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Logic and Contemporary reading chapter 1 notes

by: Joshua Weintraub

Logic and Contemporary reading chapter 1 notes Phil 1010

Marketplace > The University of Cincinnati > Philosophy > Phil 1010 > Logic and Contemporary reading chapter 1 notes
Joshua Weintraub
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About this Document

notes from the first chapter of the first book for the course logic and contemporary reasoning
Critical thinking
Timothy Allen
basic, concepts
75 ?




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This 4 page Bundle was uploaded by Joshua Weintraub on Friday September 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to Phil 1010 at The University of Cincinnati taught by Timothy Allen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Critical thinking in Philosophy at The University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 09/02/16
Logic and Contemporary  Reasoning­  Chapter 1 Notes: Cavander and Kahane Chapter 1:       Reasoning­  Is the essential ingredient in problem solving  Those of us who are rational reason from what we already know or have good  reason to believe  Trick is to reason well  Most of what we know is passed onto us from other people  We know earth is round because we’ve been told this,  Much of what we think we know is based on beliefs  Sometimes our beliefs are unsupported by accurate information  Gut reaction is not the same thing as a rational thought       Critical thinking   requires   information,   as well as the ability to  reason well       Knowledge   is   gained through experience   and  good reasoning  Not all information is created equal  Good Reasoning=Cogent  Bad Reasoning=Fallacious Reasoning and Arguments:  An argument can have any number of premises  Since, Because,  Premise words  Consequently, thus Conclusion words Exposition and Argument:  Anecdotes are not arguments.  A good deal of everyday talk shapes beliefs  Talk is not aimless  Note the difference between the terms expository and argumentative       Argument makes claim­implicit or explicit, that one of its statements  follows from some of its other       Expository statement  no reason to accept any “facts” Cogent Reasoning:  Reasoning can be Good=Cogent  Reasoning can also be Bad=Fallacious      Several factors indicate cogent reasoning:  1 .       The premise of our reasoning must be believable ( Warranted or   justified ) given what we already know or believe.  2 .      We consider all likely relevant information  3 .       Our reasoning is   valid or correct,  which means that the premises we are referring to give us enough proof, enabling us to accept the conclusion  that has been drawn.  If not all three of these are satisfied, reasoning is fallacious      First condition of Cogent reasoning­ requires that we bring to bear what we  already know or believe Background Beliefs  in determining if an argument or premises should be accepted   In daily life we are exposed to claims or assertions that are not supported      Second condition of cogent reasoning requires that we do not pass over relevant information   Hindsight is better than Foresight       The third condition of cogent reasoning requires that the premises of the  argument generally support the conclusion        Validity has nothing to do with the truth of the arguments premises or  conclusions        Validity concerns the nature of the   connection  between the premises and   the conclusion  Not the believability of the argument   Determining if an argument is valid tells us that if we are justified in believing  its premises then we are justified in believing the conclusion doesn’t tell us  whether or not the premises are true  Two Basic kinds of Valid Arguments:  Premises may support the conclusion in two fundamentally different ways  First way is Deductively valid arguments   Second, Inductively valid or inductively strong (Use strong)    Primary property of a   deductively valid   argument is this  if all premises are  true, then its conclusion must also be true.  This is because the claims asserted  by the conclusion are also stated in the premises –I,e; 1. If this wire is made of copper, then it will conduct electricity  2. This wire is made of Copper  This wire will conduct electricity   Taken together the premises form the conclusion   The Form of this argument looks like this:  1.    If some sentence, then a second sentence   2 .      The first sentence  3 .      The second sentence  1. If A then B 2. A 3. B  Logicians cause this type of argument and every argument with this form   Modus Ponens   Conclusion is only true if its premises are true   Can have a false premise with a true conclusion   Second way is  Inductively valid Arguments   Inductively Strong   Have conclusions that go beyond what is contained in their premises   Idea behind induction is Learning from experience    Valid inductions  project regularities of this kind observed in our experience so  far onto other possible experiences    Induction by enumeration argument example:  The tooth fairy turned out not  to be real.  The Easter Bunny turned out not to be real.  So I’m beginning to  wonder about Santa.   Induction is used in every day life since the age of 5 or 6, it has taught us truths  that guide everyday behavior   Inductive reasoning provides us with a way of reasoning to genuinely new  beliefs also increases the chance of error     “Reading Between the Lines”     grasping and intended thought that is not  expressed, getting more info from an argument/explanation than they actually   contain    Essential ingredient a assessing a good deal of every day talk  Reading between lines =Linguistic “sizing up” other people  The way the world works does not differ depending on the race or sex of those  trying to discover the way the world works   Three different ideas: 1.    Self­interest, prejudice, and narrow­mindedness lead people to  reason invalidly Bigotry bad for good reason 2.    Self­interest motivates us to neglect the values and interests of  others even when those values are shared  3.    –  Principles of good reasoning are the same for all   Three conditions of   Cogent Reasoning :   1 .      Validity of the connections between premises and conclusion  2. The believability of the premises  3. The discovery and use of relevant information  Ignorance renders us incapable of intelligently evaluating claims, premises, and  arguments   Background info can be divided into beliefs about matters of fact & beliefs   about matters of values  these two claims are defended in different ways  Background beliefs can also be separated into True and False Categories   Goal is to weed out false background beliefs    World Views=Philosophies Beliefs acquired when we were grouping up by   listening to friends relatives and culture  this leads us to share these same types   of beliefs and views as our parents  they are the most difficult of our  background beliefs to understand and fix   Most of the important world views that an individual has are general  World Views of Political parties as taken from common phrases and words  used among each:   Conservative : virtue, discipline, get tough, tough love, self reliance,  individual responsibility, hard work, human nature, elite.     Liberal:  social forces, free expression, social responsibility, human  rights, equal rights, concern, care, health, safety, diversity,   Respond automatically to arguments about strongly held beliefs   Weeding out insufficiently held background beliefs is important in improving an individuals reasoning    World Views=Lenses  force us to see the world a certain way  Broad inaccurate world views lead to broad inaccurate conclusions   There is widespread failure to amend world views   Major international conflicts can and do occur due to conflicting world views   Examining world views allows us to control our lives by sorting out our most  fundamental or cherished beliefs, testing them and revising them in doing so  this helps us become our own separate person   Two kinds of Background beliefs that are extremely important are:  1 .       The nature of human nature:  good beliefs about ourselves and  other people.    2 .      Reliability of Informative Sources: thoughts about accuracy,  sufficiency, and truthfulness.    Can’t assume a source is reliable without reason to believe it  Media, internet, TV, don’t always capture full truths   Science plays a critical role in modern life      Scientific enterprise= organized, ongoing, worldwide activity that builds  and corrects from generation to generation 


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