MKTG 3142- Consumer Behavior Semester Lecture Notes
MKTG 3142- Consumer Behavior Semester Lecture Notes MKTG 3142
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This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Friday September 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MKTG 3142 at George Washington University taught by Hassan, S in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/02/16
MKTG 3142 Chapter 1: Buying, Having, and Being: An Introduction to Consumer Behavior 1.1 Consumer Behavior: People in the Marketplace demographics: descriptive characteristics of a population consumption communities: members share opinions and recommendations market segmentation strategies: an organization targets its product, service, or idea only to specific groups of consumers rather than to everybody 1.2 What is consumer behavior? it is the study of the process involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires exchange: transaction in which two or more organizations or people give and recieve something of value consumer: a person who identifies a need or desire, makes a purchase, and then disposes of the product during the three stages of the consumption process stages in the consumption process: 1.3 Consumer's Impact on Marketing Strategy heavy users: 20% of users account for 80% of sales demographics: age, gender, family structure, social class and income, race and ethnicity, Geography, Lifestyles relationship marketing: interact with customers on a regular basis and give them solid reasons to maintain a bond with the company over time database marketing: tracks specific consumers’ buying habits very closely and crafts products and messages tailored precisely to people’s wants and needs based on this information Big Data: collection and analysis of extremely large datasets 1.4 Marketing’s Impact on Consumers popular culture role theory: much of consumer behavior resembles actions in a play selfconcept attachment: the product helps to establish the user’s identity nostalgic attachment: the product serves as a link with a past self interdependence: the product is part of the user’s daily routine love: the product elicits emotional bonds of warmth, passion, or other strong emotion motivation: the processes that lead people to behave as they do drive theory: focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal; ex: hunger expectancy theory: expectations of achieving desirable outcomes rather than being pushed from within motivate behavior productivity orientation: a continual striving to use time constructively need for affiliation: to be in the company of other people need for power: to control one’s environment need for uniqueness: to assert one’s individual identity Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: virtual worlds digital native: consumers that grow up in a highly networked, alwayson world where digital technology has always existed horizontal revolution: prevalence of social media synchronous interactions: those that occur in real time asynchronous interactions: those that don’t require all participants to respond immediately culture of participation: a belief in democracy; the ability to freely interact with other people, companies, and organizations; open access to venues that allow users to share content 1.5 Consumer Behavior as a Field of Study paradigm: set of beliefs that guide our understand of the world positivism (modernism): human reason is supreme and there is a single, objective truth that science can discover interpretivism (postmodernism): questions positivism positivism vs interpretivism: Chapter 2: Decision Making and Consumer Behavior 2.1 What’s your problem? constructive processing: evaluate the effort we’ll need to make a particular choice and then tailor the amount of cognitive effort we expend to get the job done mental budget, selfregulation counteractive construal: exaggerate the negative aspects of behaviors that will interfere with the ultimate goal involvement: a person’s perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values, and interests product involvement: consumer’s level of interest in a particular product perceived risk, brand loyalty 5 types of perceived risk: message involvement, narrative transportation situational involvement: takes place in a location where people consumer a product or service 2.2 Cognitive Decision Making informationprocessing perspective: people calmly and carefully integrate as much information as possible with what they already know about a product and arrives at a satisfactory decision economics of information: assumes we collect just as much data as we need to make an informed decision Decision Making Process: 2.3 Habitual Decision Making purchase momentum: our initial impulse purchases actually increase the likelihood that we will buy even more habitual decision making: the choices we make with little or no conscious effort priming: cues in the environment that make us more likely to react in a certain way even though we’re unaware of these influences default bias: more likely to comply with a requirement than to make the effort to not comple maximizing solution vs satisficing solution bounded rationality: settling for a satisficing solution prospect theory: how people make choices; gains and losses heuristics: mental shortcuts; ex: country of origin, brand names, prices, etc. 2.4 Affective Decision Making affect: emotion responses to products; positive vs negative sentiment analysis: process that scours the social media universe to collect and analyze the words people use when they describe a specific product or company Chapter 3: Cultural Influences on Consumer Decision Making culture: society’s personality; values and ethics, objects and services, etc. 3.1 Cultural Systems and Values ecology, social structure, ideology value: belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite value system: ranking of a culture’s values core values enculturation: process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one’s own culture acculturation: process of learning the value system and behaviors of another culture custom: norm that controls basic behaviors more (moray): customer with a strong moral overtone; often involves a taboo conventions: norms that regulate how we conduct our everyday lives 3.2 The Yin and Yang of Marketing and Culture cooptation: cultural products undergo a transformation in which outsiders transform their original meanings cultural selection culture production system (CPS): set of individuals and organizations that create and market a cultural product craft product vs art product; use vs beauty cultural formula: familiar roles and props occur consistently 3.3 Reality of Engineering reality engineering: occurs when marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and use the as promotional vehicles product placement: insertion of real products in fictional works advergaming: online games merge with interactive advertisements that let companies target specific types of consumers 3.4 Cultural Stories and Ceremonies types of myths: metaphysical: explain the origins of existence cosmological: emphasize all components of the universe are part of a single picture sociological: maintain social order because they authorize a social code for members of a culture to follow psychological: provide models for personal conduct binary opposition: two opposing ends of some dimensions; can involve a mediating figure rituals: set of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and is repeated periodically grooming rituals, giftgiving rituals reciprocity norm: obliges people to return the gesture of a gift with one of equal value rites of passage: rituals we perform to mark a change in social status 3.5 Sacred and Profane Consumption sacred consumption: set apart objects and events from normal activities profane consumption: objects and events that are ordinary or everyday sacralization: occurs when ordinary objects, events, and even people take on sacred meaning objectification: occurs when we attribute sacred qualities to mundane items collecting and hoarding desacralization: occurs when a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place or duplicate it to mass quantities so that it loses its specialness and becomes profane 3.6 Global Consumer Culture global consumer culture: unites people around the world by their common devotion to brand name consumer goods, etc. etic perspective: focuses on commonalities across cultures emic perspective: stresses variants across cultures consumer style: a pattern of behaviors, attitudes, and opinions that influences all of a person’s consumption activities Hofstede Measures of Culture: power distance: the extent to which the less powerful members within a society accept that power is distributed unevenly Individualismcollectivism dimension masculinity: associated with assertiveness femininity: associated with modest and nurturance masculine societies value ambition, competitiveness, and high earnings feminine societies are concerned with public welfare uncertainty avoidance: the state of being uneasy or worried about what may happen in the future global citizens: relay on the success of a global brand to identify products of quality and innovation global dreamers: consumers equate global brands with quality and are attracted by the lifestyle they portray antiglobals global agnostics: judges global brands and local brands by the same criteria and is neither impressed nor alienated by the fact that a brand is global Chapter 4: Consumer and Social WellBeing 4.1 Business Ethics and Consumer Rights business ethics: rules of conduct that guide actions in the marketplace consumerspace: how, when, or if a consumer will interact with corporations Materialism: the importance people attach to worldly possessions provenance: shoppers are willing to pay more for an item when they know where it comes from curation: an expert carefully chooses pieces to include in a selection corrective advertising: messages an organization releases (voluntarily or not) that inform consumers of previous messages that were inaccurate or misleading culture jamming: a strategy to disrupt efforts by the corporate world to dominate our cultural landscape transformative consumer research (TCR): promotes research projects that include the foals of helping people or bringing about social changes social marketing: the promotion of causes and ideas (social products), such as energy conservation, charities, and population control corporate social responsibility (CSR) cause marketing: strategy that aligns a company or brand with a cause to generate business and societal benefits 4.2 Major Policy Issues Relevant to Consumer Behavior realtime bidding: an electronic trading system that sells ad space on the Web pages people click on at the very moment they visit them identity theft: occurs when someone steals your personal information and uses it without your permission phishing: internet scams where people receive fraudulent emails that ask them to supply account information botnets: set of computers that are penetrated by malware that allows an external agent to control their actions locational privacy: the extent to which a person’s activities and movements in the physical world are tracked by his or her devices market access: the extent to which a consumer has the ability to find and purchase goods and services food desert: geographic area where residents are unable to obtain adequate food and other products to maintain a healthy existence media literacy: a consumer’s ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate information functionally illiterate: a person whose reading skills are not adequate to carry out everyday tasks triple bottomline orientation: business strategies that strive to maximize financial, social, and environmental return sustainability conscientious consumerism: new value that combines a focus on personal health with a concern for global health green marketing: development and promotion of environmentally friendly products greenwashing: inflated claims about a product’s environmental benefits LOHAS (lifestyles of health and sustainability): consumer segment that worries about the environment, wants products to be produced in a sustainable way, and spends money to advance what they see as their personal development and potential product disposal abandoned products: items that are purchased, but never used lateral cycling: process in which alreadypurchased objects are sold to others or exchanged for other items underground economy recommerce: practice of trading or reselling used possessions in the underground economy rather than purchasing new items from retailers 4.3 The dark Side of Consumer Behavior bioterrorism: a strategy to disrupt the nation’s food supply with the aim of creating economic havoc cyberterrorism: deliberate disruption of digital networks to accomplish political, social, or financial objectives consumer addiction: physiological and/or psychological dependency on products or services social media addiction cyberbullying Phantom vibration Syndrome compulsive consumption: stress shopping consumer consumers: people who are used or exploited, willingly or not, for commercial gain in the marketplace red market: global market for body parts shrinkage: loss of money or inventory from shoplifting and/or employee theft serial wardrobers counterfeiting anticonsumption Chapter 5: Perception 5.1 Sensation sensation: refers to the immediate response of our sensory receptors to basic stimuli perception: the process by which people select, organize, and interpret these sensations hedonic consumption: multisensory, fantasy, and emotional aspects of consumers’ interactions with products context effects: subtle cues in the environment that influence a person’s decisions sensory marketing: marketing strategies that focus on the impact of sensation on our product experiences vision trade dress: color combinations that become strongly associated with a corporation sound audio watermarking: a technique where composers and producers weave a distinctive sound/motif into a piece of music that sticks in people’s minds over time sound symbolism: process by which the way a word sounds influences our assumptions about what is described and attributes such as size touch haptic: touchrelated sensations taste 5.2 The Stages of Perception Stage 1: Exposure exposure: occurs when a stimulus comes within the range of someone’s sensory receptors sensory threshold: the point at which it it strong enough to make a conscious impact on someone’s awareness psychophysics: focuses on how people integrate the physical environment into their persona, subjective worlds absolute threshold: the minimum amount of stimulation a personal can detect on a given sensory channel differential threshold: the ability of a sensory system to detect changes in or differences between two stimuli j.n.d. (just noticeable difference): minimum difference we can detect between two stimuli subliminal perception: a stimulus below the level of the consumer’s awareness Stage 2: Attention attention: the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus sensory overload: condition where consumers are exposed to far more information than they can process multitasking: processing information from more than one medium at a time perceptual selection: process by which people attend to only a small portion of the stimuli to which they are exposed perceptual vigilance: tendency for consumers to be more aware of stimuli that relate to their current needs perceptual defense: tendency for consumers to avoid processing stimuli that are threatening to them adaptation: the degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time intensity discrimination exposure relevance contrast: stimuli that differ from others around them size color position novelty Stage 3: Interpretation interpretation: the meanings we assign to sensory stimuli schema: set of beliefs closure principle: people tend to supply missing information in order to perceive a holistic image principle of similarity: consumers tend to group objects that share similar physical characteristics figureground principle: part of stimulus configuration dominates a situation whereas other aspects recede into the background semiotics: field of study that examines the correspondence between signs and symbols and the meaning or meanings they convey positioning strategy: an organization’s use of elements in the marketing mix to influence the consumer’s interpretation of a product’s meaning visavis competitors Chapter 6: Learning and Memory 6.1 Learning learning: a relatively permanent change in a behavior caused by experience incidental learning: unintentional acquisition of knowledge behavior learning theories: the perspectives on learning that assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events classical conditioning: learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own but will cause a similar response over time because of its association with the first stimulus unconditioned stimulus (UCS): stimulus that is natural capable of causing a response conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that produces a learned reaction through association over time conditioned response (CR): response to a conditioned stimulus caused by the learning of an associated between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus repetition: multiple exposures to a stimulus extinction: the process whereby a learned connection between a stimulus and response is eroded so that the response is no longer reinforced stimulus generalization: the process that happened when the behavior caused by a reaction to one stimulus occurs in the presence of other, similar stimuli stimulus discrimination: process that occurs when behaviors caused by two stimuli are different family branding product line extension licensing lookalike packaging consumer confusion instrumental conditioning (operant conditioning): occurs as the individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid those that yield negative outcomes positive reinforcement vs negative reinforcement fixedinterval reinforcement: after a specific time period has passed, the first response an organism makes elicits a reward variableinterval reinforcement: the time that must pass before an organism’s response is reinforced varies based on some average Types of Reinforcement fixedratio reinforcement: reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of responses variableratio reinforcement: method in which you get reinforced after a certain number of responses, but you don’t know how many responses are required 6.2 Marketing Applications of Instrumental Conditioning Principles frequency marketing: reinforces regular purchasers by giving them prizes with values that increase along with the amount purchased gamification: process of injecting gaming elements into tasks that might otherwise be boring or routine cognitive learning theory: approaches that stresses the importance of internal mental processes; people are problemsolvers who actively use information from the world around the to master their environment observational learning: process in which people learn by watching the actions of others and noting the reinforcements they receive for their behaviors modeling: imitating the behavior of others The Observational Learning Process consumer socialization: process by which people acquire skills that enable them to functionin the marketplace cognitive development: limited cued strategic multipleintelligence theory: perspective that argues for other types of intelligence beyond the traditional math and verbal skills psychologists use to measure IQ 6.3 Memory memory: process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when needed encoding: process in which information from shortterm memory enters into longterm memory in a recognizable form storage: process that occurs when knowledge in longterm memory is integrated with what is already in memory and “warehoused” until needed retrieval: process whereby desired information is recovered from longterm memory episodic memories: memories that relate to personally relevant events; tends to increase a person’s motivation to retain these memories narrative: product information in the form of story memory systems: sensory memory: temporary storage of information received from the senses shortterm memory: mental system that allows us to retain information for a short period of time longterm memory: system that allows us to retain information for a long period of time activation models of memory: approaches to memory stressing different levels of processing that occur and activate some aspects of memory rather than others, depending on the nature of the processing task associative network: memory system that organizes individual units of information according to some set of relationships spreading activation: meanings in memory are activated indirectly brandspecific adspecific brand identification product category evaluative reactions decay and interference makes us forget information statedependent retrieval: people are better able to access information if their internal state is the same at the time of recall as when they learned the information salience: prominence of a brand in memory mixed emotions: affect with positive and negative components unipolar emotions: emotional reactions that are either wholly positive or wholly negative spontaneous recovery: ability of a stimulus to evoke a weakened response even years after the person initially perceived it recognition and recall response bias Chapter 7: The Self 7.1 The Self selfconcept: beliefs a person holds about his or her own attributes and how he or she evaluates these qualities selfesteem: the positivity of a person’s self concept social comparison: basic human tendency to compare ourselves to others ideal self: person’s conception of how he or she would like to be actual self: person’s realistic appraisal of his or her qualities impression management: our efforts to “manage” what others think of us by strategically choosing clothing and other cues that will put us in a good light torn self: condition where immigrants struggle to reconcile their native identities with their new cultures symbolic interactionism: sociological approach stressing that relationships with other people play a large part in forming the self extended self: external objects we consider a part of our selfidentity individual level family level community level group level digital self: elements of selfexpression that relation to a person’s online identity 7.2 Personality Chapter 9: Group and Situational Effects on Consumer Behavior
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