stringent rules of the Church and awakening spirit of democracy in the dying Middle ages  Images: devils, masks, jesters skeletons  Knights/chivalry The renaissance 1440AD-1700AD  Renaissance=rebirth  The de Medici family-Italy  Patrons of the arts  Catherine de Medici  Married Henri, King of France  Brought several dance masters from Italy  Introduced a new type of dance, later to be known as court ballet Court ballet  Balthasar de Beaujoyeulx  Head dance master  Commissioned by Catherine de' Medici to choreograph what is considered 1st court ballet  Ballet Comique de la Reine- is what the dance was called  Common Ballet language is French Renaissance  Pierre Beauchamps  First ballet master of the Academy of Dance  Created the five feet positions used today  Developed the technique of "turned-out leg"  Devised system of dance notation  French s the official language of ballet  Jean Baptiste Lully  First director of the Royal Academy of Music and Dance  Elevated status of opera and ballet from entertainment to profession art forms  Later known as Paris Opera  Sun King=King Louie the 14th Court Ballet to Theater  Proscenium arch- end of 16th century  By end of 17th century, ballet recognized as viable art form  Turn out/leg rotation  Established new vocabulary  Separation; concentrated focus King Louis IVX  The court ballet were performed by and for nobility and the most prominent of these nobles was Kin Louis the IVX  Known as the Sun King. Treated like a god  He commissioned many ballets in which he himself performed. He danced for 20 years  The style of classical ballet owes a great deal to mannerisms Louis IVX  He commissioned several ballet masters to establish the Royal Academy of Dance, later known as the Paris Opera The dancer- the tool of the choreographer is the dancer. Through the use of movement, the choreographer molds and shapes what the dancer will perform, just as a sculptor shapes clay Technique- the proper alignment or placement of the dancers body and how the dancer executes the movement Technique/style- can also refer to the specific style of movement that a certain person developed, such as the Graham technique Performer- Though having good technique is important, dancers should also be outstanding performers  Having this ability means that the dancers go beyond what is learned in technique class and bring the movements that they are performing to another level Choreographer- A person who utilizes movement specifically, the medium of dance movement, to make their art  Attributes  Years of dance training and dance composition  Passion  Dedication  Patience  Respect  Perception  Practical knowledge of dance technique The creative process  Each choreographer has their own method or process by which they create  A choreographer creates to communicate and the only way a dance can communicate, is for it to be performed before an audience Choreographic elements of dance 1 Space- spacial awareness 2 Time- all dances happen in a given time frame 3 Energy 4 Dynamics- created when energy is used with time 5 Qualities- some movement qualities are percussive/sustained World concert/ ritual dance and folk dance  A form of dance used as communication. Usually portrays some aspect that is important to a specific culture, is often passed down from generation to generation Folk dance  Form of dance that is often a participatory activity with social involvement and recreation as a major element. Can also be performed for an audience. Its main focus is to provide social activity that gives people a sense of community and culture Countries rich in folk dancing 1 France 2 Germany 3 Mexico 4 Scotland 5 England 6 Italy 7 Russia Some of these countries can trace their folk dancing heritage back many centuries while other folk dance histories are more difficult to trace Countries rich in folk daces  Greece- can be traced to ancient period- danced in a line utilizing a chain hold on the shoulder or arm  Israel- the Bible has many references to dance therefore, we know Jewish people's heritage. Although Hora came from Romania it is the national dance of Israel  United states- square dancing, it has undergone Americanization but bits and pieces of it Contemporary influences  Although all countries have strong dance traditions some world concert/ritual dances are being commercialized Training Technique- the proper alignment or placement of the dancer's body and how the dancer executes the movement Technique/style- also refer to the specific style of movement Performer- Though having good technique is important, dancers should also be outstanding performers  Having this ability means that the dancers go beyond what is learned un technique class and bring the movements The choreographer- person who utilizes movement, specifically the medium of dance movement, to make their art A choreographer creates to communicate and the only way a dance can communicate, is for it tobe performed before an audience upstage right Ballet Tuesday, February 16, 2016 10:59 AM From court ballet to theater  In 18th century, ballet aesthetic changed from vocabulary/technique to meaning/message  Jean Georges Noverre (1727-1810) o Presented the concept of ballet d'action  Plot that followed logical progression Vs. o Ballet d'entrée  Similar to a variety show  Unrelated one acts Early ballet Artists-Rival  Marie Camargo(1710-1770) o Paris Opera dancer o Known for great technical ability  Marie Salle (1707-1756) o Known for dramatic ability o Performed in London and Paris o Credited as first female choreographer Romantics of the 19th Century  Marie Taglioni o Performed works by her father, Filippo Taglioni o Introduced new costume style (tutu)  Bare neck and shoulders  Tight fitting bodice o Known for beautifully executed jumps and leaps o Perfected dancing en pointe  La Sylphide (1832) o Considered 1st great landmark in Romantic ballet  Story of tragic romance o Choreographed by Fillippo (philippe) Taglioni for daughter, Marie Taglioni  One of the greatest ballerinas of this era  Depicted a woodland creature of supernatural origin who fell in love with Scotsman Romantic Ballet  Romantic ballets used mythological characters and places  Ethereal( other worldly)  Poignant o Painfully affecting feelings/touching/moving  Costumes (wings, flowers, Romantic tutus) Golden Age of Ballet  Charles Didelot o Romantic French dancer, choreographer and teacher o Changed ballet costume  Flesh colored tights for women o Introduced en pointe (on point) technique; flying (aerial) Giselle(1841)  Giselle o Choreographed 1841 by Jean Coralli and Jules Perrot o Music by Adolphe Adam o Although, La Sylphide was landmark ballet of this time, Giselle is the ballet considered synonymous Romantic era o Most famous Romantic ballet still performed today Giselle  Story of a woman (Giselle) who dies of a broken heart and comes back as a "wilis" not to seek revenge on her lover(Albrecht) but to protect him from the evil wilis Coppelia(1870)  One of last great Romantic Ballets  Just as Giselle is considered the greatest ballet tragedy  Coppelia considered ballet's greatest Romantic comedy o Choreographed by Arthur Saint-Leon o Music by Leo Delibes o More of female body is exposed Romantics of the 19th century August Bournoville  Student of the Paris Opera  Brought French ballet to his native country, Denmark  Dance aesthetic became part of Royal Danish Ballet still in existence today  Oldest, large body of ballet repertory still intact and performed today The Russian Influence Marius Petipa  French born; came to St. Petersburg  Formulated 'Classical Ballet"  Much of what we know today as classical directly from his teachings and choreography  Formal values o Symmetry and order of movements, specific staging, vocabulary  Famous ballets: sleeping beauty, Swan Lake, The Nutcracker  All composed by Peter Tchiakovsky Lev Ivanov  Petipa's assistant, collaborated on Swan Lake and The Nutcracker Classical Ballet  Principals, Soloists, Corps de Ballet  Ballerina(prima)(female), Ballet Danseur (male)  Grand pas de deux (step for two) o Live music o Pantomine(Greeks) o Pointe Shoes o Adagio- slow duet o Variation- male; difficult and quick movements o Variation- female; small footwork, turns/piroutettes o Final coda-duet  Ballerina main focus of all duets in classical ballet Role of the male dancer is to support her in difficult turns/lifts  Classical ballet vs. contemporary Ballet  Similarities o Same vocabulary of movement that uses French language o Utilize dancers o Emphasize strong relationship to music  Differences o Classical always has a storyline; most contemporary ballet focus on the movement o Classical very symmetrical; contemporary is imbalanced stage o Classical always a pas de deux; may or may not in contemporary o Classical females always wear pointe shoes; may or may not in contemporary o Classical keep spines erect; contemporary dancers curve, twist, and bend their upper bodies o Classical rotated legs; may or may not in contemporary Russian Influence- Contemporary Ballet  Michel Fokine o Father of contemporary ballet o Believed in strong technique o Believed in a fusion of dance, music, drama, scenery and costumes o Broke many rules of classical ballet to fit his aesthetic o His choreography is known as contemporary ballet  Vaslav Nijinsky o Outstanding dancer o First opportunity to choreograph with Diaghilev o Shocked audiences with his ballets (The afternoon of the Faun and the Rite of Spring) o Included themes of death and sex o Parallel, asymmetrical, heavy o "Mad"  Serge Dighilev o Impresario(producer) o Director of Ballet Russes o Renowned for bringing together artistic collaborations between greatest artist of 20th c  Igor Stravinsky (composer)  Pablo Picasso(artist)  Vaslav Nijinsky (dancer/choreographer)  Anna Pavlova o Principal dancer o Beautiful and dramatic dancing o The Dying Swan- choreographed by Fokine (most famous role) o Formed own company toured the world o One of the most famous ballerinas in history o Pointe shoe named after her  George Balanchine o Russian- trained dancer; Ballet Russes with Diaghilev o Invited to NYC by Lincoln Kirstein o Established school (SAB) and 4 successive companies  New York City Ballet in existence today at Lincoln Center o Sophisticated use of music, plotless ballets and minimal costume and set design o Even years after his death, he is still considered at the forefront of today's choreographers Contemporary ballet  Arthur Mitchell o Principal dancer with George Balanchine o In 1972, developed the Dance Theatre of Harlem o African Americans performed classical/contemporary ballet o Still in existence in New York City; tours the world Beyond the Russian Borders  Margot Fonteyn o British ballerina; danced into her 50s o Renowned for partnership with Rudolf Nureyev Russia to the West  Rudolf Nureyev o Most famous partner: Margot Fonteyn, British prima ballerina 25 yrs older  Russian- Kirov Ballet very restricted repertoire;(lifestyle)  Defected from Russia in 1960s to explore artistic freedom (tour in Paris)  Appeared on American national television in 1960s  Ed Sullivan show  Virtuosic technician  Artistic director of Paris Opera  Performed Modern Dance  Died of AIDS  Mikhail Baryshnikov o Russian dancer o Defected 1974 to Canada o Several years with ABT o Virtuosic technician; dramatic performer o Performed Modern Dance/Modern based company o Popular culture  Movies like turning point, white nights  Alexander Godunov o Russian dancer (Bolshoi Ballet) o Defected 1979 o Principal dancer with ABT until 1982 o Beautiful technician; powerful performer o Dance career/movie career o Excessive lifestyle From ballet to Broadway  Agnes de Mille o An American dancer trained in ballet o Choreographer for various ballet companies (Ballet Russes de Monte Carlo, American Ballet Theatre) o Best known for her choreography in musical theatre productions o Made into films (Oklahoma, Carousel, Brigadoon)  Jerome Robbins o American ballet dancer and choreographer o Choreographed numerous ballets for New York City Ballet o Mentored by George Balanchine o Known for musical theatre choreography West Side Story o Fiddler on the Roof o Gypsy o On the Town PLIE- to bend Releve- to rise with demi plie Eleve- to rise without plie Saute-to jump Port de ras- arm gestures Degage- to disengage Tendu- to stretch 1. Principlaist 2. Soloist 3. Court of ballet Stacked alignment- shoulder over hip over knee over ankle Modern Dance Tuesday, March 15, 2016 11:10 AM Modern Dance  Defining and categorizing modern dance today is difficult.  What is often taught and choreographed is an “eclectic” type of technique. It has been drawn from the many traditional, post modern, and contemporary techniques that fall under the broad heading of modern dance.  For this discussion the terms modern dance, post modern dance, dance- theatre, dance fusion, next wave will be used as historical terms. The Beginning  In comparison to ballet, modern dance is a relatively new dance form (beginning in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s), evolving as a direct revolt against what was perceived as the “restrictions” of ballet.  Many dance historians credit Isadora Duncan (1877-1927), with being the first dancer to present “modern dancing” to the public although other performers such as Louie Fuller and Maud Allan did present to audiences dancing that was new and different. The Forerunners Isadora Duncan  Inspired by the movements of the trees, ocean and all of nature she developed a technique that used hopping, running, swaying, and skipping movements (Pedestrian).  The solar plexus- in the center of the body, was the area form which all movement was generated.  After years of ballet training Duncan began to feel that pointe shoes and ballet costumes were too confining.  Inspired by the Greeks, she developed barefoot and in sheer tunics as to not to restrict her movements and yet still show the female body. Isadora Duncan  While in Russia, many believe Duncan’s new dance form inspired many ballet choreographers such as Michel Fokine.  Eventually the American audiences accepted her and she paved the way for all of the modern dancers and choreographer who were to follow.  Known to many in America as a rebel, she found fame and ensthoustic audiences in several parts of Europe and Russia. Isadora Duncan  Duncan danced to music composed by Beethoven, Schubert, and Wagner but had a particular love for the music of Chopin.  Many of her dances ported her love and passion for moving. However, in 1913, her two children were killed in a tragic car accident. She created a piece entitled Mother, in which the movie was sorrowful and broken.  Duncan eventually opened a school-6 of her students took her last name and were called the “Isadorables”. They were responsible for keeping her technique and legacy alive. Ruth St. Denis and Ted Shawn (1878-1968) (1891-1972)  Two dancers that were married to each other. They formed a school in 1915 called Denishawn.  They were greatly influenced by different cultures particularly of the Asian countries.  The main educational purpose of their school was to educate the “total dancer”- meaning the body, mind and spirit.  They started a company and performed on the vaudeville circuit as well as other theaters across the U.S. Ruth St. Denis and ted Shawn  In 1972, Denishawn, as well as their marriage, came to an end and both branched out on their own.  St. Denis opened a dance school in California  Shawn created an all-male company. Shawn’s all male company was started in order to bring to the forefront the importance of the male dancer. They toured the U.S. With this company he started Jacob’s Pillow in Massachusetts, which today is one of the country’s most prestigious dance schools ad presenting organizations. Pioneers of Modern Dance  Three major figures to come out of the Denishawn School who had a major impact on the dance world were: Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey, and Charles Weidman.  Martha Graham- lived into 90s, developed a technique that was based on the idea of “contracting” and “releasing” through the center of the body. It demonstrates intense muscular energy and control with sharp angles. She created dances that were concerned with psychological issues, American life and Indian and Greek mythology.  Doris Humphrey- came from the Denishawn School and developed a technique that was built around the premise of "fall and recovery." Dancers studying this technique learned to be proficient in balancing and ceding to the pull of gravity o Was interested in group dynamics and choreographed many dances that highlighted the group instead of the soloist. She had a strong connection to the music and worked with "music visualization" which St. Denis introduced to her. She also created dances that were performed in silence which  Charles Weidman- also from the Dennishawn School and Doris Humphrey's partner, (The Humphrey-Weidman Dance Company). Although he held the same values and beliefs as his partner, Weidman's dances were often comic in nature. He used a technique called "kinetic pantomime," in which music, and movement performed in silence, would alternate, he did create some dramatic pieces as well Martha Graham Erick Hawkins  Erick Hawkins (1909-1994)- a dancer in the Graham Company, developed a technique that stressed the ease and free flow of movement. Dancers studying his technique learn to perform movements using the minimum amount of muscular energy necessary, instead focusing more on the movements of the bones and skeleton. Hawkins was married to Graham for a short while Jose Limon and Lester Horton Horton- West Coast choreographer, he first developed technique that required a strong torso and symmetrical and asymmetrical movements of the arms and legs. Later he focused on a whole body approach, concerning flexibility, strength, spatial awareness, coordination, and freedom of expression. His works depicted American Indian Culture Limon- a student of Humphrey-Weidman, Limon was Mexican American whose heritage influenced his work. After WWII he formed the Jose Dance Company and, using the principles of weight, and fall and recovery, developed a technique that was closely linked to Humphrey and Weidman Katherine Dunham- had her first concert in Chicago entitled Negro Rhapsody. This concert was to be the beginnings of black concert dance. Dunham known for combining native Caribbean and modern dance she was a dance researcher and scholar. She appeared in several musicals as wells as movie musicals. She also had great influence on Jazz dance Primus- in contrast to Dunham- her movements were athletic and dynamic. Student of Graham, Weidman, Humphrey, and Holm she is credited with bringing black concert dance to the forefront. Her choreography was mainly on African dance and African subject matter Alvin Ailey  A student of Lester Horton, Ailey developed his own company in the mid1950s in NYC, called The Alvin Ailey American Dance Theatre. Ailey was always concerned with making his dances accessible to his audience. He combined modern, jazz, and world dance to create a unique style  He wanted his audiences to feel totally fulfilled and entertained  He was concerned with creating works that had a definite form. Do not give in to the abstract movement going on around him  Revelations(1960) Signature piece of his company done to African American spirituals. It was dramatic and comedic and highly technical Post Modern In the 1950s dancers and choreographers began to feel restricted by the teachings of their predecessors. Until this time, most dance techniques were rigorous, requiring dancers to study for many years. As Isadora Duncan had revolted against ballet, this generation of dancers wanted to take their choreography in a different direction. They were not concerned with the dramatic and the realistic as their predecessors, but believed that other factors were more important. One of these factors was to reflect movement rather than the storyline as the primary focus. Merce Cunningham  The first choreographer to emerge from using traditional modern dance methods and unlike his predecessors, Cunningham did not believe that dance had to have a theme or storyline  His concept revolved around movement for movement's sake. Movement should be the primary focus and not executed in order to tell a story  Referred to his concerts as events  He used the terms "chance" and "indeterminacy" in his methods of choreography. These tools helped him to break habits and create new and exciting moments in his dances  Technique employs intricate directional changes and weight changes throughout a given phrase of movement  In his technique the spine acts as a spring and can coil, twist, and turn  Contemporary visual artists such as Andy Warhol and Jasper Johns created set and costume designs for several of Cunningham's work Alwin Nikolais  Another "rebel", he did not feel that the self always had to be the main focus on stage. Dancers appearing in his worked were often presented in costumes that made them appear more as objects than humans. The dancers appeared in bags made of material and they had to manipulate the bags. The visual effect was unlike anything many dance audiences had ever seen  Often created his own sound scores, costumes, props, and lighting designs for his dancers. He was known for integrating dance, music, and design  His works were abstract- more concerned with motion not emotion. Presenting to the audience a view of the beauty and power of movement Paul Taylor  Had a career that spanned both the modern and postmodern movements. Taylor was a student of Martha Graham and a dancer with the Merce Cunningham Dance Company. He is considered to be one of the forerunners of the postmodern movement  His earlier works utilized untraditional music, often referred to as sound scores, and pedestrian movements  1957 Taylor stood motionless for an entire dance/ the reviewer responded by leaving a blank space in the review column  Developed an athletic and dynamic dance vocabulary 1960-1970s  Eliminated the use of formal technique, instead examining the basics such as walking, running, etc. and created dances based on these premises  Some choreographers refused to work with trained dancers  They performed in places other than theatres, such as gymnasiums, city, streets, and rooftops  They used improvisations, theatre games and other experimental tools which had the feel of the Happenings of the 1960s  Judson Dance Theatre- experimental, took a while to catch on, especially the press Dance Theatre  This genre blends dance and theatre, so that both form are an integral part of the performance. These performances may include spoken word, text, singing and choreography which is propelled by theme, dramatics and theatrics  Dance theatre was developed in Europe, specifically in West Germany and came directly out the modern dance genre. Wuppertaler Tanztheatre-Pina Bausch  Dance Theatre in the US, dancing takes the priority, and in Europe, the theatre takes the priority. Some Europeans view the American version as outdated while Americans view the Europeans as negators of dance vocabulary Moder Dance: Today  Today there are many choreographers who maintain a connection to the traditional modern dancer aesthetic, as well as those whose work reflects the philosophy of the post- modern dancers. Others are forging new ground. Today, there are no rules just an underlying freedom to create in whatever way one wishes  Project Bandaloop-an aerial and vertical dance company from San Francisco, performed Romeo and Juliet on the 23rd story of a skyscraper. The dancers were 350ft in the air while the Houston Symphony played below. 40,000 people watched  Another popular aesthetic that has been seen in the modern dance field is the idea Dance Fusion-the combining of different dance genres, as well as theatre, music and visual art. There are many choreographers who blend genres in their work. It is not uncommon in these works to see modern, ballet, jazz, hip hop, African or another world dance form all blended together into one dance, calling attention to the multicultural aspects of the art form The Next Wave  The next generation of choreographers whose work is based both in reality and in the abstract and provide for the viewer a glimpse into different facets of life  Mar Morris- created some of today's most critically acclaimed dances and has established himself as an outstanding choreographer. One thing that sets him apart is that he uses music in an extremely sophisticated way. His company is known worldwide  Bill T Jones- along with his partner, Arne Zane formed their company BTJ/AZDC. Jones's dances follow a strong narrative and dramatic line. Often controversial it is never without passion  Garth Fagan- Jamaican born was a student of Martha Graham and Alvin Ailey. Has a company in Rochester New York. He blends modern, jazz and world dance in his work. Mr. Fagan choreographed 'The Lion King" on Broadway and won the Tony award for Best Choreography  Mr. Fagan came to Kent State last semester and set a piece on our Dance Similarities between modern and Post Modern  Both presented dances that displayed innovative movement  Both utilized themes that were social, political, and global  Both utilized the elements of space, time and energy in a way that was different from ballet Differences between modern and Post Modern  Some postmodern dances were plotless and devoid of narrative; many traditional modern dances had strong narrative lines  Traditional modern dances employed trained dancers; some postmodern choreographers used untrained subjects  Traditional modern dances often utilized costumes; post-modern dances were often presented in everyday street clothes  Traditional modern dance was often presented in theatres. Post Modern dance was presented in a number of different places Rudolph von Laban (possible Nazi)  Sometimes referred to as the "Father of German Modern Dance", Laban is best known for developing a system of notating dance called Labanotation as well as a system of notating space, efforts, and shapes called Laban Movement Analysis. These two systems are still used today to record and reconstruct dances  Eight efforts- Jab, flick, press, slash, thrust, wiring, float, glide  The four movement factors 1. Flow: Bound/free 2. Space: Direct/indirect 3. Time: sudden/sustained 4. Weight: strong/light Twyla Tharp  Danced with Paul Taylor's and Merce Cunningham's companies  23 when started her own company  Technique relaxed torso but dynamically charged arms and legs, combines ballet, modern, jazz, and tap  Resident choreographer for ABT  Three B'way shows, One Tony for Movin Out  Author of 3 books on Dance  Movies- ragtime, amadeus, hair Jazz, Musical Theatre Tuesday, April 12, 2016 11:00 AM Minstrelsy  Minstrel Shows- showcased black songs and dances. But since blacks were not allowed to perform on a public stage, (with the exception of "Master Juba"), whites in blackface appeared performing parodies of the songs and dances of the black culture. It wasn’t until the 1860s that blacks began to appear in their own Minstrel Shows! Eventually the black minstrel shows became as popular as the white minstrel shows  The minstrels remained popular until the early 1900s and paved the way for vaudeville, revue, and burlesque shows and were to dominate the American stage for the next 20 years  Although all three of these entertainments were popular, vaudeville probably impacts the art of jazz dance the most Vaudeville  1900s- more than any other entertainments alternative of its time, Vaudeville encouraged the quantitative and varietal expansion of dance acts before the public. Even Martha Graham, Doris Humphrey and Charles Weidman did their stunts in Vaudeville  Vaudeville- theatrical entertainment consisting of a number of individual performances, acts, or mixed numbers by comedians, singers, dancers, acrobats, and magicians. These performers would travel the "circuit"; specific theatres just for vaudeville  Vaudeville era- showcased a wealth of song and dance performers. Still highly influenced by the African-Americans and their and their connection to the earth, Vaudeville also marked the emergence of jazz music, which was a combination of ragtime and the blues. Eventually, dancers began to connect with the syncopated rhythms of jazz music. The use of syncopated rhythms is what, for many, characterizes jazz dance  The Latin Jazz Music also had an influence on the dance form. The fusion of African rhythms and traditional music from the Caribbean and the United States came to be known as Latin Jazz. It is polyrhythmic, meaning there are several layers of rhythm going on at the same time The roaring twenties  This decade saw many dances that were performed in night clubs such as the Charleston and Black Bottom. They became part of a dance craze. The Charleston became extremely popular in the United States and eventually Europe  Flappers- women who wore their hair in a bob, and wore short fringed dresses and danced the Charleston  Some Charleston movements can be traced back to certain parts of Haiti  The Charleston was/is a vernacular dance; dance that reflected the social times of an era Harlem Renaissance  The Harlem Renaissance- Rebirth of African American arts. Destination for immigrants from the South and around the country seeking work and an educated class that made the area a center of culture  It was also another significant time period in the history of jazz dance. Harlem, New York, had many exclusive clubs which catered to the white clientele and had to elaborate floor shows featuring black performers  The Cotton Club- a whites only club, it operated mostly during prohibition and it featured the best black entertainers and jazz musicians of the era, including Cab Calloway, Count Bassie, Fats Waller, Lena Horne Major Figures in Vadeville  Florenz Ziegfeld- a producer who created the "Ziegfeld Follies" a showcase of beautiful girls, along with song and dance and comedy routines  Bill "Bonjangles" Robinson- one of the great tap dancers of Vaudeville. He had a graceful light style and danced without taps on his shoes. He may best be remembered as dancing with Shirley Temple o Was known for his "stair dance"  Vernon and Irene Castle- the castle were ballroom dancers who educated the public through stage productions and the classroom. They were very popular, even had a dance named after them, the "Castle Walk"  Ray Bolger- best known for playing the Scarecrow in the Wizard of Oz. His specialty was "legomania"  Josephine Baker- began her career during Vaudeville era and eventually became a protégée of Eubie Blake. In 1925, she performed in Oaris and became an instant success. In 1926, she performed at the Follies Bergere and brought the jazz craze to Paris to an all-time high. She is credited with introducing such dances as the "Charleston" and the "Black Bottom to European audience  Eubie Blake- a composer and pianist  The first African American musical called "shuffle Along" was popular with white and black audiences and gave validity to the black Broadway artists Jazz Dance  Similar to the term Modern Dance, Jazz Dance is also used as an umbrella term, encompassing several diverse styles. Traditional, lyrical, musical theatre, funk, swing, and even hip hop are categorized as jazz dance  Jazz dance has a place in the popular theatre and the concert stage, in dance studios and large universities  The history of Jazz Dance is a fascinating one beginning with the origins that can be traced back to Africa  Strong use of syncopated rhythms  The repeated use of plie  The dancing has an improvisational feel  The dancing is presentational, visceral, and sensual  There is a strong use of varying dynamics  Jazz dance can be seen on the theatrical stage, concert stage, and in movies, television shows, and music videos Tap dance  Intricate fusion of African rhythms and Irish and Scottish jigs and reels. Born in NYC, the melting pot of cultures  Shoes are worn with metal taps on bottom  Rhythmic sounds are produced by moving the feet  Tap dance has a strong use of syncopated rhythms  Tap dance has a vocabulary with prescribed steps but tap can be improvisational  Just as in Jazz, there are different styles in tap: 1. Musical theatre 2. Classical 3. Rhythm 4. Concert 5. Ballroom 6. Traditional  Tap dancing can be seen on the theatrical stage, movies, dance videos, television and the concert stage Vernacular dance  Dances that depicted the social times of an era  Charleston, waltz, disco, lindy, jitterbug, grinding, twerking  Dances of the 50's and 60's  Whitey's Lindy Hoppers 1935-1943  A performing group that was very popular until World War II, and then all men were drafted Musical theatre dance  Musical theatre jazz dance and tap dance have been an important part of the American theatre and dance worlds. Seen on both the live stage and in movie musicals, these two dance forms have a historical and artistic link to jazz dance. Many artists from the jazz ballet, and modern dance worlds have contributed to the growth and development of these forms. These popular dance forms will continue to excite and entertain audiences for years to come Characteristics of Musical theatre dance  Dance in musical theatre productions can be used to enhance the storyline and to move the plot along  Dance sequences can also stand alone as artistic works  The script, music, lyrics and dance have a strong relationship  Musical theatre dance can be seen on the theatrical stage, concert stage movies, and television shows Awards  Given for excellence to performers, directors, designers, and production people in the different mediums of movies(Academy Award), for stage(Tony Award), and television (Emmy Award)  Voted on by peers and industry people, it is a great honor to receive these awards Major figures in Musical Theatre  Jack Cole- known as the father of Theatrical jazz. Began his career as a dancer with Denishawn and Humphrey-Weidman. The exposure to East Indian dance introduced to him by Ruth St. Dennis had a lasting effect on him and his choreography became a mixture of jazz and world dance. No other dance artist had a similar trajectory starting at the roots of modern dance, becoming a commercial dancer in nightclubs and Broadway  Jerome Robbins and Agnes de Mille o Robbins started in the ballet world o Was a dancer and a choreographer o Was a perfectionist to as fault/those he worked with called him a genius but disliked him intensely. West Side Story. Winner of 4 Tony's o DeMille started in ballet as a dancer as well o Choreographed for ballet companies the Broadway. Her ballet in Oklahoma!, changed what dance meant to the storyline  Bob Fosse- one of Jazz dance's foremost choreographers , Fosse's choreography is recognizable by its angular shapes, undulating hip and shoulder movements, hip isolations and turned in legs. He started as half of the Riff Brothers and performed in Burlesque, moved into television, was on contract to MGM, and ended on Broadway as a choreographer and director. He was also a screenwriter, editor, and film director o Won 8 Tony Awards o Married 3 times, all were dancers. Was quite the womanizer. His third wife, Gwen Verdon, was a Tony Award winning performer, who also performed in movies and television o Fosse and Verdon had a child, Nicole Fosse, who also danced o Gave dancers a subtext for their movement, and lighted his work to direct the audience's attention o 1974 "the little Prince" Fosse played the role of the Snake… and Michael Jackson used Fosse's movement and wardrobe  Gwen Verdon o Trained in ballet because as a child she had rickets o Worked with Cole for many years and was his assistant o Also worked with Michael Kidd, as well as Bob Fosse, who she married o Outstanding actor and a singer with a gravely quality o Appeared in many musicals and won 4 Tony’s  Michael Kidd o Career spanned for 5 decades o Dancer, actor, film and stage choreographer o Was a chemical engineer, got a dance scholarship o Integrated the musical with the dance movement o Believed dance needed to derive from life based on naturalistic movement o Most noted movie musical choreography was “seven brides for seven brothers” o Won 5 Tony’s and an honorary academy award for advancing dance in film o Married with 2 children  Michael Bennett o Started out as chorus boy, worked way up to highly respected choreographer o Unfortunately drugs and promiscuous sex led him down a dark and paranoid path o Was bisexual and died of Aids-related lymphoma at age 44 o Style motivated by the form of the musical of the characters in it o Won 5 Tony’s o Won a Pulitzer Prize for A Chorus Line  Gower Champion o Started dancing in movies. Danced with his wife, Marge, in “Showboat”. He was married twice o Went on to choreograph Broadway musicals o His two most successful musicals are “Hello Dolly” and “42nd Street” (died on opening night of a rare blood disease) o “Annie get your Gun” with Debbie Reynold’s Movie musicals  Metro Goldwyn Mayer (MGM)  The most productive studio for musicals during the Golden Era  The movie musical emerged in an era of cultural conflict and competition and MGM quickly found its reputation to ? That of a studio that nurtured and showcased talented performers Major Figures in Movie Musicals  Busby Berkeley- was a dance director known for his use of beautiful girls in his productions. Often the women in a Berkeley number were costumed to look exactly alike. He moved them around on stage in intricate patterns and provided audience audiences with aerial views  Nicolas Brothers- Fayard and Harold o They were a "flash act", highest paid performers in movies o They performed many acrobatic movements in their routines  Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers o One of America's most popular dancing couples, they combined tap, ballroom, and ballet, to create some of the most graceful, sophisticated, and elegant dance sequences of the screen. He insisted that a dance be shot in full length of the dancer's body and no cutaway shots o Fred established a new image for the tap dancer, one of control, smoothness, and polish. He was a tireless perfectionist. Ginger on the other hand, was not an acclaimed dancer but together they were magic o They did 10 movies together  Gene Kelly o Born in Pittsburg Pa, family had a dancing school o Started on Broadway as the lead in Pal Joey, soon moved to Hollywood o Kelly combined tap, jazz, ballet, and ballroom in his dancing. He was an athletic dancer. He inspired more men to dance than any other male dancer. The sales of tap shoes skyrocketed with "Singin in the Rain" o An American in Paris, Its Always Fair Weather, danced with his alter ego o Invented the "unbangi" now called a camera offset a mechanism used to get low angle shots  Bill Robinson o Started as a "pick" (pickaninny-young children) in minstrelsy o A self-taught dancer, he was one of the greatest black tap dancers of the vaudeville era who brought a delicate style and artistic flair to his dancing o "Bo-jangles"(rhythms while playing bones) did not wear metal taps on his shoes. "stair dance" made him famous o Best remembered as dancing with Shirley Temple in "the Little Colonel", and "Rebecca of Sunnybrook Farm Dance movies in the Golden Era  Because musical movies are so expensive to produce they are few and far between  Producers don’t want to take a chance  Lately, many musicals have already been a successful Broadway show Concert Dance  Is dance performed for an audience  Though not a requirement, it is often performed to set music and in a theatre- like setting  All mediums of dance, i.e. jazz, tap, ballet, modern, musical theatre, etc. are all considered concert dance In contrast, social dance is not necessarily performed for an audience or to  set music Dancing on television  Dick Clark's Bandstand (vernacular dance)  Hulabaloo backup dancers became prominent  Variety shows such as Ed Sullivan, Sonny and Cher, etc..  Commercials- selling products with dancing and singing  Music videos- made watching and picking up dance on video easy. Michael Jackson brought street dancing to the masses  SYTYCD and Dancing with the Stars has brought dance to another generation Hip Hop Where and how did hip hop originate?  Early 70s Jamaican Dj known as KOOL HERC moved to the BRONX  Chanted over popular songs while Djing  Common for the DJ to shout out people as they arrived to the party  These shout outs became more evolved  This became known as emceeing-what we now call "rap" How did Rap become so popular?  Offered young, urban NY-ers a chance to express themselves  An art form accessible to anyone  Didn’t require money or resources  Didn’t require lessons or training  A verbal skill that was honed to perfection by practicing How did hip hop originate?  Afrika Bambaataa- the God Father of Hip Hop, once a gang member of the Black Spades, formed the Zulu Nation to promote peace and music Capoeira  South American martial arts/fighting dance o Originated in the 16th Century Busking- dancing in intersection Hoofing- flat footed tap dancing with very little upper body movement Anne Miller-competitor Elanor Powell- machine gun footwork Stop time- chord is played at beginning of measure then silence Dancing in tacit * Review stuff  Latin jazz- polyrhythmic  Cotton club- black entertained white audience  Fred, Baker,  Flapper Era  May 25th- national tap dance day


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