New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

MKTG 3142- Consumer Behavior Semester Lecture Notes

by: Kerrigan Unter

MKTG 3142- Consumer Behavior Semester Lecture Notes MKTG 3142

Marketplace > George Washington University > Marketing > MKTG 3142 > MKTG 3142 Consumer Behavior Semester Lecture Notes
Kerrigan Unter
GPA 3.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

24 pages of lecture notes containing terminology and concepts covered in the course and supplemented with diagrams and tables from the textbook. Covers all chapters covered in semester.
Consumer Behavior
Hassan, S
Consumer, behavior, Marketing, business, Lecture Notes
75 ?




Popular in Consumer Behavior

Popular in Marketing

This 24 page Bundle was uploaded by Kerrigan Unter on Friday September 2, 2016. The Bundle belongs to MKTG 3142 at George Washington University taught by Hassan, S in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 4 views. For similar materials see Consumer Behavior in Marketing at George Washington University.


Reviews for MKTG 3142- Consumer Behavior Semester Lecture Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/02/16
MKTG 3142 Chapter 1: Buying, Having, and Being: An Introduction to Consumer Behavior 1.1 Consumer Behavior: People in the Marketplace ­demographics: descriptive characteristics of a population ­consumption communities: members share opinions and recommendations ­market segmentation strategies: an organization targets its product, service, or idea only to  specific groups of consumers rather than to everybody 1.2 What is consumer behavior? ­it is the study of the process involved when individuals or groups select, purchase, use, or  dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires ­exchange: transaction in which two or more organizations or people give and recieve something  of value ­consumer: a person who identifies a need or desire, makes a purchase, and then disposes of the  product during the three stages of the consumption process ­stages in the consumption process: 1.3 Consumer's Impact on Marketing Strategy ­heavy users: 20% of users account for 80% of sales ­demographics: age, gender, family structure, social class and income, race and ethnicity,  Geography, Lifestyles ­relationship marketing: interact with customers on a regular basis and give them solid reasons to maintain a bond with the company over time ­database marketing: tracks specific consumers’ buying habits very closely and crafts products  and messages tailored precisely to people’s wants and needs based on this information ­Big Data: collection and analysis of extremely large datasets 1.4 Marketing’s Impact on Consumers ­popular culture ­role theory: much of consumer behavior resembles actions in a play ­self­concept attachment: the product helps to establish the user’s identity ­nostalgic attachment: the product serves as a link with a past self ­interdependence: the product is part of the user’s daily routine ­love: the product elicits emotional bonds of warmth, passion, or other strong emotion ­motivation: the processes that lead people to behave as they do ­drive theory: focuses on biological needs that produce unpleasant states of arousal; ex: hunger ­expectancy theory: expectations of achieving desirable outcomes rather than being pushed from  within motivate behavior ­productivity orientation: a continual striving to use time constructively ­need for affiliation: to be in the company of other people ­need for power: to control one’s environment ­need for uniqueness: to assert one’s individual identity ­Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: ­virtual worlds ­digital native: consumers that grow up in a highly networked, always­on world where digital  technology has always existed ­horizontal revolution: prevalence of social media ­synchronous interactions: those that occur in real time ­asynchronous interactions: those that don’t require all participants to respond immediately ­culture of participation: a belief in democracy; the ability to freely interact with other people,  companies, and organizations; open access to venues that allow users to share content 1.5 Consumer Behavior as a Field of Study ­paradigm: set of beliefs that guide our understand of the world ­positivism (modernism): human reason is supreme and there is a single, objective truth that  science can discover ­interpretivism (postmodernism): questions positivism ­positivism vs interpretivism: Chapter 2: Decision Making and Consumer Behavior 2.1 What’s your problem? ­constructive processing: evaluate the effort we’ll need to make a particular choice and then  tailor the amount of cognitive effort we expend to get the job done ­mental budget, self­regulation ­counteractive construal: exaggerate the negative aspects of behaviors that will interfere with the  ultimate goal ­involvement: a person’s perceived relevance of the object based on their inherent needs, values,  and interests ­product involvement: consumer’s level of interest in a particular product ­perceived risk, brand loyalty ­5 types of perceived risk: ­message involvement, narrative transportation ­situational involvement: takes place in a location where people consumer a product or service 2.2 Cognitive Decision Making ­information­processing perspective: people calmly and carefully integrate as much information  as possible with what they already know about a product and arrives at a satisfactory decision ­economics of information: assumes we collect just as much data as we need to make an  informed decision ­Decision Making Process: 2.3 Habitual Decision Making ­purchase momentum: our initial impulse purchases actually increase the likelihood that we will  buy even more ­habitual decision making: the choices we make with little or no conscious effort ­priming: cues in the environment that make us more likely to react in a certain way even though  we’re unaware of these influences ­default bias: more likely to comply with a requirement than to make the effort to not comple ­maximizing solution vs satisficing solution ­bounded rationality: settling for a satisficing solution ­prospect theory: how people make choices; gains and losses ­heuristics: mental shortcuts; ex: country of origin, brand names, prices, etc. 2.4 Affective Decision Making ­affect: emotion responses to products; positive vs negative ­sentiment analysis: process that scours the social media universe to collect and analyze the  words people use when they describe a specific product or company Chapter 3: Cultural Influences on Consumer Decision Making ­culture: society’s personality; values and ethics, objects and services, etc. 3.1 Cultural Systems and Values ­ecology, social structure, ideology ­value: belief that some condition is preferable to its opposite ­value system: ranking of a culture’s values ­core values ­enculturation: process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by one’s own culture ­acculturation: process of learning the value system and behaviors of another culture ­custom: norm that controls basic behaviors ­more (mor­ay): customer with a strong moral overtone; often involves a taboo ­conventions: norms that regulate how we conduct our everyday lives 3.2 The Yin and Yang of Marketing and Culture ­cooptation: cultural products undergo a transformation in which outsiders transform their  original meanings ­cultural selection ­culture production system (CPS): set of individuals and organizations that create and market a  cultural product ­craft product vs art product; use vs beauty ­cultural formula: familiar roles and props occur consistently 3.3 Reality of Engineering ­reality engineering: occurs when marketers appropriate elements of popular culture and use the  as promotional vehicles ­product placement: insertion of real products in fictional works ­advergaming: online games merge with interactive advertisements that let companies target  specific types of consumers 3.4 Cultural Stories and Ceremonies ­types of myths: ­metaphysical: explain the origins of existence ­cosmological: emphasize all components of the universe are part of a single picture ­sociological: maintain social order because they authorize a social code for members of a  culture to follow ­psychological: provide models for personal conduct ­binary opposition: two opposing ends of some dimensions; can involve a mediating figure ­rituals: set of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occur in a fixed sequence and is repeated  periodically ­grooming rituals, gift­giving rituals ­reciprocity norm: obliges people to return the gesture of a gift with one of equal value ­rites of passage: rituals we perform to mark a change in social status 3.5 Sacred and Profane Consumption ­sacred consumption: set apart objects and events from normal activities ­profane consumption: objects and events that are ordinary or everyday ­sacralization: occurs when ordinary objects, events, and even people take on sacred meaning ­objectification: occurs when we attribute sacred qualities to mundane items ­collecting and hoarding ­desacralization: occurs when a sacred item or symbol is removed from its special place or  duplicate it to mass quantities so that it loses its specialness and becomes profane 3.6 Global Consumer Culture ­global consumer culture: unites people around the world by their common devotion to brand­ name consumer goods, etc. ­etic perspective: focuses on commonalities across cultures ­emic perspective: stresses variants across cultures ­consumer style: a pattern of behaviors, attitudes, and opinions that influences all of a person’s  consumption activities ­Hofstede Measures of Culture: ­power distance: the extent to which the less powerful members within a society accept that  power is distributed unevenly ­Individualism­collectivism dimension ­masculinity: associated with assertiveness ­femininity: associated with modest and nurturance ­masculine societies value ambition, competitiveness, and high earnings ­feminine societies are concerned with public welfare ­uncertainty avoidance: the state of being uneasy or worried about what may happen in the future ­global citizens: relay on the success of a global brand to identify products of quality and  innovation ­global dreamers: consumers equate global brands with quality and are attracted by the lifestyle  they portray ­anti­globals ­global agnostics: judges global brands and local brands by the same criteria and is neither  impressed nor alienated by the fact that a brand is global Chapter 4: Consumer and Social Well­Being 4.1 Business Ethics and Consumer Rights ­business ethics: rules of conduct that guide actions in the marketplace ­consumerspace: how, when, or if a consumer will interact with corporations ­Materialism: the importance people attach to worldly possessions ­provenance: shoppers are willing to pay more for an item when they know where it comes from ­curation: an expert carefully chooses pieces to include in a selection ­corrective advertising: messages an organization releases (voluntarily or not) that inform  consumers of previous messages that were inaccurate or misleading ­culture jamming: a strategy to disrupt efforts by the corporate world to dominate our cultural  landscape ­transformative consumer research (TCR): promotes research projects that include the foals of  helping people or bringing about social changes ­social marketing: the promotion of causes and ideas (social products), such as energy  conservation, charities, and population control ­corporate social responsibility (CSR) ­cause marketing: strategy that aligns a company or brand with a cause to generate business and  societal benefits 4.2 Major Policy Issues Relevant to Consumer Behavior ­real­time bidding: an electronic trading system that sells ad space on the Web pages people click on at the very moment they visit them ­identity theft: occurs when someone steals your personal information and uses it without your  permission ­phishing: internet scams where people receive fraudulent emails that ask them to supply account information ­botnets: set of computers that are penetrated by malware that allows an external agent to control  their actions ­locational privacy: the extent to which a person’s activities and movements in the physical  world are tracked by his or her devices ­market access: the extent to which a consumer has the ability to find and purchase goods and  services ­food desert: geographic area where residents are unable to obtain adequate food and other  products to maintain a healthy existence ­media literacy: a consumer’s ability to access, analyze, evaluate, and communicate information ­functionally illiterate: a person whose reading skills are not adequate to carry out everyday tasks ­triple bottom­line orientation: business strategies that strive to maximize financial, social, and  environmental return ­sustainability ­conscientious consumerism: new value that combines a focus on personal health with a concern  for global health ­green marketing: development and promotion of environmentally friendly products ­greenwashing: inflated claims about a product’s environmental benefits ­LOHAS (lifestyles of health and sustainability): consumer segment that worries about the  environment, wants products to be produced in a sustainable way, and spends money to advance  what they see as their personal development and potential ­product disposal ­abandoned products: items that are purchased, but never used ­lateral cycling: process in which already­purchased objects are sold to others or exchanged for  other items ­underground economy ­recommerce: practice of trading or reselling used possessions in the underground economy  rather than purchasing new items from retailers 4.3 The dark Side of Consumer Behavior ­bioterrorism: a strategy to disrupt the nation’s food supply with the aim of creating economic  havoc ­cyberterrorism: deliberate disruption of digital networks to accomplish political, social, or  financial objectives ­consumer addiction: physiological and/or psychological dependency on products or services ­social media addiction ­cyberbullying ­Phantom vibration Syndrome ­compulsive consumption: stress shopping ­consumer consumers: people who are used or exploited, willingly or not, for commercial gain in the marketplace ­red market: global market for body parts ­shrinkage: loss of money or inventory from shoplifting and/or employee theft ­serial wardrobers ­counterfeiting ­anticonsumption Chapter 5: Perception 5.1 Sensation ­sensation: refers to the immediate response of our sensory receptors to basic stimuli ­perception: the process by which people select, organize, and interpret these sensations ­hedonic consumption: multisensory, fantasy, and emotional aspects of consumers’ interactions  with products ­context effects: subtle cues in the environment that influence a person’s decisions ­sensory marketing: marketing strategies that focus on the impact of sensation on our product  experiences ­vision ­trade dress: color combinations that become strongly associated with a corporation ­sound ­audio watermarking: a technique where composers and producers weave a distinctive  sound/motif into a piece of music that sticks in people’s minds over time ­sound symbolism: process by which the way a word sounds influences our assumptions about  what is described and attributes such as size ­touch ­haptic: touch­related sensations ­taste 5.2 The Stages of Perception ­Stage 1: Exposure ­exposure: occurs when a stimulus comes within the range of someone’s sensory receptors ­sensory threshold: the point at which it it strong enough to make a conscious impact on  someone’s awareness ­psychophysics: focuses on how people integrate the physical environment into their persona,  subjective worlds ­absolute threshold: the minimum amount of stimulation a personal can detect on a given sensory channel ­differential threshold: the ability of a sensory system to detect changes in  or differences  between two stimuli ­j.n.d. (just noticeable difference): minimum difference we can detect between two stimuli ­subliminal perception: a stimulus below the level of the consumer’s awareness ­Stage 2: Attention ­attention: the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus ­sensory overload: condition where consumers are exposed to far more information than  they can process ­multitasking: processing information from more than one medium at a time ­perceptual selection: process by which people attend to only a small portion of the  stimuli to which they are exposed ­perceptual vigilance: tendency for consumers to be more aware of stimuli that relate to  their current needs ­perceptual defense: tendency for consumers to avoid processing stimuli that are  threatening to them ­adaptation: the degree to which consumers continue to notice a stimulus over time ­intensity ­discrimination ­exposure ­relevance ­contrast: stimuli that differ from others around them ­size ­color ­position ­novelty ­Stage 3: Interpretation ­interpretation: the meanings we assign to sensory stimuli ­schema: set of beliefs ­closure principle: people tend to supply missing information in order to perceive a holistic  image ­principle of similarity: consumers tend to group objects that share similar physical  characteristics ­figure­ground principle: part of stimulus configuration dominates a situation whereas other  aspects recede into the background ­semiotics: field of study that examines the correspondence between signs and symbols and the  meaning or meanings they convey ­positioning strategy: an organization’s use of elements in the marketing mix to influence the  consumer’s interpretation of a product’s meaning vis­a­vis competitors Chapter 6: Learning and Memory 6.1 Learning ­learning: a relatively permanent change in a behavior caused by experience ­incidental learning: unintentional acquisition of knowledge ­behavior learning theories: the perspectives on learning that assume that learning takes place as  the result of responses to external events ­classical conditioning: learning that occurs when a stimulus eliciting a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own but will cause a similar  response over time because of its association with the first stimulus ­unconditioned stimulus (UCS): stimulus that is natural capable of causing a response ­conditioned stimulus (CS): stimulus that produces a learned reaction through association over time ­conditioned response (CR): response to a conditioned stimulus caused by the learning of  an associated between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus ­repetition: multiple exposures to a stimulus ­extinction: the process whereby a learned connection between a stimulus and response is eroded so that the response is no longer reinforced ­stimulus generalization: the process that happened when the behavior caused by a reaction to  one stimulus occurs in the presence of other, similar stimuli ­stimulus discrimination: process that occurs when behaviors caused by two stimuli are different ­family branding ­product line extension ­licensing ­look­alike packaging ­consumer confusion ­instrumental conditioning (operant conditioning): occurs as the individual learns to perform  behaviors that produce positive outcomes and avoid those that yield negative outcomes  ­positive reinforcement vs negative reinforcement ­fixed­interval reinforcement: after a specific time period has passed, the first response an  organism makes elicits a reward ­variable­interval reinforcement: the time that must pass before an organism’s response is  reinforced varies based on some average Types of Reinforcement ­fixed­ratio reinforcement: reinforcement occurs only after a fixed number of responses ­variable­ratio reinforcement: method in which you get reinforced after a certain number of  responses, but you don’t know how many responses are required 6.2 Marketing Applications of Instrumental Conditioning Principles ­frequency marketing: reinforces regular purchasers by giving them prizes with values that  increase along with the amount purchased ­gamification: process of injecting gaming elements into tasks that might otherwise be boring or  routine ­cognitive learning theory: approaches that stresses the importance of internal mental processes;  people are problem­solvers who actively use information from the world around the to master  their environment ­observational learning: process in which people learn by watching the actions of others and  noting the reinforcements they receive for their behaviors ­modeling: imitating the behavior of others The Observational Learning Process ­consumer socialization: process by which people acquire skills that enable them to functionin  the marketplace ­cognitive development: ­limited ­cued ­strategic ­multiple­intelligence theory: perspective that argues for other types of intelligence beyond the  traditional math and verbal skills psychologists use to measure IQ 6.3 Memory ­memory: process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available  when needed ­encoding: process in which information from short­term memory enters into long­term memory  in a recognizable form ­storage: process that occurs when knowledge in long­term memory is integrated with what is  already in memory and “warehoused” until needed ­retrieval: process whereby desired information is recovered from long­term memory ­episodic memories: memories that relate to personally relevant events; tends to increase a  person’s motivation to retain these memories ­narrative: product information in the form of story ­memory systems: ­sensory memory: temporary storage of information received from the senses ­short­term memory: mental system that allows us to retain information for a short period of time ­long­term memory: system that allows us to retain information for a long period of time ­activation models of memory: approaches to memory stressing different levels of processing  that occur and activate some aspects of memory rather than others, depending on the nature of  the processing task ­associative network: memory system that organizes individual units of information according to  some set of relationships ­spreading activation: meanings in memory are activated indirectly ­brand­specific ­ad­specific ­brand identification ­product category ­evaluative reactions ­decay and interference makes us forget information ­state­dependent retrieval: people are better able to access information if their internal state is the same at the time of recall as when they learned the information ­salience: prominence of a brand in memory ­mixed emotions: affect with positive and negative components ­unipolar emotions: emotional reactions that are either wholly positive or wholly negative ­spontaneous recovery: ability of a stimulus to evoke a weakened response even years after the  person initially perceived it ­recognition and recall ­response bias Chapter 7: The Self 7.1 The Self ­self­concept: beliefs a person holds about his or her own attributes and how he or she  evaluates these qualities ­self­esteem: the positivity of a person’s self concept ­social comparison: basic human tendency to compare ourselves to others ­ideal self: person’s conception of how he or she would like to be ­actual self: person’s realistic appraisal of his or her qualities ­impression management: our efforts to “manage” what others think of us by strategically  choosing clothing and other cues that will put us in a good light ­torn self: condition where immigrants struggle to reconcile their native identities with their new  cultures ­symbolic interactionism: sociological approach stressing that relationships with other people  play a large part in forming the self ­extended self: external objects we consider a part of our self­identity ­individual level ­family level ­community level ­group level ­digital self: elements of self­expression that relation to a person’s online identity 7.2 Personality ­ Chapter 9: Group and Situational Effects on Consumer Behavior


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

75 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.