Psych 221 Complete Bundle!
Psych 221 Complete Bundle! Psyc221
Popular in Social Psychology
Popular in Psychology (PSYC)
This 164 page Bundle was uploaded by Kajal Kaushal on Thursday September 1, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Psyc221 at University of Maryland - College Park taught by Dylan Selterman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychology (PSYC) at University of Maryland - College Park.
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Date Created: 09/01/16
February 29, 2016 Attitudes Attitude = Schema about a topic Beliefs (cognitive; schematic) Ex: dogs are loyal, school is challenging Evaluation (Emotional/affective) Ex: “I love rock music” Behavioral Expression Impression – Management Social bonding & attraction People use their attitudes affect others and also their attitudes are effected by others Attitude Formation Learning Theory Classical & operant conditioning Mere Exposure Repeated/prolonged exposure to stimulus Person, idea, neurtal/inanimate object Assumes initial neutral attitudes Attitudes – Behavior link? Attitudes and behaviors can be inconsistent Ex: about 30% surveyed in U.S. say that sex before marriage is wrong By age 20, > 80% report premartial sex At age 45, it’s even higher Stability vs. Change Time and fluctuation based on experience Ex: voting 2 months & 2 days before election Relevance to behavior Ex: Church attendance & belief in God Should attitudes predict behavior? Reasoned Action Model Attitude > Behavioral control > Behavior Ex: Exercise routines Individual attitude + Social Norm Ex: Drug Usage in adolescence AttitudeBehavior link? Attitude strength Extremity of emotion; degree of certainty vs. ambivalence Ex: Political attidues, cigarettes/alcohol Stronger attitudes are more consistent Stronger link to behavior Increasing information/evidence Mere exposure = Increasing info Direct personal experience & selfinterest Ex: Nancy Reagan & stem cell research Ex: Drinking age raised in Michigan Attitude Change Equilibrium vs. Learning/Conditioning Cognitive Dissonance – Inconsistency between attitude & behavior ( or a 2 attitude) Two cognitions: 1. Believe “X 2. Publicily state “not X” or Publicly behaved Studies in Cognitive Dissonance Original Festernger (1950s) Study Pegs & Screws “How enjoyable was the task?” Fake the next participant $20 or $1 condition Persuasion – The Source Similarity & Familiarity Experiences,demographics, mannerisms, appearance/clothing Likability, charisma Cooperative Behavior Agreeableness No conflict of interest Or, against own interest Authority figure/expert The Audience Personality Need for cognition – factbased arguments Selfconsciousness/selfmonitoring Brand names, styles, celebrities Motivation Personal relevance Distraction & fatigue “dilution effect”; automatic processing When people are distracted and tired, they can be more easily persuaded because they aren’t paying attention to all the details. Age Young adults are more open, older adults are more resistant Intelligence Moderate level leads to more easily persuaded Restisting Attitude Change Source derogation Inoculation Rehearse counterarguments Situational Factors: Forewarning of intent to persuade Forewarning of position of the message Compliance Strategies Conditioning – Association with a positive mood/affect Flattery Negative Affect – Curvilinear effects Too much can backfire Antismoking messages Negative stereotypes > greater resistance to quit smoking Norm of reciprocity Consistency Hare Krishna donations Free samples Door in the face Make a request larger than what you want “That’s not all” Scarcity “Hard to get” > valuable heuristic Deadline technique Reactance Norm of reciprocity Commitment to a course of action Again, consistency Foot in the door “Watch my stuff” Low balling Compliance Strategies Commitment to a course of action Initiation rituals & hazing Group belonging Effort justification How do we influence people? Compliance – Requests and Persuasion Obedience – Authoritative Force Conformity – Mimic the Group Obedience Types of influential power Information (gossip) & reputation Stigmatization Conditioning/learning Ostracism (group behvaior) Extremely powerful, become overwhelmed with negative emotions Authority Expertise Charisma or refernt power Legitimate power (police, teachers) Coercion Violence or threat of violence Last resort, not commonly used Milgram Study 2/3rds obeyed through highest shock level (450 volts); ½ fully obeyed Obedience declined in downtown Conneticut office (not affliated with Yale) Role of proximity Zimbardo’s code Replication Stop at 150 volts, 1 protest, and extrapolate Modeling and/or social support No sex/gender differences No education/SES differences Personality Empathy Less Likely Agreeablenes More Likely Conscientiousness More Likely Implications Good vs Evil Power of the situation (external attribution) Environmental context; socialization “Replicating Milgram” st March 21 , 2016 Conformity Social norms; ingroup pressure Normative Social Influence Desire to fit in Informative Social Influence Desire to be “correct” Asch Line Study People were asked to find the lineclosest in length Participants changed answers to mimic the group. Autokinetic Effect 3 people judge light movement, conform gradually Bring in 4 , quickly conforms to group norm Bring 5 , 6 person – entirely new group Transgenerational norms Positive Psychology Perspective Health & wellbeing Safety Littering, recycling Variables that influence Conformity Motivation to belong, liking, or commitment to a group Social support for resisting Anonymity – blind responses Embedded words (priming) Conforming: adhere, agree, comply Rebellious: challenge, confront, Size of the group Larger > more conformity Anonymity is the exception Status within the group Curvilinear association Personality Selfesteem, anxiety, vague selfconcept Altruism is puzzling Definitions are varying Does “pure” altruism exist? Evolutionary Psychology – Altruism Survival of the fittest Kin selection Genetic Advancement Potential for mating Reciprocal altruism Symbiotic mutualism Expect benefit in return Esteem/status enhancement Gain power/respect/resources If you had to choose… Close Kin >> Distant Young strangers >> Old strangers Healthy >> Sick/diseased Wealthy >> Poor This all flips during everday ordinary situations Less weight to kinship, help strangers Very old/young >> Intermediate age Sick >> Healthy Theoretical Models Social Norms Reciprocity Social Responsibility vs. Social Justice Fairness = Equity vs. Fairness = Proportionality How people treat each other such that the outcomes are the same Reap what you sow Belief in a just world Blaming a vicitm “Because” More likely to help as opposed to when there is no justification Social Exchange Theory Costbenefit analysis Time, effort, resources, danger (blood) Ego depletion; cognitive resources Cognitive load, effort > reduced altruism Rush hour, ect. Being “Sweet” Candy! (Sweet foods) Embodied social cognition Personality reports Agreeableness Volunteerism Eating candy – situational Agreeable & volunteerism Morals & Ethics Mixed evidence for religion Correlational vs. experimental studies Religious ppl donate more to charities, volunteer more time/effort However, parables from religious texts (“the Good Samaritian”) do not increase helping “in a hurry” outweighs trait religiosity Other evidence: “Anonymous dictator” design Wordscramble prime; religious themes (e.g., “prophet”) > more donation Secular justice prime (e.g. “jury”) had same effect New neighbors; religious leader or God wants you to help out… “Religion” increases altruism toward ingroup “God” increases altruism toward outgroup The “Sunday Effect” Charitable contributions 300% higher amongst religious Christians on Sundays only (relative to non religious) Power of religious situations over religious people Infants & Altruism Spontaneous acts of kindness Independent of socialization; culture EmpathyAltruism Instinct Feel moved by the suffering of others; inspired by acts of kindness Elevation or awe Neuro “reward” for cooperation Social support & forgiving Better for supportgiver Personal fulfillment, development, growth Empathy as personality A psychological “mirror” Traitlike concern for others’ wellbeing Equity/fairness beliefs Empathy Approach (feelgood altruism) or avoidance (negative affect) goals Generalized affect Emotional salience vs. factual information & distance Bystander Effect “Urban Trance” Perceptual errors? Fear of looking foolish? Kitty Genovese Diffusion of responsibility Experimental evidence # of people and likelihood of helping Response time Studying Aggression Definition: Hurting another person with intention to hurt. Difficult to operationalize Difficult to study ethically Recent Supreme Court decision on video games Emotional Arousal Anger & Frustration Aversive/Disgusting stimuli Blocking a goal Misattribution of arousal The myth of “catharsis” But…small to moderate association Emotion regulation increases with age Beliefs about emotionaction link Selffulfillinf prophesy Aggressive actions can occur without emotional arousal. Situational Forces Bad economy Alcohol (even as a placebo) Temperature Climate Change & Conflict 1 SD increase in temperature > 2.5 % increase in persontoperson violence, 11% increase in group violence. Domestic violence Food shortage, droughts > instability Envrionmental Factors Wounded pride Insults, provocation 75% of college students directly insulted someone in public Cultures of “honor” e.g. Japan, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Southern U.S. Norms for retaliation after humiliation & disgrace Situational Forces Social norms dictate aggression In traffic Killing outgroup members during wartime “Weapons effect” Displaced aggression Domestic violence Physiology & Personality Low empathy; psychopathy Narcissism/ High selfesteem Physiology Genes, testosterone, serotonin Military, police, athletes Raw quantity vs. change Sex & gender Evolutionary Perspective Dominance > Leadership Power, resources, influence Intra – sexual competition Mate guarding Sexual Selection Women prefer dominant men (Also preder generous men) March 28 , 2016 Modeling/ Learning Rewards & Punishments Gang initiation Modeling & Imitation Parents Bobo doll study Effects increase when model is rewarded Copycat crimes Copying Bad? Bluedyed meth Using sulphuric acid to dissolve body Dealer named “Walter White” Teacher with drugequipment and $10,000 “for cancer therapy/surgery” Learning Theory Rewards and Punishments Punishments backfire Increases anger; increases counteraggression People retaliate even when they know there will be negative consequences Reactive anger/reciprocity Innate Aggression? Freud’s aggression instinct… Violence in chimpanzees Homicidal fantasies 80% of men; 60% of women Most involve a male target For men > 60% of the time a stranger Longer and more detailed For women > only 33% strangers, more likely to focus on romantic partner/spouse Also more fleeting, less detailed Aggression – Then and Now Violence is on the decline Pinker – “Better Angels” Murder, warfare rates decreases Within societies & internationally Statistical probability; nonviolent strategies Emotions & Affect The Utility of Emotions Drive to act, think E + movere in Latin Emotions don’t exist in a vacuum Arise from mental states, interactions, even muscular movement Environment X Mental Processing Emotional Experience Negative emotion: Help fix situational or chronic problem Focus on reduction for its own sake =Inflating selfesteem Evaluate stimuli, create attitudes Communication with others Alerting Bonding Feedback Learning Theory Observatoin/modeling Response becomes conditioned “Pruning” & neural plasticity Pathways are strengthened or weakened depedning on how often they are activated Evolutionary Theory Innate, universally recognized Facial expressions; animal behavior Specific emotions triggered for specific behaviors, events Danger > Fear; Seperation > Sadness “Good Times” > Happiness Positive vs. Negative Emotions Negative emotions (fear, anger): Rigid response geared toward threatening situations Chronic experience – psychopathology Emotions > Goal Postitive Emotions (joy, pride): Less distinct, blend together Response is more flexible Goal > Emotion Positive + Negative Emotions In combination Social norm > Innappropriate Reality > Resilience Psychological health increases following bereavment, abuse, trauma Cognitive Effects Emotions change thinking processes Mood > thoughts, behavioral intentions Life satisfaction Changes > openness/ acceptance vs. skepticism and inquisitiveness Both perspectives can have value Broaden & Build Positive emotions: Broaden perceptual field Broader visual search patterns (eye tracking) Negative emotion – narrow visual focus Enhance thoughtaction connectivity Flexible & creative thinking, openness Negative emotion – details Brainstorming vs. Editing Broadened Social Attention Increases IOS for self & friend (closeness) Inclusion of others in selfconcept Increases imaginative/attentive to friends Increases honesty and selfdisclosure Decreases prejudice toward outgroup members Build eduring psychological/physical resources Decreases pain and chronic health conditions Fight off illness/disease Longer lifespan March 30 , 2016 Affective Forecasting Type of emotion vs. intensity/duration Poor estimates of subjective experience E.g. Heartbreak, tend to exaggerate the emotion intensity & length Underestimate resilience, adaptation, benefits General Positive Affect The hedonic treadmill Decreases “highness” (dopamine) over time Can’t be high forever over the same stimulus, people habituate over time Effects wont be long lasting Many events (even traumatic ones) do not have long lasting emotional effects Winning the lottery vs. paralysis Difference in speed of adaptation Positive Emotions Ward off adaptation with openness & new experiences Selfexpansion, growth, challenges New and exciting things vs. Boredom Generating Positive Affect Gratitude expression Interpersonally or diaries Savoring Desserts & moments, Do they take their time? Happier people savor the food Capitalization Sharing a positive event with another person close to you Mindfulness Mediation 3 weeks – increased daily positive emotion 8 weeks – increased physical wellness, efficacy/goal achievement, relationship quality Forgivness, kindness, & social support ~ Empathy – altruism instinct Expressive writing (meaning – making) Integrate experiences into life narrative Sex Both positive & negative affect More positive than negative affect Caveat: personality Sex and intimacy may be completely different for people Money Raw wealth Upward comparisons Compare ourselves to those who have more than us Money can buy happiness… If you spend it the right way Gifts for close others, building teamwork, ect. END. Midterm 2. PSYC 221 Study Guide for Exam 1 A word of advice: read the textbook chapters thoroughly (but you can skip over any section that I tell you to skip; see below). The chapters that will be covered are 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 (everything up to and including motivation/goals). You should skim over chapters 3 and 4 but you will not be tested on the specific information in those chapters. I) The Science of Social Psychology The basics – what is social psychology designed to do? What are social psychologists interested in studying? Study normative social and mental processes. Social cognition, social influence, group behavior, altruism, aggression, violence, morality, religion. Advantages to research vs. folk-theories or intuition i) Be able to describe the differences between a scientific approaches to studying human behavior compared to non- scientific approaches. Theoretical perspectives (e.g., power of situation, evolutionary psych, positive psych) Power of Situation: Argued that the situation matters more than the innate traits. Evolutionary Psychology: Adaptation is needed for survival so behavior is very purposeful. Nothing has inherent value, but is instead shaped by subjective experiences. Positive Psychology: Positive emotions, behaviors, and outcomes Learning Theory: Classical and Operant conditioning, reinforcement through reward and punishment. Biological Psychology: a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes. Personality Psychology: Individual differences. Person X Situation = Behavior. Many overlapping fields. Theories vs. phenomena Theories: Help guide explanations. The “why” Phenomena: The “what” Validity (internal vs. external) External Validity: findings can be generalized to other people, real-world. Internal Validity: confident that changes in independent variable caused changes in dependent variable. Correlation vs. causation Correlation DOES NOT show causation Methods for studying behavior/mental processes/physical processes Confounds: Factors that undermine the ability to draw causal inferences from an experiment. Experimenter Expectations: When the experimenter’s expectations influence the outcome of a study. Longitudinal Study: A study that follows the same group of individuals over time. Operational Definition: How researchers specifically measure a concept. Participant Demand: When participants behave in a way that they think the experimenter wants them to behave. Quasi-Experimental Design: An experiment that does not require random assignment to conditions. Random Assignment: Assigning participants to receive different conditions of an experiment by chance. II) Social Cognition Conscious vs. automatic mind (also called “rational” & “associative” and other names) Conscious Mind: slow, reasoning, deliberate. Rational. 5% Automatic Mind: fast and instinctive. Associative. 95% Automaticity Automaticity: Most psychological processes occur automatically. Embodied cognition (“embodiment”) Mind-body connection, sensitive to physical/environmental cues, physical stimuli from environment translates to a mental idea. (Hard chair -> Uncomfortable) Priming (“spreading activation of related mental nodes”) Spreading activation, automatic and uncontrollable. Once concept is activated and all other related concepts are also activated. (Impolite Words -> Interruption Rates) Schemas – what are they? (a)Types of schemas Concept Specific person Group Self Event Procedure/sequence of events (b)Stability over time, impact behavior, thoughts, emotional response Once a schema is formed, it is very hard to change. Knowledge structures that represent substantial information about a concept and its relationship to other concepts (c)Impact on person perception, impression, how to behave in certain situations Scripts: knowledge structures that define situations and guide behavior Behavioral confirmation (self-fulfilling prophesy) A type of self-fulfilling prophecy whereby people's social expectations lead them to behave in ways that cause others to confirm their expectations. The cognitive miser perspective Stingy with mental resources, reluctant to question what we think we know. Depends on heuristics. Reluctance to question what we think we know, or think deeply. (a)Use of heuristics, mental shortcuts, to ease cognitive load Faster judgements/conclusions based on small amounts of information Heuristics: a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms (b)Systematic errors and biases (e.g., “gambler’s fallacy”) Gambler’s Fallacy: You believe something is due but instead the probability stays at 50% because it is an independent event. Hot Hand Fallacy: No evidence that the shot previously made will lead to successive shots. “Curse of 27”: The belief that reckless musicians are more likely to die at the age of 27. Statistics don’t matter when it comes to convincing people. Compelling anecdotes, imagery, exposure are more likely to be effective. Confirmation bias & Motivated reasoning Confirmation Bias: A tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions. Motivated Reasoning: Processing information in a way that allows consumers to reach the conclusion that they want to reach. Selectively looking for information that confirms our schema. “The mind as a lawyer” Social comparison (a)Positive illusions (self-serving bias & optimistic bias) Self-Serving Bias: Take credit for success, blame others for failure. Optimistic Bias: A cognitive bias that causes a person to believe that they are less at risk of experiencing a negative event compared to others. (b)Accuracy for perceiving others, but not for self Accuracy is high for others’ behaviors; inflated for own behavior Attributions – what are they? Inferences that people make about events in their lives (a)Internal vs. external; stable vs. unstable Internal: Attribute the event/behavior to something within yourself Internal Stable: Involves ability Internal Unstable: Involves effort External: Attribute the event/behavior to your environment/situation External Stable: Involves difficulty External Unstable: Involves luck (b)Explanations for behavior, events, success/failure Motivation for understanding, building schemas (c)What variables increase likelihood of making an attribution? Locus & Stability (d)Fundamental Attribution Error Focus on observer side. Behavior is more noticeable than situational factors. People assign insufficient weight to situational causes. People are cognitive misers. Language is richer in trait-like terms that in situational terms. (e)Actor-Observer Bias A term in social psychology that refers to a tendency to attribute one's own actions to external causes, while attributing other people's behaviors to internal causes. (f) Cultural differences III) The Self/Personality The specific effects of self-awareness The ability to recognize and understand your moods, emotions, and drives, as well as their impact on others. Self-focus can be taxing, potentially distressing. Mirror studies: Self focus. Less likely to misbehave. Self-serving biases Take credit for success, blame others for failure. A “zoo” of different biases. Self-handicapping Basking in reflected glory Downward Comparison Overestimating Group Contributions Self-reference Effect; Endowment Effect False Consensus False Uniqueness Self-verification (compared to self-enhancement) Motivation to maintain self-schema. Self-esteem (a)Ingredients, outcomes, costs of pursuit, mixed benefits Appraisal of oneself as good/bad. Feedback from others, character evaluations Family, school, work, peers Periods of change/transition (b)Narcissism A self-centered and self-concerned approach towards others. Self-concept clarity Associated with “clear understanding” of the self Benefits of adversity for self-concept, personal growth, adaptation Setbacks=Opportunities for development. Rising to challenges – self-concept growth. Strengthened social ties. Optimists benefit from tragedy/trauma more so than others. Different than baseline recovery Three “Levels” of personality i) Level 1 – traits ii) Level 2 – adaptation, change, growth iii) How do level 1 and level 2 interact with each other? Bidirectional influence iv) Level 3 – life story, over-arching narrative Personality – what IS personality? Measured through surveys and third person reports. Matters in predicting behaviors. Behavior = Personality X Situation Personality = Stability in behavior over time Big 5 traits i) Openness, Conscientiousness, Agreeableness, Extroversion, Neuroticism Traits are largely independent Stability and change in personality across the lifespan Very stable across college years, except neuroticism, which declines somewhat. Moderate stability across the lifespan. Behavioral correlates (this will be less emphasized on the test—for example, I won’t test you on music variables but I might test you on speech/language correlates) Appearance, Speech, Music IV)Motivation Intrinsic vs. extrinsic motivation Intrinsic Motivation-internal factors: Curiosity, challenge, Inherent value in the activity Extrinsic Motivation-External Factors, Rewards (money, fame). Punishments (deadlines, competition, grades) Intrinsic Motivation: increases enthusiasm, effort, enjoyment, and success. Extrinsic Motivation: Conditioning - Effort & performance dependent on the reward. Incentive. Removing the reward decreases motivation. Over justification effect Occurs when extrinsic rewards are provided for a behavior that was previously intrinsically motivated. Self-determination (3 core needs) People need to feel at least some amount of autonomy and internal motivation. “Psychological Food” Competence, Autonomy, Relatedness. (a)Relationships and achievement Secure, intimate relationships: Increase job/career satisfaction, fulfillment Decrease negative spillover Decrease fear of failure These needs facilitate each other Encouragement, support, increase confidence (b)Dependency Paradox Measured feelings of dependency. Those who are more dependent on the others are more likely to be able to function better independently. Self-regulation, delay of gratification, self-control/willpower Self-Regulation: The processes through which individuals alter their emotions, desires, and actions in the course of pursuing a goal. Delayed Gratification: Can effectively regulate themselves to delay positive things into the future. Waiting a little bit will better the outcome. Willpower: Trait conscientiousness responsibility. -> Eating poorly, low exercise, unclean, poor academic performance, infidelity. Ego Depletion Willpower: Situational constraints -> Food depletion impairs decision making. i Goals and goal-completion Balancing goals Conscious goal activation Nonconscious goal activation Goal Priming Highlighting a goal Deliberative Phase Implemental Phase Prevention vs Promotion Flow Vital engagement, “in the zone” better to do things when you aren’t thinking about them Mindset (entity vs. incremental), esp. how it relates to learning/achievement) Entity: Fixed abilities/traits, Seek environments that are well-suited for existing abilities. Level 1->2 Incremental: Change, Development. Seek new/challenging environments. Level 2 ->1 Intervention-teach that intelligence, skill, willpower can increase with practice & effort Reactance Asserting freedom, autonomy, even rebellion. Forbidden fruit: Cigarettes, M- rated video games. An uncomfortable, emotional response to being threatened. Choices & decision-making Lower Level: concrete, Immediate, Specifics & details. Paying attention in class Upper level: Abstract, longer time-span, connections between actions. Getting an education. Awareness for high vs low level goals – changes depending on situation Finding meaning in life i) 4 pillars/domains of meaning-making Purpose: Connection between present actions & future states of being. Goals and fulfillment. Values: Justification for action, “right” & “wrong”. Important for emotion regulation, lowers anxiety, guilt, regret, moral distress. Efficacy/Generativity: Taking action, making a difference. Connection between values and competence. Self-worth: Esteem through individual, dyads, or groups) ii) Goals, happiness, flow, & other variables Meaningfulness is a necessary but not sufficient condition for happiness. Buffer against problems/life stress: Less pressure on any one meaning Allows for fluidity in self-concept: Intrapersonal Bidirectionality: in the person, there will be causal influences back and forth. Happiness does not equate meaning. iii) Implications of meaning-making and expressive writing for physical health outcomes Generativity & Self-Worth: Many different domains, potential Purpose & Values: Much harder to conceptualize Disconnection with fulfillment, meaning: The evolving nature of economic work; Living “happily ever after” The values gap: Lack of consensus Writing/expressing painful (or emotional) experiences and events: Improves academic performance. Improves immune system functioning. PSYC 221 Study Guide for Exam 2 A word of advice: read the textbook chapters thoroughly (but you can skip over any section that I tell you to skip; see below). The chapters that will be covered are 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, and 18. You should also review the part of chapter 5 (social cognition & attitudes, p. 66-68) because you will need to know the section on attitudes research. Everything in these portions of the textbook is fair game for the exam. **Note: The most recent unit of material on religion/morality/political psychology will NOT be included on this exam. It will be covered on the final exam instead. I) Attitudes & Attitude Change Functions of attitudes Attitude = Schema about a topic Beliefs (cognitive; schematic) Ex: dogs are loyal, school is challenging Evaluation (Emotional/affective) Ex: “I love rock music” Behavioral Expression Ex: People use their attitudes affect others and also their attitudes are effected by others Attitude formation (a)Learning theory – rewards/punishments, observations/modeling Operant Conditioning, Bandura doll (b)Social networks, relationships, and attitude similarity Direction of Causality is unclear regarding whether people in the same social network influence each other’s attitude to be similar (c)Mere exposure Mere Exposure: The tendency for novel stimuli to be liked more after the individual has been repeatedly exposed to them (d)Implicit vs. explicit attitudes (Implicit Association Test) – ch. 5 Implicit- automatic, non-conscious Explicit- controlled, conscious evaluative response Attitude-behavior link – it’s weak, why? (a)Specificity of the behavior and relevance to the attitude Attitudes can differ from behavior (ex. Adolescents smoke pot because they care more about the peer groups attitude than about their own personal attitudes towards it) (b)Stability vs. change over time More recent events play a more important role in people's attitudes Ex: church attendance does not correlate to one's belief in God (c)Reasoned Action Model Attitude -> Thinking -> Behavior, we need to have a strong, valid intention in order for our behaviors to last because we consciously integrate our attitude before acting (such as going to the gym, if we are not consistent in making ourselves go, we won’t make the gym a habit) (d)Events, subjective norms (e)Attitude strength Extremity of emotion; degree of certainty vs. ambivalence Ex: Political attitudes, cigarettes/alcohol Stronger attitudes are more consistent Stronger link to behavior Increasing information/evidence Mere exposure = Increasing info Direct personal experience & self-interest Ex: Nancy Reagan & stem cell research Attitude change (a)Learning theory Learning theory=if you enforce people's attitudes with rewards and recognition then their attitudes will become more positive (b)Equilibrium theory and Cognitive Dissonance – what IS cognitive dissonance? Equilibrium Theory: When people are uncomfortable with being rewarded/punished and prefer to keep their attitudes and behaviors balanced. Ex: teen against underage drinking gets called out at a party Cognitive Dissonance – Inconsistency between attitude & behavior (or a 2nd attitude) Two cognitions: 1. Believe “X 2. Publicly state “not X” or publicly behaved (c)Ingredients necessary for cognitive dissonance to occur 1. Feeling of free choice in decision making 2. Minimal external justification 3. Can’t go back and change behavior/reverse decision must be aware of discrepancy. Behavior/decision is permanent II) Social Influence: exercise of social power by a person or group to change the attitudes or behavior of others in a particular direction Compliance & Persuasion (a)Learning theory – pair with positive/negative affective stimulus Association with a positive mood/affect (flattery). Negative affect- moderate works well, ex: anti-smoking ad. (b)Norm of reciprocity and related techniques Norm of rec. We tend to feel obligated to return favors after people do favors for us. Related Techniques: (Consistency, Hare Krishna donations, Free samples, Door in the face - large or ridiculous request is refused, but followed by a smaller, more reasonable one , so person is more likely to do it; “That’s not all”) (c)Scarcity: “Hard to get” = therefore valuable, only available for a limited time, reactance, norm of reciprocity Ex: sale of diamonds, creation of Facebook (d)Commitment (cognitive dissonance) People with stronger social networks have greater longevity. In order to build a strong social network, you need to be capable of making commitments. Consistency within one’s self is part of commitment. Cognitive dissonance goes against commitment to consistency/your ideas/attitudes/behaviors. -”Foot in the door:” Will you do this? No? How about this… ex. creating a sign vs. signing a petition (This is when you ask for something small to be done which leads up to a bigger request; the example given here sounds more like a “door in the face” example.) -”Watch my stuff”-Low balling: “Oh by the way, I need you to…” (More like a door in the face example.) 1. Implications for initiation rites & hazing When people experience pain, it seems the goal of joining a group is more important than the pain. Correlated with solidarity of the group, altruism, closeness as suffering is increased. Effort justification (e)Source of message: certain people are going to be more persuasive to an audience than others. 1. Similarity, familiarity, likability, cooperativeness, no conflict of interest, authority figure, expertise More likely to trust information from a celebrity/authority figure because you assume they know more or someone you are close with because you trust them (f) Audience 1. Personality, motivation, distraction/fatigue, intelligence, age Personality: Need for cognition (openness) -fact based arguments, Self-consciousness/self-monitoring- persuaded by brand names, celebrities, etc. Motivation: personal relevance, depends on age Distraction/Fatigue: it’s harder to pay attention to the message when tired/distracted. Double-edged sword; “dilution effect” causes automatic processing and decision making ex: Geico. Intelligence: Moderate level is most easily persuaded. Ease of persuasion is on a bell curve Age: Younger people are more open and easily persuaded than older (g)Resisting attitude change, inoculation, counter arguments, etc. Resisting Attitude Change: Source derogation- attacking the person delivering the message for credibility (nothing to do with actual message) critiquing person and not argument. Inoculation: Rehearse counter-arguments, ex: what soldiers are told to say provided they become a prisoner. Situational Factor: People don’t like to be easily influenced, Forewarning of intent to persuade or of position Obedience: Relies on authoritative force. (a)Types of social influence/power 1. Sanctioned authority & force – Legitimate powers (police/teachers) 2. Threat to reputation, stigma – Gossip & Ostracism 3. Expertise, charisma – Authority, coercion (violence/threat), conditioning/learning (b)Stanley Milgram experiment 1. Participants believed they were playing a learning game with another participant, for each wrong answer a shock is distributed. The shocks increase in voltage per wrong question. 2. Obedience declined when experiment was moved from Yale university to a downtown Connecticut office (authority) Role of proximity- when participants could see confederate it began harder to administer the shocks. Conformity: a yielding to perceived group pressure by copying the behavior and beliefs of others (a)Normative & informative social influence (Asch line study) Normative social influence: conformity based on a desire to gain rewards or avoid punishments Informative social influence: conformity based on the belief that others may have more accurate information Asch line study: people judge which line is bigger, confederates will say a blatantly wrong line but the subject conforms anyway. Subject show transgenerational norms where each new group will conform to old group member's answer. (b)Autokinetic effect: Visual perception where small point of light in darkness appears to move. Likely arose as an adaptive behavior (evolutionary psychology), better to assume light is a predator's eyes than some innocuous stimulus (c)Variables that influence conformity Motivation to belong, liking, or commitment to a group Social support for resisting Anonymity – blind responses Embedded words (priming) Conforming: adhere, agree, comply Rebellious: challenge, confront, Size of the group Larger -> more conformity Anonymity is the exception Status within the group Curvilinear association – Less popular people and more popular people are less likely to conform. Personality Self-esteem, anxiety, vague self-concept III) Altruism/prosocial behavior “Pure” altruism vs. prosocial behavior with benefit–Empathy vs. Brain Activation Empathy: People feel bad when they see someone suffering Brain Activation: feels better to be cooperative, more pleasurable Evolutionary perspective – competition, sociobiology Evolutionary theories suggest that an individual’s ability to reproduce largely depends on his or her position within a group, therefore they need to make sure they do reciprocity and are good at helping people because they will reap social benefits that will make them more fit to reproduce. (a)Reciprocal altruism, kin selection Reciprocal Altruism: Symbiotic Mutualism, the idea that we expect benefit in return for the altruistic deed. Kin Selection: parents who help children are more successful at passing their genes (b)Esteem/status gaining We help others in order to gain power/respect/resources Egotistic Helping: helper seeks to increase his/ her own welfare status by helping another Social norms guiding altruistic behavior (a)Social responsibility & social justice: people have a social responsibility to help those in need, but also believe in a Just world. Social justice counters with FAE states that those in trouble are there due to their own actions. (b)Norm of reciprocity, fairness, consistency, over & under benefitting Reciprocity- includes an obligation to return an act of kindness that has been done to us Norms-standards established by society to tell its members what types of behaviors are typical or expected Equity-each person receives benefits in proportion to what he contributes Equality-everyone gets the same amount, regardless of what he or she contributed Under benefitted-less than what you deserve Over benefitted-more than you deserve Fairness = Equity vs. Fairness = Proportionality How people treat each other such that the outcomes are the same Reap what you sow Belief in a just world Blaming a victim “Because” Reasoning More likely to help as opposed to when there is no justification Social exchange theory: When you help others, you benefit by feeling good. Time, resources, effort and danger are important aspects Learning theory (reinforcement, modeling): Witnessing others helping makes us want to help Ethics & religious altruism – mixed evidence: Religious people donate more, but in experimental settings we see that they are not more likely to help, time is a key factor. Spontaneous altruism in infants: Babies will help independent of socialization, genes, and culture *** The child will help if she does not feel threatened. Empathy/altruism instinct: We’re moved by the suffering of others, trait that some score high in. Cooperatively feels better then competition. Supporter benefit. Inspired by acts of kindness A theory proposing that experiencing empathy for someone in need produces an altruistic motive for helping. People feel moved by the suffering of others and are inspired by acts of kindness. People help because it 'feels" right. Most people have empathy, some have more than others. But, if you do not have empathy at all then you psychopath ← the complete inability to empathize with others Bystander effects, diffusion of responsibility Bystander Effects- people don’t offer help if others are around because they believe others will give help instead. Diffusion of Responsibility- people are less likely to take responsibility when others are around. Kitty Genovese Solution: Divide the responsibility of taking action with the amount of people around. IV)Aggression: Hurting another person with intention to hurt Causes of aggressive behavior (a)Biological/physiological 1. It’s not about the amount of hormones but rather the transitioning of different levels 2. Testosterone- male sex hormone, linked to aggression when high levels 3. Serotonin- feel good neurotransmitter, low levels lead to aggression 4. Alcohol- lowers inhibition, higher aggression possible (b)Social norms 1. Some cultures place positive values on aggression, giving more respect to men who fight 2. Ok to be angry and yell in traffic, but not other situations (c)Situational variables 1. "Running amok"- Malaysian culture, refers to behavior of young men who become uncontrollable violent after receiving a blow to his ego 2. Lack of self-control 3. Often have high self esteem (d)Learning and modeling behavior 1. Modeling- observing and copying or imitating the behaviors of others 2. Rewards and punishments- if the model is rewarded for behaving aggressively, further aggression by model and observer, will be more likely. If the model is punished then their actions are opposite. Ex. Bobo doll experiment (e)Rewards/incentives 1. Rewards/ Incentives- punishments can backfire, it increases counter-aggression. People retaliate even when they know there will be negative consequences (reactive anger, reactance) (f) Link to emotion and arousal 1. Blocking a goal- kids wait for a toy and when they finally get it, they are more aggressive 2. Misattribution of arousal- more aroused= more aggressive, more activity, more blood to muscles, emotional regulation increases with age ex. Domestic violence, aggressive actions can occur without emotional arousal 3. Frustration Aggression Hypothesis- occurrence of aggression presupposes existence of frustration Evolutionary perspective on aggression, why it may be adaptive in some cases (a)Can be a path to social status, power (b)Competition for resources, good for passing on genes (c)Sexual selection, mate allocation: mate guarding; women prefer socially dominant and generous men Aggressive instinct? (a)Homicidal fantasies: males (80%) and females (60%); usually involve a male target; for women it is usually a romantic partner; more fleeting for women. Reactance, norms for reciprocity and self-determination Reactance: need to express autonomy when freedom is being threatened. Self-determination: control over behavior through resolve/effort, not because of external successes or rewards; contributes to intrinsic motivation. Other topics (a)Decline in recent history: murder, warfare rates decline both w/in societies and internationally (b)Cultural influences (“culture of honor”): some cultures are more aggressive than others. (c)Sexual violence and domestic violence: risk of domestic violence for women who are separated, divorced, or never married is three times higher than the risk for married women V) Emotions/Affect The utility of emotions: Environment X Mental Processing = Emotional Experience. Negative emotions tend to signal a need for a fix. Evaluate stimuli, interpret them, and then use our attitudes to navigate future situations. Also used to communicate with others in the form of: alerting, bonding, and feedback (a)Broaden & build for positive emotions: Broaden Increases IOS for self & friend (closeness) Inclusion of others in self-concept Increases imaginative/attentive to friends Increases honesty and self-disclosure Decreases prejudice toward out-group members Build enduring psychological/physical resources Decreases pain and chronic health conditions Fight off illness/disease Longer lifespan (b)Addressing problematic/dangerous situations for negative emotions: Negative emotions often tell us we need to fix something or change the way we're doing something (c)Communication and social bonding: Showing emotion can lead to social bonding and communicating to others how you feel. The three components of communication include alerting, bonding, and feedback. (d)Attitude formation: evaluate stimuli, create attitude How emotions impact perception and behavioral responses: Emotions change thinking processes. Positive/negative mood increase positive/negative thoughts, behavioral intentions. Based on mood, we can be more open/accepting or more skeptical/inquisitive Hedonic treadmill: Effects of dopamine decrease over time; most events (even traumatic ones) don’t have long lasting emotional effects. Affective forecasting: ability to predict one’s emotional reactions to future events. Poor estimates of subjective intensity/duration; people don’t take into account their resilience/adaptation and benefits Generating positive affect in the long-term i) Savoring, gratitude, meditation, variety, money, etc. Mindfulness mediation 3 weeks- increased daily positive emotion 8 weeks- increased physical wellness, agency for goal achievement, relationship quality Savoring: Desserts & moments, Do they take their time? Happier people savor the food. Capitalization: Sharing a positive event with another person close to you Gratitude expression: Interpersonally or diaries Forgiveness, kindness, & social support: Empathy – altruism instinct Expressive writing (meaning – making): Integrate experiences into life narrative Sex: Both positive & negative affect. More positive than negative affect. Caveat: personality. Sex and intimacy may be completely different for people Money: Raw wealth & upward comparisons. Compare ourselves to those who have more than us. Money can buy happiness…If you spend it the right way. Gifts for close others, building teamwork, ect. Emotional intelligence (a)4 components 1. Perceive: ability to identify emotions and discriminate between artificial and genuine emotions. 2. Generate emotions appropriately & Facilitate thought: being able to redirect and prioritize emotions (capitalization). 3. Emotional Knowledge Understanding (link b/w emotions): being able to understand the associations and relationships between emotions. 4. Emotion Regulation: knowing how to regulate/keep emotions in control. Emotion regulation (a)Effective & ineffective strategies Effective Strategies: Exercise or healthy expenditure of energy; Music; Social interaction/engagement; Active distractions (errands, hobbies, reading); Sex; Free-writing and meaning-making; Mediation and relaxation techniques. Ineffective Strategies: Catharsis; Passive distractions (TV); Food; Substance usage and abuse; Sleep; Sex; Social isolation; Stimulus avoidance Social Psych Notes February 1, 2016 Theories & Perspectives: Theories can help guide explanations Phenomenon is the what, Theory is the why Situations often powerfully effect the way an individual acts. They matter more than personality. Time periods, geography and language – Cultural Context also play a large role in social behavior. WEIRD Societies Western Education Industrialized Rich Democratic Learning Theory Conditioning: Pairing Stimulus > response is generated Reinforcement (rewards/punishments) Modeling/Mimicking Evolutionary Psychology: Adaptive behavior/ selection pressures Solves problems faced by ancestors Look for: Crosscultural similarities Innate tendencies Similarities to other species Biological Psychology: Social neuroscience (fMRI, EEG Methods) Brain activation, neurochemicals Genes & Heredity Physiology (heart rate, ect.) Personality Psychology Individual differences Person X Situation = Behavior Overlapping fields Positive Psychology Emotions (Joy, Pride) Behaviors (Cooperation, Love) Outcomes (Life Satisfaction) Research Designs Correlational Measure variables to see if they’re associated (graffiti & crime) Used when impossible/unethical to manipulate variables Does not necessarily indicate causation Correlations range from 1 to 0 to +1 Zero means NO CORRELATION Negative means opposing relationship (sometimes a strong association) Experiments Allow us to conclude causality Random assignment is the key Not attributable to preexisting variables However, artificial lab settings Interval vs. external validity in social psych February 3, 2016 Information Processing Conscious/ Cognitive: Slow, Reasoning, Effortful/Taxing, Deliberate/Controllable, Flexible Automatic/Implicit: Fast, Evaluations based on gut instinct, Effortless, Unintentional, Stable/Stubborn Automaticity Most psychological processes occur automatically ~5% of behaviors governed by conscious control ~Supported by different theoretical perspectives Priming “Spreading Activation” Priming activates related concepts/ideas in the mind’s network Automatic, uncontrollable Examples & Exercises: Embedded words and anagrams Reading comprehension, word scramble, word pair memory test Aging & Frailty words > Walking Slower Impolite Words > Interruption Rates Memory Facilitation Embodied Cognition – Automaticity MindBody connection Sensitive to physical/environmental cues Sitting in a hard chair > Tough negotiation Sales tactic Wobbly Chair > Uncertainty Heavy Objects > Weighty Decisions st Hot/Cold Beverage > 1 Impressions, and Generosity Perspective Taking Primes Perception of traits & actual performance Stereotypes of cheerleaders; professors “Enclothed Cognition” Stereotypical primes within clothing & cognitive performance Implications for Marketing People associate brands with personality and goal pursuits Apple = Nonconformity, Innovation, & Creativity IBM = Traditional, Responsible
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